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Advanced HR-Interview preparation questions

Easwaran Sarma
18/10/2021 0 0

What is the difference between Personnel Management I.R. and HRM?

Personnel Management is old terminology widely used decades back along with /industrial relations (I.R.). The main task of PM was to maintain employee relations, Discipline and disciplinary actions, union-management / maintaining personal records Joining formalities, payment of wages Human Resource Management takes care of :

  • Strategic H.R. planning
  • Recruitment / Induction /joining formalities/Compensation/Rewards,
  • Training/development /career planning
  • Performance appraisal
  • Employee relationship/Engagement
  • Handling Employee Grievances/employee retention /engagement
  • Attrition/Retention
  • Exit interviews

What is an Organization?

A social system and coordinated social unit composed of people that function to achieve a common goal or set of plans. There are many legal forms like proprietary, partnership, private Limited, public ltd companies.

What is KPI – Key Performance Indicator?

Key performance indicators are financial and non-financial metrics used to help an organization define and measure progress toward organizational goals. KPIs can be delivered through Business Intelligence techniques to assess the business's present state and assist in prescribing a course of action.

The Act of monitoring KPIs in real-time is known as Business Activity Monitoring (BAM).

KPIs are frequently used to "value" challenging to measure activities such as the benefits of leadership development, engagement, service, and satisfaction. KPIs are typically tied to an organization's strategy.

What is Organizational Development?

Organizational development is a strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structures of organizations to better adapt to new technologies, markets, challenges. O.D. is achieved through interventions in the organization's "Processes" using behavioural science knowledge. O.D. involves organizational reflection, system improvement, planning, and self-analysis. Organizational Development is a long-range effort to improve an organization's problem solving and renewal processes, mainly through more effective and collaborative management of Organizational Culture, often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the use of theory and technology of applied behavioural sciences.

Organizational Development is a contractual relationship between a change agent and a sponsoring organization entered into to use applied behavioural science in a system context to improve organizational performance and the capacity of the organization to improve itself.

What is the best practice?

Companies create people-oriented policies to retain and motivate them so that they will be engaged. These practices become the industry standards, and many others imitate or improve on those.

What is the Job description?

The job description shows details about what is to be done and goals and skills levels at a particular role. The simply formal definition of employees accountability. Includes duties, purpose, responsibilities, scope, and working conditions of a job along with the job's title and the name or designation of the person the employee reports.

What is Job Analysis?

Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. Job analysis is a systematic exploration of activities within a job. It is an essential technical procedure that is used to define duties and responsibilities, and accountabilities of the job. Each job has certain skill requirements associated with it. Job analysis is a process used to identify these requirements.

What is Employee Morale?

The feeling of confidence and optimism with respect to problems or tasks is termed as Morale.

Wage under Minimum Wages Act.

Wages means all remuneration expressed in terms of money. It includes house rent allowance but does not include 1. Value of house accommodation, supply of light, water, medical attendance 2. Value of other amenities provided, and.Contribution to a pension fund or Provident fund or Insurance 4. Travelling allowance 5. Special allowances 6. Gratuity is payable on discharge.

What are the Benefits of the ESI Act, 1948? Who can get it?

Medical Benefit/Sickness Benefit/Disablement Benefit/Maternity Benefit

Dependents/ Funeral.

Workmen up to 21000 per month salary .both employer and employee contributions for getting the benefit

In ESI If the salary crosses the limit in the contribution period, what amount is taken for contribution?

An employee whose wages crosses the prescribed ceiling limit in any month at any time after commencement of the contribution period continue to be an employee till the end of that contribution period. Though there is a wage ceiling limit for coverage of an employee, there is no ceiling limit in the definition of wages for payment of contribution. Hence contribution is payable on the total wages without any ceiling limit.

Whether the ESI Act provides for voluntary coverage by employees and employers.

  1. Unlike the P.F. & M.P. Act 1952, the ESI Act does not provide for voluntary coverage at the request of employees and the employer.

Counting number of employees for coverage. How to count the ten or more or 20 or more employees?

Prior to the amendment of the Act, only the employees who are drawing wages up to Rs.15000/-p.m. were included in counting ten or twenty employees to determine coverage and others whose wages exceed Rs15000/- p.m. were excluded. However, after the amendment in 2010, all employees, irrespective of the wage limit, are to be included counted to decide whether the factory or establishment is employing ten or twenty persons. It means that the employees who are not covered are also to be included now for counting the minimum number of employees. Thus the criterion for coverage has been broad-based.

What is Gratuity, and why is it paid?

The Gratuity is a termination benefit for certain years of continuous service.

It is a reward for good, efficient and faithful service rendered for a fairly substantial period and it is paid to the employee gratuitously or merely as a matter of bonus but for the long and meritorious award. The payment of gratuity act lays down the criteria.


These are monetary benefits provided to employees. They include the benefit of (a) Provident fund, (b) Gratuity, (c) Medical care, (d) Hospitalization payment, (e) Accident relief, (f) Health and Group insurance, (g) Subsidized canteen facilities, (h) Recreational facilities, and (i) Provision of uniforms to employees.

What is casual leave?

Casual leave is given to employees to attend sudden and immediate social and/or personal obligations. Casual leave cannot be combined with other leave, and H.R. policies restrict the number in a year, and leave at any one time can not be accumulated and carried on in the next year, and a person can take a maximum of 3 days together.

What is sick and privileged l leave?

Privilege leave is earned leave. Normally after one year of service. The general rule is that every 11 days, one day is credited. Excluding leave period and upto 30 days is the practice. Accumulation is allowed for up to 90 days. Advance notice of 15 days is required, and sanction by the manager is a must.

Sick leave is for sickness. Up to one week in the year. With a cap for total service. A medical certificate is a must.

What is Standing Order?

Every employer covered under the Act has to prepare 'Standing Orders', covering the matters required in the 'Standing Order'.


Registered under the Trade Union Act 1926. Trade Unions are voluntary organizations of employees or employers formed to promote and protect their interests through collective action.

Safety officers are to be appointed if an organization is engaging employees more than __________ workers.

What is SPREAD-OVER Limit?

According to Sec. 56 of the Factories Act, 1948, the period of work of an adult worker shall be so arranged that inclusive of his interval for rest, they shall not spread over more than 10 ½ Hours in a day.

What is CLOSURE?

Closure means permanent closing down of a place of employment or part thereof. Sixty days notice should be given for closure to Government if the numbers of persons employed are 50 or more. Sixty days notice is not necessary if the numbers of persons employed are less than 50.

If the number of workmen employed is 100 or more, prior permission of the Government is necessary for closure u/s 25-O.

What is performance appraisal, and what are the different types?

Organizations conduct an assessment of employees' job contributions annually. The process is the appraisal. 180/360 degrees are common.


The Halo effect is very similar to stereotyping. Whereas in stereotyping, the person is perceived according to a single category, under the halo effect, the person is perceived on the basis of one trait. Halo is often discussed in performance appraisal when a rater makes an error in judging a person's total personality and/ or performance on the basis of a single trait such as intelligence, appearance, dependability, or cooperativeness. Whatever the single trait is, it may override all other traits in forming the perception of the person.


Attribution refers simply to how people explain the cause of another's or their own behaviour. It is the process by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence, or make sense of, one another's behaviour.


Employee Engagement is variously known as Employee Ownership, Employee Motivation, employee Involvement, Commitment, Loyalty, etc. Employee engagement means when an employee is intellectually and emotionally bound to the organization and who feels passionate about its goals and is committed towards its values; thus, he goes the extra mile beyond the basic job. Employee Engagement is a powerful retention strategy. An Engaged employee gives his company more than 100 per cent.

When employees are effective and positively engaged with their organization, they form an emotional connection with the company.

Employee Engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the organization. It is about creating the passion among associates to do things beyond what is expected from them.

A successful employee engagement strategy help create a community at the workplace and not just a workplace. When employees are effectively or positively engaged with their organization, they form an emotional connection with the company. This affects their attitude towards both of their colleagues and the company's clients improve customer satisfaction and service levels.

What is an industrial dispute?

According to Sec. 2 of the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947, "Industrial dispute means any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person" Industrial disputes are of symptoms of industrial unrest in the same way that boils are symptoms of a disordered body.

Whenever an industrial dispute occurs, both management and workers try to pressure each other to agree. The management may resort to lock-out, and the workers may resort to strike, gherao, picketing, etc.

What is Adjudication?

Adjudication means a mandatory settlement of an industrial dispute by a Labour court or a tribunal. Generally, the Government refers to a dispute for adjudication depending on the failure of conciliation proceedings. Section 10 of the Industrial Dispute Act 1947, provides for reference of a dispute to Labour court or tribunal. The Act also lays down rules regarding the composition and powers of Labour courts and tribunals. Disputes are generally referred to adjudication on the recommendation of the conciliation officer who deals with them. However, the Government has discretionary powers to accept or reject recommendations of the conciliation officer. It is obvious that once a dispute is referred for adjudication, the verdict of a Labour Court or tribunal is binding on both parties.

What is good Termination? Or bad Termination?

Termination is the formal end of employment contractor terminations are resignations- (Voluntary Termination ;) 'Retirement. Bad terminations are when employment is terminated by an employer without proper grounds, especially for some misconduct without proper enquiry.

What is misconduct?

Misconduct is failure to obey reasonable orders of the company, includes workplace violence.

Misconduct renders discharged employees ineligible for unemployment compensation. Occurs when the conduct of employee evinces willful or wanton disregard of employer's interest, as in deliberate violations, or disregard of the standard of behaviour, carelessness or negligence of such degree or recurrence as to manifest wrongful intent or evil design".

What is harassment?

The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) defines workplace harassment as "unwelcome advances, requests for favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of nature constitute harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual.

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