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Arunsundar 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Type B Hepatitis?

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Educa Academy replied | 27/04/2016

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection.

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Aditi replied | 21/06/2016

It is an infectious disease, which can have serious damage to your organ system effecting the liver initially. But hopefully now we have Hepatitis B vaccines available.

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Shaun 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Which is the receptor host cell in HIV infection?

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Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

HIV enters macrophages and CD4-positive T cells (CD4 is a glycoprotein receptor found on cells) by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell, followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell .Two glycoproteins make up env and these protrude from the virion. The cap of the protein...  more»
HIV enters macrophages and CD4-positive T cells (CD4 is a glycoprotein receptor found on cells) by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell, followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell .Two glycoproteins make up env and these protrude from the virion. The cap of the protein is called gp120 and the stem is gp41. For HIV to enter a host cell, it must first use gp120 to attach to a CD4 receptor. The CD4 receptor is found on CD4 T-cells and macrophages. «less

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Dr. Anshu replied | 02/05/2016

CD4

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Kadar 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Name a pathogenic yeast-like fungi.

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U.K. replied | 30/04/2016

Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms. The study of pathogenic fungi is referred to as "medical mycology." Fungicides such as ziram are used to protect plants against fungal infections

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Abhishek Singh replied | 29/06/2016

Candida

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Siraj 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Which is the famous serological test for the diagnosis of Enteric Fever?

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U.K. replied | 30/04/2016

the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide or flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi. In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype...  more»
the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide or flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi. In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. «less

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Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

The diagnosis of enteric fever ( typhoid fever) is primarily clinical.Specific serologic tests
Assays that identify Salmonella antibodies or antigens support the diagnosis of typhoid fever, but these results should be confirmed with cultures or DNA evidence.

The Widal test was the mainstay of typhoid fever diagnosis for decades. It is used to measure agglutinating...  more»
The diagnosis of enteric fever ( typhoid fever) is primarily clinical.Specific serologic tests
Assays that identify Salmonella antibodies or antigens support the diagnosis of typhoid fever, but these results should be confirmed with cultures or DNA evidence.

The Widal test was the mainstay of typhoid fever diagnosis for decades. It is used to measure agglutinating antibodies against H and O antigens of S typhi. Neither sensitive nor specific, the Widal test is no longer an acceptable clinical method. «less

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Musahid 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Subcutaneous mycoses?

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U.K. replied | 01/05/2016

Subcutaneous mycoses, which are much less common than superficial fungal infections, are characterized by a heterogeneous group of infections that often result from direct penetration of the fungus into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue through traumatic injury.

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Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Subcutaneous Mycoses are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent. The causative fungi are all soil saprophytes of regional epidemiology whose ability to adapt to the tissue environment and elicit disease is extremely variable.These are characterized by a heterogeneous group of infections that...  more»
Subcutaneous Mycoses are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent. The causative fungi are all soil saprophytes of regional epidemiology whose ability to adapt to the tissue environment and elicit disease is extremely variable.These are characterized by a heterogeneous group of infections that often result from direct penetration of the fungus into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue through traumatic injury. «less

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Taj 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Name a fungus infection of hair.

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Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Tinea capitis (also known as "Herpes tonsurans", "Ringworm of the hair," "Ringworm of the scalp," "Scalp ringworm", and "Tinea tonsurans") is a superficial fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the scalp. The disease is primarily caused by dermatophytes in the Trichophyton and Microsporum genera that invade the hair shaft. The clinical presentation is typically single or multiple...  more»
Tinea capitis (also known as "Herpes tonsurans", "Ringworm of the hair," "Ringworm of the scalp," "Scalp ringworm", and "Tinea tonsurans") is a superficial fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the scalp. The disease is primarily caused by dermatophytes in the Trichophyton and Microsporum genera that invade the hair shaft. The clinical presentation is typically single or multiple patches of hair loss, sometimes with a 'black dot' pattern (often with broken-off hairs), that may be accompanied by inflammation, scaling, pustules, and itching. Uncommon in adults, tinea capitis is predominantly seen in pre-pubertal children, more often boys than girls «less

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Dr. Anshu replied | 02/05/2016

ringworm

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Kamal 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Gabrial phthalimide synthasis?

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Kavi replied | 17/04/2016

synthesis of primary amines frompthalamide and ammonia

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Krishna replied | 12/07/2016

Synthesis of aliphatic primary amines by using Phthalimide...

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Seemi 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Discuss the characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels.

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Neetu replied | 12/06/2016

a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.There are important properties of hydrocarbon fuels that need to be understood and
considered to improve safety in upstream oil and gas operations. These include:
Flammability Limits
Auto-ignition Temperature
Minimum Ignition Energy
Other Considerations

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Krishna replied | 12/07/2016

Its an organic compound which gives high calorific value so that effective heating is achieved.

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Harish 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What are viscosity reducers? Give examples?

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Neetu replied | 11/06/2016

Reduced viscosity is equal to the ratio of the relative viscosity increment ( {\displaystyle \eta _{i}} ) to the mass concentration of the polyme

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Manjeet Singh replied | 09/07/2016

viscosity reducers a dramatic decrease in apparent viscosity, it decrease the surface tension and density of liquid.
ex:Aromatic Polyisobutylene Succinimides as Viscosity Reducers with Asphaltene Dispersion Capability for Heavy and Extra-Heavy Crude Oils.

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Y 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is the effect of sulphur compounds in petroleum products?

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Tamal replied | 08/06/2016

Sulfur compounds in petroleum can produce various harmful effects including air pollution, metal corrosion and catalyst degradation. It can create armful combination like Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Hydrogen Sulphide(H2S) etc. Sulfur concentration in crude oil and high-sulfur fuels is therefore monitored or controlled in refinery and production processes within the petroleum industry.

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Dushyant Kumar replied | 09/07/2016

It forms oxides of sulphur like So2, So3

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Sriram 16/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Why is barium precipitated as BaSO4 in hot?

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Nishant replied | 19/06/2016

Due to higher atomic mass

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Sangita Yadav replied | 23/06/2016

Ba is precipitated as BaSo4 because BaSo4 is most stable as compare Baco3,Bacro4,Bac2o4 and Baso4 is insoluble in dil. HCL.

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Sonia 16/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Can you explain Hofmann bromamide reaction?

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Zahid replied | 09/06/2016

It is a reaction for the synthesis of primary amine.
When an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic (of alcohol) solution of sodium hydroxide, degradation of amide takes place leading to the formation of primary amine. This reaction involving degradation of amide and is popularly known as Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. The primary amine thus formed...  more»
It is a reaction for the synthesis of primary amine.
When an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic (of alcohol) solution of sodium hydroxide, degradation of amide takes place leading to the formation of primary amine. This reaction involving degradation of amide and is popularly known as Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. The primary amine thus formed contains one carbon less than the number of carbon atoms in that amide.

RCONH2 +Br2 + 4NaOH R-NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O «less

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Abhishek 16/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

How is citric acid prepared? Give its important properties and uses.

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Aditi replied | 21/06/2016

citric acid naturally occurs in fruits like orange and lemon etc.

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Pallavi replied | 21/06/2016

citric acid C6H8O7
2 HYDROPROPANE-1,2,3TRICARBOXYLIC ACID
It has three carboxyl or -COOH group


PROPERTIES OF CITRIC ACID:-
Citric acid is the intermediate product of the plants of a natural composition and physiological metabolism, is also one of the organic acids widely used in the field of food, medicine, chemical industry. It is colorless transparent...  more»
citric acid C6H8O7
2 HYDROPROPANE-1,2,3TRICARBOXYLIC ACID
It has three carboxyl or -COOH group


PROPERTIES OF CITRIC ACID:-
Citric acid is the intermediate product of the plants of a natural composition and physiological metabolism, is also one of the organic acids widely used in the field of food, medicine, chemical industry. It is colorless transparent or translucent crystal, or granular, particle powder, odorless, although has strong sour, but a pleasant, slightly astringent taste. In the warm air gradually disintegrate, in the humid air, it is slight deliquescence.
(1) Reaction with Acid
Citric acid and fuming sulfuric acid mixed, at room temperature, which produce aconitic acid, slightly heating can generate 3 - ketoglutarate. The mixture of citric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid, temperature at 40? into acetone and CO2, CO, etc.; when heated to 150? to generate aconitic acid anhydride; generate double Kang acid (diconic acid) C9H10O6 and CO heating to 200 ?, CO2 and so on.
When the sulfate concentration is less than 94%, generating 3- ketoglutaric acid at low temperature; when the sulfate concentration is less than 60%, when heated to generate aconitic acid.
Anhydrous citric acid and 1 portions of nitric acid and 2 copies of the action of sulphuric acid form nitric acid ester C3H5 (ONO2) (COOH)3, it does not dissolve in ether, and barium and lead combine to form insoluble salts.
(2) Reaction with Alkali
The citric acid is fused with K2CO3 or KOH or nitric acid to obtain oxalic acid and acetic acid or other salts.
Citric acid and sodium salt (such as NaCl) lime carbonization to yield acetone.
Citric acid is get boiling in alkaline solution to obtain acrylic acid (C3H4O2).
The conventional acid base neutralization reaction of citric acid can produce various kinds of salts.
(3) the effect of Glycerol
Citric acid and glycerol mixed by dry distillation to obtain acetone, CO, CO2 and glycerol in the ether acetone acid ester.
The mixture of citric acid and glycerol are heated to 100 ?, and generate citric acid ester of glycerol , which is substance like glass. If large amount of glycerol and heated to 170? to get citronella diglycerol( citrodiglycerin C12H18O11).
Citric acid and glycerin which is according to the molar ratio of 1:3 heat can be citric acid glyceride. With different molar ratio of which can obtain different properties of resinous substance, and some were gel or solid form, some do not dissolve in water, some solution in water. If tung oil or oil and stearic acid are heated to 100?, can shrink synthetic resinous substance, it is used as paint and plastics additives or special solvent.

USES:-
1. Food Industries
2.Metal Purification
3. Used as a reagent
4.Ideal substitute for phosphate «less

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A.mohamed 16/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

How will you distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary amines?

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U.K. replied | 03/05/2016

1.) TEST :
Action of CHCl3 and alcoholic KOH. (Carbylamine test)

Primary Amine : Bad smelling carbylamine (Isocyanide) is formed.
Secandary Amine: No action.
Tertiary Amine : No action.

2.) TEST :
Action of CS2 and HgCl2. (Mustard oil test)

Primary Amine : Alkyl isothiocyanate is formed which has pungent smell like mustard oil.
Secandary...  more»
1.) TEST :
Action of CHCl3 and alcoholic KOH. (Carbylamine test)

Primary Amine : Bad smelling carbylamine (Isocyanide) is formed.
Secandary Amine: No action.
Tertiary Amine : No action.

2.) TEST :
Action of CS2 and HgCl2. (Mustard oil test)

Primary Amine : Alkyl isothiocyanate is formed which has pungent smell like mustard oil.
Secandary Amine : No action.
Tertiary Amine : No action

3.) TEST :
Action of Hinsberg's reagent.

Primary Amine : Monoalkyl sulphonamide is formed which is soluble in KOH.
Secandary Amine : Dialkyl sulphonamide is formed which is insoluble in KOH.
Tertiary Amine : No action. «less

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Tushar replied | 09/07/2016

The basic difference is,l of number of alkyl group attached to central atom... In the case of primery Amines only one Alkyl group is attached to the central atom. In the case of secondary Amines there are two Alkyl groups attached to central atom, for tertiary its 3. That's the simplest way to understand primery secondary and tertiary structure of not only Amines but also in the...  more»
The basic difference is,l of number of alkyl group attached to central atom... In the case of primery Amines only one Alkyl group is attached to the central atom. In the case of secondary Amines there are two Alkyl groups attached to central atom, for tertiary its 3. That's the simplest way to understand primery secondary and tertiary structure of not only Amines but also in the case of HALO-ALKANES , ALCOHOL, PHENOLS, AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Thanks. «less

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K 15/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is roasting?

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Himanshu replied | 22/06/2016

Roasting is a step of the processing of certain ores. More specifically, roasting is a metallurgical process involving gas–solid reactions at elevated temperatures with the goal of purifying the metal component(s).

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Sangita Yadav replied | 23/06/2016

roasting is a process in metallurgy. when a sulfide ore is heated in air by roasting process may convert to a free meta l oxide or to a free metal.
like example:- roasting ZnS may yeild Zno and roasting HgS may yeild free Hg metal.

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Swati 15/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What are glycols? How is ethylene glycol prepared?

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Farhana replied | 15/04/2016

in the molecule of a glycol, two hydroxyl (?OH) groups are attached to different carbon atoms. Ethylene glycol is the simplest member of the class.The IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol. Ethylene glycol is actually produced from ethene.ethane is coverted to Ethylene oxide and produce ethyl alcohol with the help of catalysts

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Balaji 15/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

How will you distinguish between Phenol and Benzyl alcohol?

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Bappaditya replied | 12/06/2016

By FeCl3 test you scan distinguish these two..as well by Lucas reagent test also you can distinguish...

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Rajendra 15/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Describe the nomenclature, isomerism and structure of carboxylic acids.

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Priya replied | 03/07/2016

nomenclature:naming the compounds
exactly count the number of carbon atoms and find the alkane gropu...then name them..count the number of carbon atoms and find the isomerism

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Sathyapriya replied | 08/07/2016

Isomerism is satisfied the one- t0-one and onto condition

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Raje 14/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

 What are the applications of LASER? 

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Manjeet Singh replied | 08/07/2016

some applications are here:
1.. in medical : in different surgery like eye operation., stone etc
2 In weapon
3. in communication
4.. in computers

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Sarvajeet replied | 07/12/2016

Communication
Laser printing.
CDs and optical discs.
Spectroscopy.
Heat treatment.
Medical applications.
Welding and Cutting.
Surveying.
Garment industry.

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Vikas 14/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is half wave plate and quarter wave plate?  

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Neetu replied | 12/06/2016

The half wave plate can be used to rotate the polarization state of a plane polarized light.Quarter wave plate are used to turn plane-polarized light into circularly polarized light

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Sarvajeet replied | 07/12/2016

Quarter wave plate are used to turn plane-polarized light into circularly polarized light.
The half wave plate can be used to rotate the polarization state of a plane polarized light.

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Suman 14/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is temporal and spatial coherence?

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Neetu replied | 12/06/2016

Spatial coherence is a concept of wave disturbance describing the correlation between periodic transmitted energy (wave signals) from one point to another,it can also be said that it is a mutual interdependence or connection of variable wave quantities of two different points in a given instant of time,the coherence is presented as a function of distance and mapped as correlation...  more»
Spatial coherence is a concept of wave disturbance describing the correlation between periodic transmitted energy (wave signals) from one point to another,it can also be said that it is a mutual interdependence or connection of variable wave quantities of two different points in a given instant of time,the coherence is presented as a function of distance and mapped as correlation against an absolute distance between points in question.
While spatial coherence is concerned with the phase correlation of waves in different observation points, temporal coherence entails the phase correlation of waves at a given point in space at two different instances of time,it is the measure of the average correlation between the value of a wave and itself delayed by a certain period of time depicting the characteristics of how well a wave can create an interference with itself.The delay on which the correlation effect is emphatically low is denoted by the degree of Tc (coherence time)[3], a state at which there is a significant shift in amplitude. «less

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Rasneet 14/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

 What is the population inversion?

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Neetu replied | 12/06/2016

Population inversion, in physics, the redistribution of atomic energy levels that takes place in a system so that laser action can occur. Normally, a system of atoms is in temperature equilibrium and there are always more atoms in low energy states than in higher ones. Although absorption and emission of energy is a continuous process, the statistical distribution (population) of...  more»
Population inversion, in physics, the redistribution of atomic energy levels that takes place in a system so that laser action can occur. Normally, a system of atoms is in temperature equilibrium and there are always more atoms in low energy states than in higher ones. Although absorption and emission of energy is a continuous process, the statistical distribution (population) of atoms in the various energy states is constant. When this distribution is disturbed by pumping energy into the system, a population inversion will take place in which more atoms will exist in the higher energy states than in the lower. «less

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Ramya 14/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is molality?

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Suman replied | 07/05/2016

Molarity is a unit of concentration measuring the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution.Represented by M symbol.

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Nagendra replied | 22/05/2016

No of moles of solute present in 1kg solvent, it is denoted by m,it is not affected by heat means it's value remain same all temperature, where as M,N,vary it's value

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Nilesh 13/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Explain about the elliptically polarized light. 

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Sibaram replied | 13/04/2016

In electrodynamics, elliptical polarization is the polarization of electromagnetic radiation such that the tip of the electric field vector describes an ellipse in any fixed plane intersecting, and normal to, the direction of propagation. An elliptically polarized wave may be resolved into two linearly polarized waves in phase quadrature, with their polarization planes at right...  more»
In electrodynamics, elliptical polarization is the polarization of electromagnetic radiation such that the tip of the electric field vector describes an ellipse in any fixed plane intersecting, and normal to, the direction of propagation. An elliptically polarized wave may be resolved into two linearly polarized waves in phase quadrature, with their polarization planes at right angles to each other. Since the electric field can rotate clockwise or counterclockwise as it propagates, elliptically polarized waves exhibit chirality and circular and linear polarization can be considered to be special cases of elliptical polarization. «less

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Dr replied | 14/07/2016

When light travel in certain direction, ether particles vibrate.
- If they vibrate elliptically with constant period ,
-if they takes place in a plane perpendicular to direction of propagation &
- the amplitude of vibrations changes in magnitude and in direction
then light is said to be elliptically polarized.

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Munawar 13/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What do you mean diffraction? 

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U.K. replied | 13/04/2016

Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the slight bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle.it is also described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens--Fresnel principle.
Diffraction occurs with all waves, including...  more»
Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the slight bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle.it is also described as the interference of waves according to the Huygens–Fresnel principle.
Diffraction occurs with all waves, including sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves such as visible light, X-rays and radio waves. «less

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Dr replied | 14/07/2016

It is the phenomenon of bending of light around the corners of small obstacles and spreading into geometrical shadow.

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