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Lesson Posted on 27/06/2022 Learn Mathematics

Functional Analysis - 1

Pandya Hardik Mahashankerbhai

I am a teacher of Mathematics in PG level. I am giving home/online/tutor home tuition since 2017. I...

https://vz-3ad30922-ba4.b-cdn.net/5e2021d1-85fa-4e19-a43b-5d383b92baef/play_480p.mp4
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Lesson Posted on 30/01/2021 Learn MSc Tuition +3 BSc Tuition Cell – Structure and Functions Cell Biology

Universal Features of Cell

Priyanka Pawar

I have completed MSC in biotech,PG diploma in clinical research. I am an experienced, qualified tutor...

1. Nucleus (In Eukaryotes) and nucleoid (In Prokaryotes) It contains genome (a set of the gene), composed of DNA. DNA is stored and replicated. Nucleus enclosed with the nuclear envelope. 2. Plasma Membrane It is rigid, flexible, hydrophobic lipid bilayer. The plasma membrane defines the periphery... read more

1. Nucleus (In Eukaryotes) and nucleoid (In Prokaryotes)

It contains genome (a set of the gene), composed of DNA. DNA is stored and replicated. Nucleus enclosed with the nuclear envelope.

2. Plasma Membrane

It is rigid, flexible, hydrophobic lipid bilayer. The plasma membrane defines the periphery of the cell. It transport proteins, allow passage to specific ions and molecules, receptor proteins transmit signals into the cells and membrane enzymes participate in some reaction pathways. Also, cell growth and cell division occur without loss of membrane integrity.

3. Cytoplasm

The internal volume enclosed by the plasma membrane is known as cytoplasm, composed of an aquous solution the cytosol and a variety of suspended particles with specific functions.

The cytosol is a highly concentrated solution containing enzymes and the RNA molecules.

These RNA molecules encode the amino acids and nucleotide, which assembled hundreds of small organic molecules called metabolites which are intermediates in biosynthetic and degradative pathways. Also contains coenzymes which are essentials for enzyme catalysed reactions, inorganic ions.

Ribosomes are the site for protein synthesis.

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Lesson Posted on 30/01/2021 Learn MSc Tuition +1 BSc Tuition

Chromatography Technique

Priyanka Pawar

I have completed MSC in biotech,PG diploma in clinical research. I am an experienced, qualified tutor...

1. Chromatography has complete applications according to types of sample. Such as medical, clinical, forensic science, characterization, purification, isolation of molecule. 2. There are advantages and disadvantages(limitations) of every type of chromatography. 3. According to an area of interest,... read more

1. Chromatography has complete applications according to types of sample. Such as medical, clinical, forensic science, characterization, purification, isolation of molecule.

2. There are advantages and disadvantages(limitations) of every type of chromatography.

3. According to an area of interest, we use different types of chromatography techniques for sample mixture.

4. Principle of chromatography is the separation of sample mixed with the mobile phase and stationary phase. Also, depending on the flow rate of the model with the mobile phase on the stationary phase.

5. Preparative chromatography is used for purification of the sample. The purpose of preparative chromatography is a separate component from the mixture for further use.

6. Analytical chromatography used for characterizations of analytes in a mixture of the sample. It requires a small amount of sample to perform chromatography.

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Lesson Posted on 30/01/2021 Learn MSc Tuition +2 BSc Tuition Molecular Biology

DNA As a Genetic Material

Priyanka Pawar

I have completed MSC in biotech,PG diploma in clinical research. I am an experienced, qualified tutor...

In 1868 the scientist Friedrich Miescher at first isolated a phosphorous-containing substance called nuclein from nuclei of leukocytes. Miescher and many others suspected that nuclein or nucleic acid is associated in some way with cell inheritance. But the first direct existence that DNA is the carrier... read more

In 1868 the scientist Friedrich Miescher at first isolated a phosphorous-containing substance called nuclein from nuclei of leukocytes. Miescher and many others suspected that nuclein or nucleic acid is associated in some way with cell inheritance. But the first direct existence that DNA is the carrier of genetic information came in 1944, which was found by scientists, Oswald T. Avery, Colin Macleod and Maclyn McCarty. These scientists found out that DNA extracted from a virulent, i.e. disease-causing strain of the bacterium streptococcus pnemoniae also pneumococcus genetically transformed a non-virulent strain of this organism into a virulent form. Hence they concluded that the DNA extracted from the virulent strain carried the inheritable genetic message for virulence.

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Lesson Posted on 16/12/2020 Learn Tuition +3 BSc Micro- Biology Biology BSc Zoology

Unusual Properties of Water

Surekha Telasula

Biochemistry Researcher: I am a Biochemist by academic research experience. I carried out projects related...

The unusual properties of water are due to the strong attractions between adjacent water molecules, which gives the water great cohesion. It also has adhesion properties to other molecules. Each hydrogen atom of a water molecule shares an electron pair with an oxygen atom. The shape of the water molecule... read more

The unusual properties of water are due to the strong attractions between adjacent water molecules, which gives the water great cohesion. It also has adhesion properties to other molecules. Each hydrogen atom of a water molecule shares an electron pair with an oxygen atom. The shape of the water molecule is dictated by the outer electron orbitals of the oxygen atom; these orbitals describe a rough tetrahedron with a hydrogen atom at each of the two corners and unshared electrons on the other two corners.

  

Bonds :

The H-O-H bond angle is 104.5 degrees slightly less than 109.5 degrees. It is because the nonbonding orbitals of oxygen slightly compress the orbitals shared by hydrogen. A hydrogen bond is formed between the two molecules of water in which O of one molecule shares electrons with H of another water molecule. (O-H). Another bond as seen in the fig. is between the H and O of the same molecule intermolecular bond (covalent bond) so, two covalent bonds.

Hydrogen bonds are weaker than the covalent bonds. It's easy to break hydrogen bonds than covalent bonds. At room temperature, the thermal energy which is defined as the kinetic energy formed by the movement of the individual atoms and molecules is of the same order as that of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds.

Dipoles in water molecule:

The sharing of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen are unequal, which leads to the negative charge on oxygen and a positive charge on the hydrogen.

Why does Ice float on the water?

At any given instant, in liquid water at room temperature, each water molecule forms hydrogen bonds with 3.4 other water molecules. So the water molecules in liquid form are in continuous motion making and breaking the hydrogen bonds rapidly. Whereas in the solid form, each molecule of water makes four hydrogen bonds with the other water molecules. It is because of the nearly tetrahedral arrangement of the orbitals about the oxygen atom.

So, a solid form of a crystal structure is formed which occupies more space in the structure than the water molecules in the liquid phase which are condensed.

It is reverse to the normal three states of matter concept that solids have condensed molecules, liquids have loosely packed molecules.

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Lesson Posted on 04/08/2020 Learn Physics +1 Computer science

Introduction to Quantum Computing and Quantum Information - What is a qubit ?

Aravind Babu Nair

I have 3 years of teaching experience.I provide online physics tuition for Classes IGCSE, AS,A Level....

The classical two-state system can have two possible states either 1 or 0 whereas a qubit can be in a superposition between 0 and 1 Qubit is generically represented as liner superposition of basis states |Ψ> = α|0>+β|1> Where alpha and beta are... read more

The classical two-state system can have two possible states either 1 or 0 whereas a qubit can be in a superposition between 0 and 1

Qubit is generically represented as liner superposition of basis states

                        |Ψ> = α|0>+β|1>

      Where alpha and beta are amplitudes(complex)

                       |α|2 +|β|2 = 1

Properties of qubit

Superposition & quantum parallelism

The main implication of states like that of equation (above) is that a single state contains the potential

for the system to be in either basis state. In some sense, the system, say an electron characterized by its spin value, simultaneously exists in both states until measured. Physically this does not seem to make sense to our classical minds unless we say that the electron has not decided which of the two possible states it should be in, until forced into one of them by measurement. This feature is exploited in quantum computation to implement what is called quantum parallelism: an operation that acts on a bit can now simultaneously act on both possible values of the bit if the input is a qubit in a quantum superposition.

 

Size of Computational space

If we want to do an n-bit computation, Classically the “space" available for computation is of size n. In terms of a quantum system of n qubits, the number of possible basis states is 2n, and this is the size of the space available for computation. The size of the space of states available for computation grows exponentially with the number of bits. This is the power we wish to exploit in quantum computation.

 

Entanglement and quantum correlation

Multiple qubit systems can exist in superposition states that are known as entangled states. These states possess intrinsic correlations between the component systems that are different from classical correlations. These correlations can survive even if the component systems are taken physically far apart from each other. For example, 2-qubit states are in general linear superpositions of |00>, |01>, |10> and |11>. Look at the state |00> + |11>. In such a state, the first and second systems are correlated quantum mechanically: the value of the second qubit is always equal to that of the first qubit, irrespective of what measurement we make on which bit and when. Such a state is called “entangled" because of this correlation. Quantum correlations can be exploited to generate new methods of processing, increasing the efficiency by allowing controlled operations to be performed. These correlations are an invaluable resource in quantum information theory, and we will see their basic applications in quantum state teleportation and secure information transfer over a distance.

 

Measurement and state collapse

Though a qubit could exist in a superposition of basis states, a measurement of the qubit would give one of the two basis states alone. Measurement of a quantum system causes it to collapse into one of the basis states, which destroys the superposition, including any information that may be encoded in the probability amplitudes. Some authors express this property as a qubit existing in a superposition not having a definite state. Measurement results can be predicted with 100% certainty in definite" states, and the system exists in a basis state. When a system is not in a definite state, measurement disturbs the system and one can never know the original state exactly. It is a quantitative and in-depth study of quantum measurements that has uncovered new laws of quantum information.

Unitary evolution and reversibility

Quantum dynamical laws governing the evolution of an isolated quantum system are what are known as unitary evolutions. Thus, the functioning of a quantum computer is necessarily via unitary transformations of the initial quantum state. Unitary operations are fully reversible and, from a large body of study on the energetics of computation, are said to lead to greater energy efficiency.

No cloning theorem

This is another peculiar property of generic quantum state: quantum states that are not basis states cannot be perfectly cloned or copied. The fact that classical states can be copied and kept aside for further processing is often taken for granted. When implementing a function in a classical circuit, we often send copies of a certain input to different parts of the circuit. Such an operation is no longer possible in quantum computing. This changes the way we look at a quantum computation. And on the upside, this also makes it possible to exchange information securely since tapping a quantum line disturbs the system irrevocably

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Lesson Posted on 10/09/2019 Learn MSc Tuition +6 Biotechnology BSc Tuition Microbial Biotechnology Microbes in Human Welfare BSc Micro- Biology Biology

Textile water waste treatment

Biju George

I am Biju George, I am Ph.D. in Biotechnology with 5+ years of postdoctoral experience in Biotechnology....

extile wastewater purification: The textile industry is rated as one of the most polluting and chemically intensive industrial sectors (Uzal, 2015). -Chemicals like acids, alkalis, colours, high BOD/COD concentration, surfactants, dispersing agents, soap, pigments, and metals are contained in effluent... read more

extile wastewater purification:

The textile industry is rated as one of the most polluting and chemically intensive industrial sectors (Uzal, 2015).

-Chemicals like acids, alkalis, colours, high BOD/COD concentration, surfactants, dispersing agents, soap, pigments, and metals are contained in effluent wastewater (Paul et al., 2012)

- dye contents can be as high as 200 mg/L), and many dyes are visible in the water at concentrations as low as 1 mg/L (Cervantes, 2009).

Challenge: Difficult to decolourize-  Dyes usually are stable chemicals,(complex structure and synthetic origin)

Biological treatment: beneficial

Azo dyes can be degraded by - fungus (P. Chrysosporium) but show slow kinetics

                      - Bacteria Bacillus sp. OY1-2 deposited by the laboratory of microbial engineering (No. 13118) shown to be efficient in degrading Azo dyes

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Lesson Posted on 10/09/2019 Learn MSc Tuition +10 Biotechnology Unit 4- Biotechnology and Its Applications Biotechnology - Principles and Processes Microbial Biotechnology MicroBiology Basic Microbiology Class 12 Genetics & Genomics Genetic Engineering Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering

Oncolytic virotherapy

Biju George

I am Biju George, I am Ph.D. in Biotechnology with 5+ years of postdoctoral experience in Biotechnology....

Oncolytic Virotherapy: Measles Virus as an agent of tumour destruction Oncolytic Viruses- Viruses that replicate selectively in tumour tissues and lyse the tumour cells Virotherapy Benefits (Attenuated Measles virus) Low risk to patients § Selectivity for the tumour § Nonpathogenic §... read more

Oncolytic Virotherapy:

Measles Virus as an agent of tumour destruction

Oncolytic Viruses- Viruses that replicate selectively in tumour tissues and lyse the tumour cells

Virotherapy Benefits (Attenuated Measles virus)

Low risk to patients

§ Selectivity for the tumour

§ Nonpathogenic

§ Non-persistent

§ Genetically stable

 Low risk to the population

§ Non-transmissible

§ Pre-Immune population

 

Several improved strategy

    Engineering Measles Virus Tropism

    Arming the Virus to Combat Innate Immunity

    Noninvasive monitoring

Progressive clinical trials 

 

Measles virotherapy - Safe and highly promising in the treatment of human cancer

 

 

 

 

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Lesson Posted on 03/09/2019 Learn MSc Tuition +1 BSc Micro- Biology

Gut microbiome and human Health

Biju George

I am Biju George, I am Ph.D. in Biotechnology with 5+ years of postdoctoral experience in Biotechnology....

Several microorganisms live on or inside the human body. The highest abundance and diversity of these microorganisms are found in our gut, approximately a trillions of bacteria. These microorganisms are very closely associated with numerous aspects of normal host physiology such as nutritional status,... read more

Several microorganisms live on or inside the human body. The highest abundance and diversity of these microorganisms are found in our gut, approximately a trillions of bacteria. These microorganisms are very closely associated with numerous aspects of normal host physiology such as nutritional status, behaviour and stress response. However, the gut microbes are also the cause of several diseases which are caused by changes in the composition of the resident microbiota. What we eat determines our microbiome composition and inturn determine their positive or negative role in our health.
Several recent research publications have shown the possible mechanism of the role of microbes in health and disease. Its the current area of research which is blooming in the field of human health.

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Answered on 13/11/2018 Learn MSc Tuition

Shuchi Vashishth

10 year experience in teaching ( Maths & Science) IELTS, Spoken English

By vedio calling
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