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Raindial 22/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Shaista replied | 06/07/2016

Platelets play an important role in blood clotting.. Blood clotting is one three mechanisms that reduce blood from broken blood vessels. Those three mechanisms are
1.vascular spasm
2.platelet plug formation
3.Blood clotting
Prothrombinase formed in stage 1, converts prothrombin,which is a plasma protein that is formed in the liver,into the enzyme,in turn,thrombin...  more»
Platelets play an important role in blood clotting.. Blood clotting is one three mechanisms that reduce blood from broken blood vessels. Those three mechanisms are
1.vascular spasm
2.platelet plug formation
3.Blood clotting
Prothrombinase formed in stage 1, converts prothrombin,which is a plasma protein that is formed in the liver,into the enzyme,in turn,thrombin converts fibrinogin into fibrin. Fibrin is insoluble and forms the threads that binds the clot. «less

Suman replied | 08/07/2016

1.When the vessel wall is broken, thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood release an enzyme called thromboplastin. Thromboplastin then converts a protein in the blood plasma called prothrombin into an active enzyme called thrombin. Calcium is needed for this process to work. (So: thromboplastin + calcium + prothrombin = thrombin). This makes the platelets stickier so they start to...  more»
1.When the vessel wall is broken, thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood release an enzyme called thromboplastin. Thromboplastin then converts a protein in the blood plasma called prothrombin into an active enzyme called thrombin. Calcium is needed for this process to work. (So: thromboplastin + calcium + prothrombin = thrombin). This makes the platelets stickier so they start to bind directly over the site of injury.
2.Thrombin then changes another plasma protein, fibrinogen into fibrin. Fibrin is insoluble and forms a netlike covering across the damaged vessel. (Thus thrombin + fibrinogen = fibrin).

3.As blood tries to flow through the red and white blood cells and platelets are trapped and form a clot. (Thus fibrin + blood cells = clot). Thanks «less

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Apollo 22/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Supriya Nath replied | 20/06/2016

The cerebellum functions to control the body posture, it has several nuclei in it which controls breathing, vomiting, etc. it

Sarvajeet replied | 07/12/2016

The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements.

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Balendra 21/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

U.k. replied | 04/05/2016

An embolism is a condition where the blood flow in an artery is blocked by a foreign body, such as a blood clot or an air bubble.

Two of the most serious conditions caused by an embolism are:

Stroke - where the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted or cut off
Pulmonary embolism : when a foreign body blocks the artery transporting blood to the lungs

Sarvajeet replied | 07/12/2016

Sir, Embolism is a vascular phenomenon, where a blockage inducing object such as a blood clot is lodged in the bloodstream.

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Srikumar 21/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Respiratory Quotient?

U.k. replied | 30/04/2016

The respiratory quotient is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. Such measurements, like measurements of oxygen uptake, are forms of indirect calorimetry. It is measured using a respirometer.

The respiratory quotient (RQ) is the ratio:
RQ = CO2 eliminated / O2 consumed
where...  more»
The respiratory quotient is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. Such measurements, like measurements of oxygen uptake, are forms of indirect calorimetry. It is measured using a respirometer.

The respiratory quotient (RQ) is the ratio:
RQ = CO2 eliminated / O2 consumed
where the term "eliminated" refers to carbon dioxide (CO2) removed ("eliminated") from the body. «less

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Respiratory Quotient (RQ): The ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide evolved to that of oxygen consumed by an organism, tissue, or cell in a given time. RQ =Volume of CO2 eliminated / Volume of O2 consumed

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Venkatesan 20/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What are symmetric and antisymmetric wave-functions

Neetu replied | 13/06/2016

We have to construct the wave function for a system of identical particles so that it reflects the requirement that the particles are indistinguishable from each other. Mathematically, this means interchanging the particles occupying any pair of states should not change the probability density of the system. This simple statement has the enormous consequence of dividing all particles...  more»
We have to construct the wave function for a system of identical particles so that it reflects the requirement that the particles are indistinguishable from each other. Mathematically, this means interchanging the particles occupying any pair of states should not change the probability density of the system. This simple statement has the enormous consequence of dividing all particles in nature into one of two classes.
An example for two non-interacting identical particles will illustrate the point. The probability density of the the two particle wave function $\Psi(\bf {r}_1, \bf {r}_2)$ must be identical to that of the the wave function $\Psi(\bf {r}_2, \bf {r}_1)$ where the particles have been interchanged.
\vert\Psi({\bf r}_1, {\bf r}_2)\vert^2 = \vert\Psi({\bf r}_2, {\bf r}_1)\vert^2

We can achieve this in two ways
{Symmetric case : \ \ \ }\Psi({\bf r}_1, {\bf r}_2) = \Psi({\bf r}_2, {\bf r}_1)
or {Anti-symmetric case : \ \ \ }\Psi({\bf r}_1, {\bf r}_2) = -\Psi({\bf r}_2, {\bf r}_1) «less

Dr Sushil Kumar replied | 26/08/2016

visit http://www.apniphysics.com for physics video lectures...........wave function have no physical significance its just a mathematical quantity.....a function that depends on coordinates x,y and z in a space.....time t is also a factor but in terms of position here not required....if you change the position...  more»
visit http://www.apniphysics.com for physics video lectures...........wave function have no physical significance its just a mathematical quantity.....a function that depends on coordinates x,y and z in a space.....time t is also a factor but in terms of position here not required....if you change the position of coordinates means from x to -x or from y to -y does you observe any change in the property of the function and ultimately in the probability of finding the particle. Mathematically if there is no change symmetric if you notice change in sign obvious that will be asymmetric.... «less

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Seemi 20/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What are the general characteristics of nuclear forces

Dr Rajni replied | 24/06/2016

The isospin of the nucleon and the isospin symmetry (charge independence) of nuclear forces arises from a corresponding symmetry in the quarks from whichnucleons are made. The main fermion (spin 1/2) constituents of the proton and the neutron are the so-called u and d quarks.

Dr Sushil Kumar replied | 26/08/2016

visit http://www.apniphysics.com for physics video lectures..........

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Bala 20/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is marasmus?

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Mehmubeen replied | 17/06/2016

Marasmus is a malnutrition occurring in small children, because of insufficient intake of protein and calories.

Sarvajeet replied | 07/12/2016

Disease loss of wight skin attached bone and occur generally in small children.

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Ravichander 20/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is peristalsis?

Wanchha replied | 22/06/2016

It is the type of movement of Music le in the oesophagus that help the food to table down.

Sakina Aamir replied | 24/06/2016

It is the involuntary contractions and relaxations of muscles around the intestine, which help the food to go down.

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Neeta 19/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Varicella?

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Varicella (chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). The recurrent infection (herpes zoster, also known as shingles) has been recognized since ancient times. Varicella Zoster Virus VZV is a DNA virus and is a member of the herpesvirus group. VZV enters through the respiratory tract and conjunctiva. The incubation period is 14 to 16 days after...  more»
Varicella (chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). The recurrent infection (herpes zoster, also known as shingles) has been recognized since ancient times. Varicella Zoster Virus VZV is a DNA virus and is a member of the herpesvirus group. VZV enters through the respiratory tract and conjunctiva. The incubation period is 14 to 16 days after exposure, with a range of 10 to 21 days.

Vaccines :
1. Varicella vaccine (Varivax) -- approved for persons 12 months and older
2. Measles-mumps-rubellavaricella vaccine (ProQuad) -- approved for children 12 months through 12 years
3. Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax) -- approved for persons 50 years and older «less

Dr. Anshu replied | 02/05/2016

chicken pox

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Arunsundar 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Type B Hepatitis?

Educa replied | 27/04/2016

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection.

It is an infectious disease, which can have serious damage to your organ system effecting the liver initially. But hopefully now we have Hepatitis B vaccines available.

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Arumugam 19/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Can you explain what is Kirby-Bauer test?

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Kirby–Bauer antibiotic testing (KB testing or disc diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing) is a test which uses antibiotic-impregnated wafers to test whether bacteria are affected by antibiotics.

Wilfred replied | 03/05/2016

Kirby bauer test is an anti biotic test by impregnating antibiotic coated wafer to bacteria solution to test the effectiveness of anti biotics.

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Chinmayee 19/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria?

U.k. replied | 01/05/2016

Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria :
1.The guidelines present current recommendations for the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by
potentially toxicgenic isolates of corynebacteria, withparticular reference to Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C.ulcerans
.They cover the following main areas:
laboratory safety issues
the...  more»
Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of diphtheria :
1.The guidelines present current recommendations for the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by
potentially toxicgenic isolates of corynebacteria, withparticular reference to Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C.ulcerans
.They cover the following main areas:
ï laboratory safety issues
ï the role of the diagnostic laboratory
ï the role of, and interaction with, the reference laboratory
ï procedures for presumptive identification of
C.diphtheriae and C.ulcerans
ï importance of toxicgenicity testing
ï laboratory responsibility for reporting toxigenic
C.diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, and C. pseudotuberculosis
ï susceptibility testing of coryneform bacteria
ï serological immunity testing
ï specialised testing; molecular typing
ï enhancing microbiological surveillance «less

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria. Doctors usually decide if a person has diphtheria by looking for common signs and symptoms. They can use a swab from the back of the throat and test it for the bacteria that cause diphtheria. A doctor can also take a sample from a skin lesion (like a sore) and try and grow the bacteria to be sure a patient...  more»
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria. Doctors usually decide if a person has diphtheria by looking for common signs and symptoms. They can use a swab from the back of the throat and test it for the bacteria that cause diphtheria. A doctor can also take a sample from a skin lesion (like a sore) and try and grow the bacteria to be sure a patient has diphtheria.
Laboratory Diagnosis
1.Isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from a gram stain or throat culture from a clinical specimen.
2.Histopathologic diagnosis of diphtheria by a stain called "Albert's Stain". «less

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Varsha 19/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Explain Rickettsial diseases.

U.k. replied | 30/04/2016

Rickettsial disease encompasses a group of diseases caused by the microorganisms rickettsiae.

Rickettsiae occupy a position between bacteria and viruses. They can only survive inside cells. Rickettsial diseases vary considerably in severity from self-limiting mild illnesses to severe life-threatening infections, particularly if complications arise. The organisms cause...  more»
Rickettsial disease encompasses a group of diseases caused by the microorganisms rickettsiae.

Rickettsiae occupy a position between bacteria and viruses. They can only survive inside cells. Rickettsial diseases vary considerably in severity from self-limiting mild illnesses to severe life-threatening infections, particularly if complications arise. The organisms cause disease by damaging blood vessels in various tissues and organs. In severe cases multiple tissues and organs are affected. «less

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci. These are obligate intracellular parasites.Rickettsia species are transmitted by numerous types of arthropod, including chigger, ticks, fleas, and lice, and are associated with both human and plant disease. Most notably, Rickettsia species are the pathogen...  more»
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci. These are obligate intracellular parasites.Rickettsia species are transmitted by numerous types of arthropod, including chigger, ticks, fleas, and lice, and are associated with both human and plant disease. Most notably, Rickettsia species are the pathogen responsible for: typhus, rickettsialpox, Boutonneuse fever,etc. Rickettsia bacteria do not cause rickets, which is a result of vitamin D deficiency.The majority of Rickettsia bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics of the tetracycline group. «less

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Anu 19/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Filariasis?

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Dr. Shajila replied | 19/04/2016

Filariasis is an infection caused by filarial worms in the blood and lymph channels,lymph glands and other tissues.It is a parasitic disease transmitted by blood feeding arthropods.Most cases caused by the parasite known as Wuchereria Bancrofti.

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Sushma replied | 21/06/2016

Its a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.

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Shaun 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Which is the receptor host cell in HIV infection?

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

HIV enters macrophages and CD4-positive T cells (CD4 is a glycoprotein receptor found on cells) by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell, followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell .Two glycoproteins make up env and these protrude from the virion. The cap of the protein...  more»
HIV enters macrophages and CD4-positive T cells (CD4 is a glycoprotein receptor found on cells) by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell, followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell .Two glycoproteins make up env and these protrude from the virion. The cap of the protein is called gp120 and the stem is gp41. For HIV to enter a host cell, it must first use gp120 to attach to a CD4 receptor. The CD4 receptor is found on CD4 T-cells and macrophages. «less

Dr. Anshu replied | 02/05/2016

CD4

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Name a pathogenic yeast-like fungi.

U.k. replied | 30/04/2016

Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms. The study of pathogenic fungi is referred to as "medical mycology." Fungicides such as ziram are used to protect plants against fungal infections

Abhishek Singh replied | 29/06/2016

Candida

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Siraj 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Which is the famous serological test for the diagnosis of Enteric Fever?

U.k. replied | 30/04/2016

the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide or flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi. In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype...  more»
the laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of agglutinating serum antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide or flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi. In this study, the serum antibody responses to the LPS and flagellum antigens of serotype Typhi were investigated with individuals from a region of Vietnam in which typhoid is endemic, and their usefulness for the diagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated. «less

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

The diagnosis of enteric fever ( typhoid fever) is primarily clinical.Specific serologic tests
Assays that identify Salmonella antibodies or antigens support the diagnosis of typhoid fever, but these results should be confirmed with cultures or DNA evidence.

The Widal test was the mainstay of typhoid fever diagnosis for decades. It is used to measure agglutinating...  more»
The diagnosis of enteric fever ( typhoid fever) is primarily clinical.Specific serologic tests
Assays that identify Salmonella antibodies or antigens support the diagnosis of typhoid fever, but these results should be confirmed with cultures or DNA evidence.

The Widal test was the mainstay of typhoid fever diagnosis for decades. It is used to measure agglutinating antibodies against H and O antigens of S typhi. Neither sensitive nor specific, the Widal test is no longer an acceptable clinical method. «less

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Musahid 18/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Subcutaneous mycoses?

U.k. replied | 01/05/2016

Subcutaneous mycoses, which are much less common than superficial fungal infections, are characterized by a heterogeneous group of infections that often result from direct penetration of the fungus into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue through traumatic injury.

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Subcutaneous Mycoses are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent. The causative fungi are all soil saprophytes of regional epidemiology whose ability to adapt to the tissue environment and elicit disease is extremely variable.These are characterized by a heterogeneous group of infections that...  more»
Subcutaneous Mycoses are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent. The causative fungi are all soil saprophytes of regional epidemiology whose ability to adapt to the tissue environment and elicit disease is extremely variable.These are characterized by a heterogeneous group of infections that often result from direct penetration of the fungus into the dermis and subcutaneous tissue through traumatic injury. «less

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Taj 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Name a fungus infection of hair.

Jayasimha replied | 01/05/2016

Tinea capitis (also known as "Herpes tonsurans", "Ringworm of the hair," "Ringworm of the scalp," "Scalp ringworm", and "Tinea tonsurans") is a superficial fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the scalp. The disease is primarily caused by dermatophytes in the Trichophyton and Microsporum genera that invade the hair shaft. The clinical presentation is typically single or multiple...  more»
Tinea capitis (also known as "Herpes tonsurans", "Ringworm of the hair," "Ringworm of the scalp," "Scalp ringworm", and "Tinea tonsurans") is a superficial fungal infection (dermatophytosis) of the scalp. The disease is primarily caused by dermatophytes in the Trichophyton and Microsporum genera that invade the hair shaft. The clinical presentation is typically single or multiple patches of hair loss, sometimes with a 'black dot' pattern (often with broken-off hairs), that may be accompanied by inflammation, scaling, pustules, and itching. Uncommon in adults, tinea capitis is predominantly seen in pre-pubertal children, more often boys than girls «less

Dr. Anshu replied | 02/05/2016

ringworm

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Kamal 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is Gabrial phthalimide synthasis?

Kavi replied | 17/04/2016

synthesis of primary amines frompthalamide and ammonia

Krishna replied | 12/07/2016

Synthesis of aliphatic primary amines by using Phthalimide...

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Seemi 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Discuss the characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels.

Neetu replied | 12/06/2016

a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.There are important properties of hydrocarbon fuels that need to be understood and
considered to improve safety in upstream oil and gas operations. These include:
Flammability Limits
Auto-ignition Temperature
Minimum Ignition Energy
Other Considerations

Krishna replied | 12/07/2016

Its an organic compound which gives high calorific value so that effective heating is achieved.

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Harish 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What are viscosity reducers? Give examples?

Neetu replied | 11/06/2016

Reduced viscosity is equal to the ratio of the relative viscosity increment ( {\displaystyle \eta _{i}} ) to the mass concentration of the polyme

Manjeet Singh replied | 09/07/2016

viscosity reducers a dramatic decrease in apparent viscosity, it decrease the surface tension and density of liquid.
ex:Aromatic Polyisobutylene Succinimides as Viscosity Reducers with Asphaltene Dispersion Capability for Heavy and Extra-Heavy Crude Oils.

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Y 17/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

What is the effect of sulphur compounds in petroleum products?

Tamal replied | 08/06/2016

Sulfur compounds in petroleum can produce various harmful effects including air pollution, metal corrosion and catalyst degradation. It can create armful combination like Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Hydrogen Sulphide(H2S) etc. Sulfur concentration in crude oil and high-sulfur fuels is therefore monitored or controlled in refinery and production processes within the petroleum industry.

Dushyant Kumar replied | 09/07/2016

It forms oxides of sulphur like So2, So3

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Sriram 16/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Why is barium precipitated as BaSO4 in hot?

Nishant replied | 19/06/2016

Due to higher atomic mass

Ba is precipitated as BaSo4 because BaSo4 is most stable as compare Baco3,Bacro4,Bac2o4 and Baso4 is insoluble in dil. HCL.

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Sonia 16/04/2016 in  BSc Tuition

Can you explain Hofmann bromamide reaction?

Zahid replied | 09/06/2016

It is a reaction for the synthesis of primary amine.
When an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic (of alcohol) solution of sodium hydroxide, degradation of amide takes place leading to the formation of primary amine. This reaction involving degradation of amide and is popularly known as Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. The primary amine thus formed...  more»
It is a reaction for the synthesis of primary amine.
When an amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic (of alcohol) solution of sodium hydroxide, degradation of amide takes place leading to the formation of primary amine. This reaction involving degradation of amide and is popularly known as Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. The primary amine thus formed contains one carbon less than the number of carbon atoms in that amide.

RCONH2 +Br2 + 4NaOH R-NH2 + Na2CO3 + 2NaBr + 2H2O «less

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