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Lesson Posted on 10 Feb Exam Coaching/CSIR NET CBSE/Class 12/Science/Biology CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology +4 Exam Coaching/Medical Entrance Coaching Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Micro- Biology Tuition/BSc Tuition/Biotechnology Tuition/MSc Tuition/Biology less

IMMUNITY: IMMUNE SYSTEM

NIO Schools

NIO Schools is a premier institution that caters to specific needs of CBSE/ICSE/JAC/NIOS board students,driven...

The immune system protects the body like a guardian from harmful influences from the environment and is essential for survival. It is made up of different organs, cells and proteins and aside from the nervous system, it is the most complex system that the human body has. The tasks of the immune system Without... read more

The immune system  protects the body like a guardian from harmful influences from the environment and is essential for survival. It is made up of different organs, cells and proteins and aside from the nervous system, it is the most complex system that the human body has.

The tasks of the immune system

Without an immune system, a human being would be just as exposed to the harmful influences of pathogens or other substances from the outside environment as to changes harmful to health happening inside of the body. The main tasks of the body's immune system are:

  • Neutralizing pathogens like bacteriavirusesparasites or fungithat have entered the body, and removing them from the body
  • Recognizing and neutralizing harmful substances from the environment
  • Fighting against the body's own cells that have changed due to an illness, for example cancerous cells.

    Cells and Organs of the Immune System

    The immune system includes primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphatic tissues and various cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems.

    • The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus and bone marrow, and secondary lymphatic tissues such as spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, and skin and liver.
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system.
    • The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes ( macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells ), mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and natural killer cells. These cells identify and eliminate pathogens and are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system.
    • The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.
    • The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic system has multiple functions such as the transportation of white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones

      Immune System Organs

      The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system include the thymus and bone marrow, as well as secondary lymphatic tissues including spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, skin, and liver.

      The thymus “educates” T cells and provides an inductive environment for the development of T cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. The thymus is largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods of development. By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is replaced by adipose tissue. Nevertheless, residual T-lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life.

      Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. In humans, red blood cells are produced in the heads of long bones. The red bone marrow is a key element of the lymphatic system, being one of the primary lymphoid organs that generate lymphocytes from immature hematopoietic progenitor cells. Bone marrow and thymus constitute the primary lymphoid tissues involved in the production and early selection of lymphocytes.

      The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid, called lymph, unidirectionally towards the heart. The lymphatic system has multiple interrelated functions including the transportation of white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones, and the transportation of antigen -presenting cells (such as dendritic cells) to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes.

      image

      The Lymph Nodes and Lymph Vessels in Human Beings: The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph.

      The spleen is similar in structure to a large lymph node and acts primarily as a blood filter. It synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria along with antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation.

      The palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located near the oropharynx and nasopharynx. These immunocompetent tissues are the immune system’s first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens. The fundamental immunological roles of tonsils aren’t yet understood.

      Lymph nodes are distributed widely throughout areas of the body, including the armpit and stomach, and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T and other immune cells. Lymph nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system. They are packed tightly with the white blood cells, called lymphocytes and macrophages.

      The skin is one of the most important parts of the body because it interfaces with the environment, and is the first line of defense from external factors, acting as an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense. Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.

      The liver has a wide range of functions, including immunological effects—the reticuloendothelial system of the liver contains many immunologically active cells, acting as a “sieve” for antigens carried to it via the portal system.

    • ymphocytes: A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system. The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bursa-derived cells) are the major cellular components of the adaptive immune response.
    • Leukocytes: Cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist.
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Lesson Posted on 25/07/2017 CBSE/Class 10 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition +6 Exam Coaching/CSIR NET Exam Coaching/UGC NET Exam Coaching Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Mathematics Tuition/MSc Tuition Tuition/Engineering Diploma Tuition/Civil Engineering Diploma Tuition/BTech Tuition/Engineering Mathematics (M1) less

Probability

Mohit Soni

I have 6 year experience in college teaching and 2 + years experience in school teaching.

Probability is the possibility of an event to be occurred or happened. Probability is the ratio of the number of favorable events with the total number of events. An event which is definitely occurred has probability 1 and an event which definitely not occurred has probability 0. The... read more
  • Probability is the possibility of an event to be occurred or happened.

  • Probability is the ratio of the number of favorable events with the total number of events.

  • An event which is definitely occurred has probability 1 and an event which definitely not occurred has probability 0.

  • The value of probability always lies between 0 and 1.

  • Probability is a positive quantity.

  • Probability has no unit.

  • Probability is the most important concept of Mathematics.

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Lesson Posted on 25/07/2017 Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Mathematics +5 Tuition/MSc Tuition Exam Coaching/UGC NET Exam Coaching Exam Coaching/CSIR NET Tuition/BTech Tuition/Engineering Mathematics (M1) Exam Coaching/Engineering Entrance Coaching/IIT JEE Coaching/IIT JEE Advanced Coaching less

Rational Numbers

Mohit Soni

I have 6 year experience in college teaching and 2 + years experience in school teaching.

A number of the form p/q where q not equals to zero is called a rational numbers. P may be zero or may not. P and q are positive /negative integers. It denotes the part of a quantity or a number with other quantity or number. For example 1/2 , -2/-3 ,10/-5 etc. The set of... read more
  • A number of the form p/q where q not equals to zero is called a rational numbers.

  • P may be zero or may not.

  • P and q are positive /negative integers.

  • It denotes the part  of a quantity or a number with other quantity or number.

  • For example 1/2 , -2/-3 ,10/-5 etc.

  • The set of rational numbers is denoted by Q.

  • A number which is not rational is called a irrational number.

  • The set of all rational and irrational number is called real number, denoted by R.

 
 

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Lesson Posted on 20/07/2017 Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Exam Coaching/UGC NET Exam Coaching +6 Exam Coaching/CSIR NET Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Mathematics Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Computer Science Tuition/MSc Tuition Tuition/BCA Tuition Tuition/BBA Tuition less

How To Prepare For Any Exam?

Mohit Soni

I have 6 year experience in college teaching and 2 + years experience in school teaching.

1. Prepare mentally yourself to give an exam. 2. Know the benifit of passing the exam it encourages you to do your best. 3. Never think about failure. 4. Be confident. 5. Watch and solve old papers. 6. Give equal attention to all the subjects and all the parts of exam papers. 7. Try to keep yourself... read more

1. Prepare mentally yourself to give an exam.

2. Know the benifit of passing the exam it encourages you to do your best.

3. Never think about failure.

4. Be confident.

5. Watch and solve old papers.

6. Give equal attention to all the subjects and all the parts of exam papers.

7. Try to keep yourself calm.

8. Revise time to time whatever you have remembered.

9. Always prepare according to syllabus.

10. Be punctual with your study.

11. Know your capacity to learn a work and increase it.

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Lesson Posted on 20/07/2017 CBSE/Class 10 Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) +6 Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Mathematics Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Computer Science Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Physics Tuition/MSc Tuition Exam Coaching/UGC NET Exam Coaching Exam Coaching/CSIR NET less

Rule Of Sign

Mohit Soni

I have 6 year experience in college teaching and 2 + years experience in school teaching.

1. Rule of sign solving is known as VBODMAS: V stands for "Vinculum" or "Bar" B stands for "Bracket" (order as small,medium,big) O stands for "Of" D stands for "Divisibility" M stands for "multiplication" A stands for "Addition" S stands for "Subtraction". 2. Multiplication of signs: 1.... read more

1. Rule of sign solving is known as VBODMAS:

  • V stands for "Vinculum" or "Bar"
  • B stands for "Bracket" (order as small,medium,big)
  • O stands for "Of"
  • D stands for "Divisibility"
  • M stands for "multiplication"
  • A stands for "Addition"
  • S stands for "Subtraction".

 2. Multiplication of signs:

1. Multiplication of two plus gives again a plus.

2. Multipication of two minus gives a plus.

3. Multiplication of one plus and one minus gives a minus.

 

 

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Lesson Posted on 28/10/2016 Exam Coaching/Bank Clerical Exam Coaching Exam Coaching/CSIR NET

Self Help

Pavnesh Sharma

I am Pavnesh kumar sharma Qualified as MBA + B.TECH. in Mechanical Engg. and working in Management since...

There is a will, There is a way. Anybody can achieve the target if he follow the rule of Self-Help. By writing , Memorising & agian cross check for writing is the way to suceed.
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Answered on 29/10/2016 Exam Coaching/CSIR NET Exam Coaching/Engineering Entrance Coaching/GATE Coaching Exam Coaching/Engineering Entrance Coaching/GATE Coaching/Biotechnology

Prateek Chandna

Assistant Professor

Prepare well and try to clear gate exam with a good percentile that will open doors for M.Tech in IIT's..
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Answered on 10/03/2016 Exam Coaching/CSIR NET

How can i create my own online course for online teaching?

Venkatesh Peetani

Dotnet Tutor

you can create some online Slides, use some web portals or one drive documents
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Answered on 13/11/2015 Exam Coaching/CSIR NET

Naveen P.

Tutor

u reach prakash classes jaipur
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Answered on 21/08/2015 Exam Coaching/CSIR NET

Biotechnology And Life Sciences Coaching Centre

Training Centre

You may contact us for admission in CSIR-NET Coaching as soon as possible. Seats are limited. Fees concession is available.
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