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Lesson Posted on 06/10/2020 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

Power Sector in India

Samanvaya IAS Academy

I am double Post Graduate in Modern History and Sociology from Hansraj College, New Delhi. I have cleared...

WHY IN NEWS? Recently, the part of the package announced by the Finance Minister was 90,000 crores INR liquidity injection into power distribution companies (discoms). This is the subject to the condition that Center will act as a guarantor of the loans given by State-owned power finance companies... read more

WHY IN NEWS?

  • Recently, the part of the package announced by the Finance Minister was 90,000 crores INR liquidity injection into power distribution companies (discoms).
  • This is the subject to the condition that Center will act as a guarantor of the loans given by State-owned power finance companies such as PFC and REC Ltd. To the discoms.

KEY POINTS

With a generation of 1561 terawatt-hours (TWh), India is the third-largest producer and consumer as well of electricity in the world.

  • India is ranked fourth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fifth on renewable power installed capacity as of 2018.
  • The Government of India has set a target to achieve 175 GW installed capacity of renewable energy by FY22.

THE MAJOR SOURCES OF POWER IN INDIA

  • Currently, India produces a majority of its energy from thermal sources.
  • However, with the commitment to the Paris Agreement (on climate change), there has been a push towards increasing the renewable generation capacity in the country.

STAKEHOLDERS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR

  • Producer: Electricity is generated at thermal, hydro and renewable energy power plants, which are operated by either state-owned companies such as NTPC Ltd, NHPC Ltd, or private companies such as TATA Powers or Adani Powers.
  • State Government: The generated then moves through a transmission grid system that connects electricity producers and ends consumers who are mainly dominated by State-owned companies such as Powergrid Corp.
  • Distribution Companies (Discoms): Distribution includes maintenance of the distribution network and retail supply of electricity to the consumers mostly carried out by state-owned distribution companies. However, in cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Kolkata, private entities own the entire distribution business or parts of it. For example, BSES Rajdhani Power is a private discom Delhi.

ACTS AND POLICIES

  • ELECTRICITY ACT 2003: It was introduced to introduce competition, consumers’ interest and provide power for all. The act offers National Electricity Policy, Rural Electrification, Open access in transmission, phased open access in distribution, Etc.
  • POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENTS: As per Act 2003, distribution licensees enter into PPAs with generation companies for the retail sale of electricity. PPAs are bilateral contracts between the procurers and the generators.

AUTHORITIES

  • Bureau of Energy Efficiency: It assists in developing policies and strategies with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act 2001.
  • Power Finance Corporation: It functions to introduce reforms in the Indian power sector and enhancing value to its stakeholders; by promoting efficient investment in the power and allied industry in India and abroad.
  • Rural Electrification Corporation: The company is a Public Sector Undertaking that provides loans to Center/State Power Utilities in the country. State Electricity Board, Rural Electric Cooperatives, NGOs and Private Power Developers.
  • Power Grid Corporation: It is a State-owned Maharatna Company engaged mainly in Transmission of power and transmits about 50% of the power generated in India on its transmission network.
  • Central Electricity Regulatory Commission: CERC is a statutory body working under Electricity Act 2003. Its function includes levying various fees, tariffs, license issues to generation companies, etc. And also has an advisory role for Government of India.

CHALLENGES FACED BY THE POWER SECTOR

  • Competitiveness: Electricity price for specific segments such as agriculture and the domestic category (what we use in our homes) is cross-subsidized by the industries and the commercial sector. This affects the competitiveness of the sector.
  • Discoms: The poor financial situations of state discoms and consequently, this impacts the quality of electricity that consumers receive.
  • Aggregate technical and distribution process from end consumers: It stands for the gap between the costs of the electricity that discoms gets from the generating company, the bills that it raises the final realisation from the collection process from end consumers. This leads to the mismatch in the electricity supplied and the value received.
  • NPAs in the sector: As per the RBI, public sector banks have the highest NPAs, most of which are in the power and the telecom sector. Absence of enough coal for efficient production delayed payment by discoms, and higher cost of power purchase agreements leads to an increase in NPAs in the sector.
  • The renewable market is still developing: An insufficient transmission network and non-synchronized generation cause issues with renewable energy. Poor states relatively are less willing to purchase renewable electricity due to their higher costs than conventional sources as renewable electricity has significantly less production and is not evenly spread about the country.
  • Environmental concerns: The majority of the energy in India is generated from thermal sources and increasing levels of emission, consumption and environmental sustainability have become some issues associated with it.

 

WAY FORWARD

  • Smart metering and smart grid: Smart grid is an electricity network that uses information and communication technology to gather information and act to improve the efficiency, reliability, economic, and distribution of electricity that can get be supplemented and consumer- level smart metering.
  • Strengthening Electricity Regulators: This is to be done to bring in transparency, accountability and a professional approach to regulate the sector and also to balance the interests of investors as well as consumers impartially.
  • Checking theft: Making suitable measures to check theft and pilferage of power using smart meters and consumer awareness.
  • Rationalising generation cost: Generation cost can be reduced by improving the availability of lower indigenous price, rationalising coal supply sources, and adopting new technology as per indigenous price.
  • Removing cross-subsidies in the sector: This is within the distribution area need not exceed 20% and can be progressively reduced and eliminated within three years to enhance overall revenue realisation to meet the total cost of supply.
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Lesson Posted on 18/09/2020 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

Ancient Indian History- Class 1

Priyanka G.

I am a teacher of UPSC civil service exam and WBCS exam.. I am giving online/tutor home tuition since...

First one needs to remember the timeline to solve questions of chronological order. The following topics are to be covered for UPSC CIVIL SERVICE exam and WBCS exam. A. Periods: Palaeolithic Mesolithic and Neolithic B. Chalcolithic C. Copper age Bronze age Iron age D. Indus Valley civilization E.... read more

First one needs to remember the timeline to solve questions of chronological order. The following topics are to be covered for UPSC CIVIL SERVICE exam and WBCS exam.

A. Periods: Palaeolithic Mesolithic and Neolithic

B. Chalcolithic

C. Copper age Bronze age Iron age

D. Indus Valley civilization

E. Early Vedic

F. Later Vedic

D. Mahajanapadas

F. Harnyak Dynasty

G. Nag Dynasty

H. Nanda

I. Gupta

J. Jainism Buddhism

K. Mauryas

L. Sungas

M. Kanvas

N. Satvahanas

O. Indo Greeks

P. South Indian Chera Chola Pandyas

Pallavas

Q. Schools of Philosophy

R. Books n authors 

S. Harsha period

T. Famous scholars

U. Inscriptions

 

Periods

1. Palaeolithic

A. Upper

B. Middle

C. Lower

2. Mesolithic

3. Neolithic

For each period one needs to remember the date, discoverer, tools, places with which state they belong to, and paintings or any art form associated. Apart from that if any event has occurred in them for the first time, then it holds particular importance for our competitive exam.

Let's Start.

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Answered on 26/10/2019 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

Neeraj Jha

Tutor

Dear Saurabh,As the CSE mains examination is descriptive, reading only will not be sufficient to fetch you good marks. Along with extensive reading, it is advisable to practice answer writing and prepare your own notes. This will ensure that you score high marks in the main examination.
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Lesson Posted on 19/05/2018 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

Transparency and Accountability

B.A. Nagesh

I have a civil services background having served in the State Govt in a senior administrative capacity...

Transparency and accountability are the characteristics of Good Governance. A Good Government has to be transparent in its functioning. People have a right to know what is happening. The Right to information act is an act to promote transparency in Government functioning. It provides for voluntary disclosure... read more

Transparency and accountability are the characteristics of Good Governance. A Good Government has to be transparent in its functioning. People have a right to know what is happening.

The Right to information act is an act to promote transparency in Government functioning. It provides for voluntary disclosure of information. Every Government department is bound to display its activities on its website.

The Citizens Charter is an attempt at introducing accountability. In this Charter, the Agency displays what services are being offered. There are penalties for non-performance. Sakala introduced by the Government of Karnataka is a classic example of Citizens charter.

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Lesson Posted on 14/04/2018 Exam Coaching Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching Tuition/BA Tuition

How to study Indian History?

Tarlok Singh

Step 1 - Divide your syllabus into three major parts, that is ancient, medieval and modern history.Step 2 - Better to start with ancient Indian history, study chronologically, as it will provide you with the basic startup knowledge of Indian subcontinents history. Try to write down the important events,... read more

Step 1 - Divide your syllabus into three major parts, that is ancient, medieval and modern history.

Step 2 - Better to start with ancient Indian history, study chronologically, as it will provide you with the basic startup knowledge of Indian subcontinents history. Try to write down the important events, dates, names, e.g., the name of the king, his poets, authors of texts/manuscripts etc.

Step 3 - Study regularly according to your timetable, gaps in the regular study will result in confusion as this is history and syllabus is vast.

Step 4 - Try to study by following regular revision method, it means before you start your next topic give a quick revision to the last topic you already covered. This is a very good method, especially for history students.

Step 5 - Cover your syllabus from topic to topic, chapter to chapter. If you are jumping your chapter/topics then this will surely increase your confusion and will waste your time even more as events in history are linked to each other, names are also repeated. For example Chandragupta 1, Chandragupta 2 etc.

Important overview - ancient Indian history is all about sources of ancient history, authors, poets, kings, their work, ancient findings, coins, manuscripts, temples, temple arts etc.

Medieval history is all about administration, wars, Mughals, development in art and literature, religion and downfall of various Kingdoms.

Modern history is all about the downfall of Indian princes, Britishers, their treaties their wars their policies, Indian economy. New ideas of religion and politics and struggle for independence.

Important authors - for ancient Indian history RS Sharma is best.
For medieval history, Satish Chandra is best.
For modern history, Bipin Chandra and Mohammad Tareeq are best.

Along with these authors, you must follow special editions of Pratiyogita Darpan on ancient medieval and modern history. Krishna reddie's book is also good when it comes to question bank and chronological notes etc. but it's a big book.

So please study chronologically and regularly, have a nice day.

Tarlok Singh
MA History, MA Economics.

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Asked on 23/01/2018 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

What's the biggest challenges in cracking Civil service exam for the first attempt? 

Answer

Lesson Posted on 17/11/2017 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

China Dismisses Indo: Pacific Concept

Chanakya IAS Academy

Chanakya IAS Academy stands out from the crowd in imparting the best coaching for civil services exam....

Subject: International Relations Paper: Gs Paper 2 China Dismisses Indo- Pacific Concept As Speculation The News: China dismissed as speculation reports about the US and Japan floating a strategic concept of a "free and open" Indo-Pacific region, a phrase which a US official earlier... read more
Subject: International Relations
Paper: Gs Paper 2
                China Dismisses Indo- Pacific Concept As Speculation
The News:
  • China dismissed as speculation reports about the US and Japan floating a strategic concept of a "free and open" Indo-Pacific region, a phrase which a US official earlier said highlights the rise of India.
  • During the summit  Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and US President Donald Trump has reached an agreement on the strategic concept of building a free and open Indo-Pacific region are "gas and speculation”.
  • Later this week, President Trump embarks on a 12-day visit to Japan, South Korea, China, Vietnam and Philippines. However, Donald Trump will not be visiting India this time.
  • On November 5, the Trump administration defended the use of the "Indo-Pacific" phrase instead of "Asia Pacific", saying it captures the importance of the rise of India with which the US has strong and growing ties.
Indo- Pacific:
  • The term “Indo-Pacific” has gained currency in recent times, largely due to statements regarding the United States’ Rebalance to Asia strategy and an acknowledgement of linkage between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • The ‘Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy’ rests on “two oceans” — Indian and Pacific — and “two continents” — Africa and Asia.
Indo- Pacific Strategy Of Japan:
  • The new concept, “Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy” that aims to prepare Japan to deal with the fast changing global and regional order and threats from China and North Korea.
  • The new Japanese strategy that will build peace pro-actively, based on “diplomacy that takes a panoramic view of the world map”.
  • The strategy aims to create a “free and open” Asia-Pacific region which connects parts of eastern Africa, south Asia and southeast Asia with the western Pacific Ocean region and Japan.
US Statement
  • The US is still using a 2010 strategic White Paper which indicated that the way to contain China was to use India, in alliance with the Philippines, Australia, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea as part of a containment strategy.
  • On November 5, the Trump administration defended the use of the "Indo-Pacific" phrase instead of "Asia Pacific", saying it captures the importance of the rise of India with which the US has strong and growing ties.
India’s Status:
  • As far as India is concerned, this linkage between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific traversing the waters of Southeast Asia is nothing new.
  • India’s approach to the region is exemplified by its evolving Look East Policy, beginning with economic engagement with Southeast Asia and now expanding to strategic cooperation beyond Southeast Asia.
  • In 2004, the Indian Maritime Doctrine alluded to “the shift in global maritime focus from the Atlantic-Pacific combine to the Pacific-Indian”.
  • Therefore, beyond the Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific has for some time now been identified as falling within the ambit of India's security interests.
China’s Statement:
  • "I think that whatever concept or term is employed, we must by no means lose sight of such an objective fact: this region has grown into the most vibrant region with the greatest potential in the world and serves as a major engine for global economic growth," Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying said, adding that maintaining the peace, stability and prosperity of this region is of great significance to the whole world.
  • We hope that the Asia-Pacific region can become a stable, prosperous and orderly region where consensus can be reached through consultation and where we are capable of managing differences and have the wisdom to resolve the disputes, she said.
Conclusion:
  • Indo-Pacific is still finding its feet in the practice of world politics. For the American policymakers, Indo-Pacific seems to be an attempt to integrate India in an Asian architecture that seeks to serve US interests.
  • The Indian side, however, has welcomed the concept because it provides space for India to follow its strategic autonomy. India can continue to engage with countries all across in flexible interactions and not form alliances. Indo-Pacific concept allows India to be a direct stakeholder rather than being an alliance partner of the US.
  • Thus, India can take foreign policy decisions that sit in consonance with its national interests.
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Lesson Posted on 02/03/2017 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

IAS Examination Geography Optional Test Discussion

Saurabh sharma

I am a Home Tutor. He conducts classes in Class I-V Tuition and Nursery-KG Tuition. I located in South...

Online video lectures only for students https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSJuBpuEqd8&t=437s
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Answered on 17/03/2017 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching

Siddhartha singh Chandel

Expert Trainer

Basically It takes 4 months. You have to go through NCERT from class 6 to 12. Also you need to read at least 9 months to read The Hindu and Indian express newspapers.
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Lesson Posted on 25/01/2017 Exam Coaching/Government Exams Coaching/Staff Selection Commission Exam Exam Coaching/IBPS Exam Coaching Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching +1 Exam Coaching/UPSC Exams Coaching/Civil Services (Mains) Coaching less

Debit & Credit - Basic Concepts & Tricks

EduAngel

Debits and Credits After you have identified the two or more accounts involved in a business transaction, you must debit at least one account and credit at least one account.To debit an account means to enter an amount on the left side of the account. To credit an account means to enter an amount on... read more

Debits and Credits

After you have identified the two or more accounts involved in a business transaction, you must debit at least one account and credit at least one account.
To debit an account means to enter an amount on the left side of the account. To credit an account means to enter an amount on the right side of an account.

Generally, these types of accounts are increased with a debit: Dividends (Draws) ,Expenses,Assets,Losses.

You might think of D - E - A - L when recalling the accounts that are increased with a debit.

Generally, these types of accounts are increased with a credit: Gains, Income, Revenues, Liabilities , Stockholders' (Owners) Equity.

You might think of G - I - R - L - S when recalling the accounts that are increased with a credit.

  • To decrease an account you do the opposite of what was done to increase the account. For example, an asset account is increased with a debit. Therefore it is decreased with a credit.

The abbreviation for debit is dr. and the abbreviation for credit is cr.

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