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Research Aptitude

Ishwanik Kaur
20/11/2017 0 0


A complete scientific and systematic enquiry for discovering new facts or the hidden facts or to verify the existing laws and theory, to find out the inter relation of variables by applying scientific methods is called as research. It is combination of two words “re+search”, where‘re’ means on the repeated basis and ‘search’ means search of knowledge.

The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Dictionary definition of research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. It is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense.


Characteristics of research:

1. Systematic: There is always a sequential procedure for calculating the research which has to be adhere always.

2. Reliability: It means the source of information should be authentic and the results of the test or the experiments should always be consistent.

3. Validity: Validity of the result stand for the accuracy of the research procedure and instruments that has been used in research work. It is the reliability which is necessary condition for achieving validity of results.

4. Empherical: (Based on observations) research findings should be based on the real life experiences it is always subject to verification of the means of experiments and observations.

5. Logical: A good research is always guided by the proper logics of induction and deduction.

6. Replicable: (Repetitive) it means repeating the research work to enhance the validity and verification of the research. Example: gravitational force when apple falls.

7. Generallizability: When hypothesis become theory and law that is result gain external validity such that research findings are applicable to the general population than it gain generalization.


Types of research:

1. Fundamental/pure/basic research:

It is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. Gathering knowledge for knowledge sake is termed as fundamental research. It aims at formulation of laws and theory and concepts plus improvement of the existence theories and laws. It aims at increasing knowledge at a particular field. It is guided by the curiosity of researcher. It is more closely associated to invention and discoveries. All the universal facts, generalization, human behaviors and scientific laws- all are part of fundamental research. Example: Newton’s three law of motion, how did the universe begin, what are protons, neutrons and electrons etc?

2. Applied research:

It aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization. It seeks to answer a question in the real world and solve a problem or to discover a solution so as to get the concrete solutions. Example: how global warming can be avoided, how to improve agricultural crop production.

3. Descriptive research:

This research is also known as statistical research. These studies are a means of discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs and categorizing information. It is mainly used in social and behavioral sciences. Example: finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The researcher will find out what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life. Further in social science and business research ex post facto research is often used for descriptive studies. Its main characteristic is that researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened and what is happening. It also includes attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. Example of ex post facto research are- frequency of shopping, preferences of people etc. the methods of research used in this study includes all kind of survey method like comparative and correlation method.

4. Explanatory/analytical research:

Here the researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. Hence it aims at establishing cause and effect relationship between two variables. Example: why smoking leads lung cancer, why high stress leads to heart diseases etc.

5. Quantative research:

It is based on quantitative measurements of some characteristics or all those variables that can be measured in and can be expressed numerically. Example: population ratio, poverty rate, income, no. of people consuming alcohol etc. it mainly uses deductive approach i.e. it is concerned with testing the theories and hypothesis. It uses structured data correction method. Example: questionnaire, schedule etc.

6. Qualitative research:

It is phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. It is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. Through such research we can analyze the various factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular thing. These can’t be measured and can’t express in numbers. It follows inductive approach and uses unstructured data correction method like, in depth interview, word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests, attitude or opinion research, etc. Example: why people think so.

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