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Lesson Posted on 15 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science

Charge (electric charge)

Sudhansu Bhushan R.

I am teaching Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics for Class - IX and class X in respect of I.C.S.E.,...

Charge (electric charge) In physics, charge, also known as electric charge, electrical charge, or electrostatic charge and symbolized q, is a characteristic of a unit of matter that expresses the extent to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons. In atoms, the electron carries a negative... read more

Charge (electric charge)

 

In physics, charge, also known as electric charge, electrical charge, or electrostatic charge and symbolized q, is a characteristic of a unit of matter that expresses the extent to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons. In atoms, the electron carries a negative elementary or unit charge; the proton carries a positive charge. The two types of charge are equal and opposite.

In an atom of matter, an electrical charge occurs whenever the number of protons in the nucleus differs from the number of electrons surrounding that nucleus. If there are more electrons than protons, the atom has a negative charge. If there are fewer electrons than protons, the atom has a positive charge. The amount of charge carried by an atom is always a multiple of the elementary charge, that is, the charge carried by a single electron or a single proton. A particle, atom, or object with negative charge is said to have negative electric polarity; a particle, atom, or object with positive charge is said to have positive electric polarity.

In an object comprised of many atoms, the net charge is equal to the arithmetic sum, taking polarity into account, of the charges of all the atoms taken together. In a massive sample, this can amount to a considerable quantity of elementary charges. The unit of electrical charge in the International System of Units is the coulomb (symbolized C), where 1 C is equal to approximately 6.24 x 1018 elementary charges. It is not unusual for real-world objects to hold charges of many coulombs.

An electric field, also called an electrical field or an electrostatic field, surrounds any object that has charge. The electric field strength at any given distance from an object is directly proportional to the amount of charge on the object. Near any object having a fixed electric charge, the electric field strength diminishes in proportion to the square of the distance from the object (that is, it obeys the inverse square law).

When two objects having electric charge are brought into each other's vicinity, an electrostatic force is manifested between them. (This force is not to be confused with electromotive force, also known as voltage.) If the electric charges are of the same polarity, the electrostatic force is repulsive. If the electric charges are of opposite polarity, the electrostatic force is ractive. In free space (a vacuum), if the charges on the two nearby objects in coulombs are q1 and q2 and the centers of the objects are separated by a distance r in meters, the net force F between the objects, in newtons, is given by the following formula:

F = (q1q2) / (4or2)

where o is the permittivity of free space, a physical constant, and  is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, a dimensionless mathematical constant. A positive net force is repulsive, and a negative net force is attractive. This relation is known as Coulomb's law.

 

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Lesson Posted on 15 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science

Charge (electric charge)

Sudhansu Bhushan R.

I am teaching Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics for Class - IX and class X in respect of I.C.S.E.,...

Charge (electric charge) In physics, charge, also known as electric charge, electrical charge, or electrostatic charge and symbolized q, is a characteristic of a unit of matter that expresses the extent to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons. In atoms, the electron carries a negative... read more

Charge (electric charge)

 

In physics, charge, also known as electric charge, electrical charge, or electrostatic charge and symbolized q, is a characteristic of a unit of matter that expresses the extent to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons. In atoms, the electron carries a negative elementary or unit charge; the proton carries a positive charge. The two types of charge are equal and opposite.

In an atom of matter, an electrical charge occurs whenever the number of protons in the nucleus differs from the number of electrons surrounding that nucleus. If there are more electrons than protons, the atom has a negative charge. If there are fewer electrons than protons, the atom has a positive charge. The amount of charge carried by an atom is always a multiple of the elementary charge, that is, the charge carried by a single electron or a single proton. A particle, atom, or object with negative charge is said to have negative electric polarity; a particle, atom, or object with positive charge is said to have positive electric polarity.

In an object comprised of many atoms, the net charge is equal to the arithmetic sum, taking polarity into account, of the charges of all the atoms taken together. In a massive sample, this can amount to a considerable quantity of elementary charges. The unit of electrical charge in the International System of Units is the coulomb (symbolized C), where 1 C is equal to approximately 6.24 x 1018 elementary charges. It is not unusual for real-world objects to hold charges of many coulombs.

An electric field, also called an electrical field or an electrostatic field, surrounds any object that has charge. The electric field strength at any given distance from an object is directly proportional to the amount of charge on the object. Near any object having a fixed electric charge, the electric field strength diminishes in proportion to the square of the distance from the object (that is, it obeys the inverse square law).

When two objects having electric charge are brought into each other's vicinity, an electrostatic force is manifested between them. (This force is not to be confused with electromotive force, also known as voltage.) If the electric charges are of the same polarity, the electrostatic force is repulsive. If the electric charges are of opposite polarity, the electrostatic force attract each other . In free space (a vacuum), if the charges on the two nearby objects in coulombs are q1 and q2 and the centers of the objects are separated by a distance r in meters, the net force F between the objects, in newtons, is given by the following formula:

F = (q1q2) / (4or2)

where o is the permittivity of free space, a physical constant, and  is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, a dimensionless mathematical constant. A positive net force is repulsive, and a negative net force attract each other. This relation is known as Coulomb's law.

 

harge (electric charge)

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Lesson Posted on 15 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science

What is Nuclear Power

Sudhansu Bhushan R.

I am teaching Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics for Class - IX and class X in respect of I.C.S.E.,...

What is Nuclear Power Nuclear power is a clean and efficient way of boiling water to make steam, which turns turbines to produce electricity. Except for the reactor itself, nuclear power stations work like most coal or gas-fired power stations. Nuclear power plants use low-enriched uranium fuel to... read more

What is Nuclear Power

Nuclear power is a clean and efficient way of boiling water to make steam, which turns turbines to produce electricity. Except for the reactor itself, nuclear power stations work like most coal or gas-fired power stations.

Nuclear power plants use low-enriched uranium fuel to produce electricity through a process called fission—the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor. Uranium fuel consists of small, hard ceramic pellets that are packaged into long, vertical tubes. Bundles of this fuel are inserted into the reactor.

A single uranium pellet, slightly larger than a pencil eraser, contains the same energy as a ton of coal, 3 barrels of oil, or 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas. Each uranium fuel pellet provides up to five years of heat for power generation. And because uranium is one of the world’s most abundant metals, it can provide fuel for the world’s commercial nuclear plants for generations to come.

Nuclear power offers many benefits for the environment as well. Power plants don’t burn any materials so they produce no combustion by-products. Additionally, because they don’t produce greenhouse gases, nuclear plants help protect air quality and mitigate climate change.

When it comes to efficiency and reliability, no other electricity source can match nuclear. Nuclear power plants can continuously generate large-scale, around-the-clock electricity for many months at a time, without interruption.

Currently, nuclear energy supplies 12 percent of the world's electricity and approximately 20 percent of the energy in the United States. As of 2014, a total of 30 countries worldwide are operating 435 nuclear reactors for electricity generation.

For decades, GE and Hitachi have been at the forefront of nuclear technology, setting the industry benchmark for reactor architecture and construction, and most importantly, helping utility customers operate their plants safely and reliably.

 

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Lesson Posted on 13 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science/Chemical Reactions and Equations

Number of Electron in each shell of an atom

Sudhansu Bhushan R.

I am teaching Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics for Class - IX and class X in respect of I.C.S.E.,...

Number of Electron in each shell Shell name Subshell name Subshell max electrons Shell max electrons K 1s 2 2 L 2s 2 2 + 6 = 8 2p 6 M 3s 2 2 + 6 + 10 = 18 3p 6 3d 10 N 4s 2 2... read more

Number of Electron in each shell

 

Shell
name

Subshell
name

Subshell
max
electrons

Shell
max
electrons

K

1s

2

2

L

2s

2

2 + 6 = 8

2p

6

M

3s

2

2 + 6 + 10
= 18

3p

6

3d

10

N

4s

2

2 + 6 +
+ 10 + 14
= 32

4p

6

4d

10

4f

14

Each subshell is constrained to hold 4â?? + 2 electrons at most, namely:

  • Each s subshell holds at most 2 electrons
  • Each p subshell holds at most 6 electrons
  • Each d subshell holds at most 10 electrons
  • Each f subshell holds at most 14 electrons
  • Each g subshell holds at most 18 electrons

Therefore, the K shell, which contains only an s subshell, can hold up to 2 electrons; the L shell, which contains an s and a p, can hold up to 2 + 6 = 8 electrons, and so forth; that's why nth shell can hold up to 2n2 electrons.[1]

 

Note :Red colour indicates that the electron configuration of these elements are violating the Aufbau Rule.

 

 

 

List of elements with electrons configuration :

Z

Element

No. of electrons/shell

Group

1

Hydrogen

1

1

2

Helium

2

18

3

Lithium

2, 1

1

4

Beryllium

2, 2

2

5

Boron

2, 3

13

6

Carbon

2, 4

14

7

Nitrogen

2, 5

15

8

Oxygen

2, 6

16

9

Fluorine

2, 7

17

10

Neon

2, 8

18

11

Sodium

2, 8, 1

1

12

Magnesium

2, 8, 2

2

13

Aluminium

2, 8, 3

13

14

Silicon

2, 8, 4

14

15

Phosphorus

2, 8, 5

15

16

Sulfur

2, 8, 6

16

17

Chlorine

2, 8, 7

17

18

Argon

2, 8, 8

18

19

Potassium

2, 8, 8, 1

1

20

Calcium

2, 8, 8, 2

2

21

Scandium

2, 8, 9, 2

3

22

Titanium

2, 8, 10, 2

4

23

Vanadium

2, 8, 11, 2

5

24

Chromium

2, 8, 13, 1

6

25

Manganese

2, 8, 13, 2

7

26

Iron

2, 8, 14, 2

8

27

Cobalt

2, 8, 15, 2

9

28

Nickel

2, 8, 16, 2

10

29

Copper

2, 8, 18, 1

11

30

Zinc

2, 8, 18, 2

12

31

Gallium

2, 8, 18, 3

13

32

Germanium

2, 8, 18, 4

14

33

Arsenic

2, 8, 18, 5

15

34

Selenium

2, 8, 18, 6

16

35

Bromine

2, 8, 18, 7

17

36

Krypton

2, 8, 18, 8

18

37

Rubidium

2, 8, 18, 8, 1

1

38

Strontium

2, 8, 18, 8, 2

2

39

Yttrium

2, 8, 18, 9, 2

3

40

Zirconium

2, 8, 18, 10, 2

4

41

Niobium

2, 8, 18, 12, 1

5

42

Molybdenum

2, 8, 18, 13, 1

6

43

Technetium

2, 8, 18, 13, 2

7

44

Ruthenium

2, 8, 18, 15, 1

8

45

Rhodium

2, 8, 18, 16, 1

9

46

Palladium

2, 8, 18, 18

10

47

Silver

2, 8, 18, 18, 1

11

48

Cadmium

2, 8, 18, 18, 2

12

49

Indium

2, 8, 18, 18, 3

13

50

Tin

2, 8, 18, 18, 4

14

51

Antimony

2, 8, 18, 18, 5

15

52

Tellurium

2, 8, 18, 18, 6

16

53

Iodine

2, 8, 18, 18, 7

17

54

Xenon

2, 8, 18, 18, 8

18

55

Caesium

2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1

1

56

Barium

2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2

2

57

Lanthanum

2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2

 

58

Cerium

2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2

 

59

Praseodymium

2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2

 

60

Neodymium

2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2

 

61

Promethium

2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2

 

62

Samarium

2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2

 

63

Europium

2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2

 

64

Gadolinium

2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2

 

65

Terbium

2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2

 

66

Dysprosium

2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2

 

67

Holmium

2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2

 

68

Erbium

2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2

 

69

Thulium

2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2

 

70

Ytterbium

2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2

 

71

Lutetium

2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2

3

72

Hafnium

2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2

4

73

Tantalum

2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2

5

74

Tungsten

2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2

6

75

Rhenium

2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2

7

76

Osmium

2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2

8

77

Iridium

2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2

9

78

Platinum

2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1

10

79

Gold

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1

11

80

Mercury

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2

12

81

Thallium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3

13

82

Lead

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4

14

83

Bismuth

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5

15

84

Polonium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6

16

85

Astatine

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7

17

86

Radon

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8

18

87

Francium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1

1

88

Radium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2

2

89

Actinium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2

 

90

Thorium

2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2

 

91

Protactinium

2, 8, 18, 32, 20, 9, 2

 

92

Uranium

2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2

 

93

Neptunium

2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2

 

94

Plutonium

2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2

 

95

Americium

2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2

 

96

Curium

2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2

 

97

Berkelium

2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2

 

98

Californium

2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2

 

99

Einsteinium

2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2

 

100

Fermium

2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2

 

101

Mendelevium

2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2

 

102

Nobelium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2

 

103

Lawrencium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 1 (?)

3

104

Rutherfordium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 (?)

4

105

Dubnium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11, 2 (?)

5

106

Seaborgium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12, 2 (?)

6

107

Bohrium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13, 2 (?)

7

108

Hassium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14, 2 (?)

8

109

Meitnerium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2 (?)

9

110

Darmstadtium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (?)

10

111

Roentgenium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1 (?)

11

112

Copernicium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 2 (?)

12

113

Ununtrium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 3 (?)

13

114

Flerovium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4 (?)

14

115

Ununpentium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 (?)

15

116

Livermorium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 6 (?)

16

117

Ununseptium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 7 (?)

17

118

Ununoctium

2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 (?)

18

 

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Lesson Posted on 13 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science

CHEMISTRY Introduction CH 1 Chemical Reactions

Sonu Sharma

I teach at my home. I provide students with regular Tests, Sample Board Exam type papers prepared from...

INTRODUCTION: PHYSICAL CHANGE CHEMICAL CHANGE Processes in which no new chemical substances are formed are called physical changes. Example: 1. Melting of ice 2. Evaporation of water Processes in which a new chemical substance with different properties... read more

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

PHYSICAL CHANGE

CHEMICAL CHANGE

Processes in which no new chemical substances are formed are called physical changes.  

 

Example:

1.      Melting of ice

2.      Evaporation of water

Processes in which a new chemical substance with different properties is formed are called physical changes.  

Example:

1.      Rusting of iron

2.      Souring of milk in summer

3.      Burning of coke in air

4.      Cooking of food

 

 

  • CHEMICAL REACTION: The process in which new substances with new properties are formed from one or more substances is called Chemical Reaction

 

Examples of Chemical reaction:

  • Digestion of food
  • Respiration
  • Rusting of iron
  • Burning of Magnesium ribbon
  • Formation of curd

 

REACTANT: The substances which take part in a chemical reaction are called Reactants.

  • They are written on the L.H.S (Left Hand Side) with a plus sign (+) between them.

 

PRODUCTS: The substances which are formed in a chemical reaction are called Products.

  • They are written on the R.H.S (Right Hand Side) with a plus sign (+) between them.

 

                        2Mg      +     O2    à     2 MgO

 

 

                                             Reactants                          Product

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • CHARACTERISTICS of Chemical reaction

                                    OR

       How can we say that a chemical reaction has taken place?

 

The observable changes that take place in a chemical reaction are called characteristics of a chemical reaction. Such changes help us to identify whether a chemical reaction has taken place OR not. 

 

  • Change in state – Some chemicals reaction occurs with a change in state of the reactants.

 

Ex: SOLID wax burns to from a water vapour and carbon dioxide which are gaseous.

 

  • Change in colour - – Some chemical reactions are accompanied with a change in colour.

 

Ex:

  1. Reaction between Lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 and Potassium iodide (KI)

Lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 and Potassium iodide (KI) are initially colourless but on mixing the two a YELLOW precipitate of LEAD IODIDE is formed.  

 

 

  • Change in temperature

 

Ex:

When water is added to quick lime (CaO), taken in a beaker, slaked lime Ca(OH)2, is formed and the beaker is found to be warm.

 

 

  • Evolution of gas

 

Ex:

  1. When Zinc pieces (Zn) are added to dilute sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid, hydrogen (H2) gas is evolved.
  2. When Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is heated it decomposes into Calcium oxide (CaO) with the evolution of carbon dioxide gas (CO2).

 

  • Formation of a precipitate

Some chemical reactions are accompanied by the formation of a precipitate.

 

Ex:

  1. In the reaction between Lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 and Potassium iodide (KI) a YELLOW precipitate of LEAD IODIDE is formed.
  2. When BARIUM CHLORIDE (BaCl2) solution is mixed with SODIUM SULPHATE Na2SO4 a WHITE precipitate of BARIUM SULPHATE BaSO4 is formed.
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Lesson Posted on 05 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science

Electrochemistry

Phoenix Edu Solutions

Excellent coaching center for Engineering and Diploma highly expertise faculty in core subjects. Best...

Electrochemistry: Introduction: Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of interconvertion of Electrical energy into chemical energy and vice varsa. Interconvertion of energies takes place through a redox reaction. Electrochemical Cells: Electrochemical Cell is a device... read more

Electrochemistry:

Introduction: Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of interconvertion of Electrical energy into chemical energy and vice varsa. Interconvertion of energies takes place through a redox reaction.

Electrochemical Cells: Electrochemical Cell is a device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy and electrical energy into chemical energy.

Types of Electrochemical Cell: There are two types of electrochemical cell.

i) Galvanic Cell: - A Galvanic cell is a device in which the chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. Ex: Dry cell, Pb-Acid cell, Ni-Cd cell etc…

ii) Electrolytic Cell: - It is a device in which electrical energy is converted into chemical energy. Ex: Nelson’s cell, Down’s cell etc….

Construction of Galvanic Cell:- A Daniel cell is an example of galvanic cell. It consists of two container , one which is with a Zinc rod dipped in Zinc Sulphate solution. The other hand with a Copper rod dipped in Copper Sulphate solution and each electrode is known as half cell. These two electrodes are connected internally by Salt bridge and externally connected through a voltmeter using metallic wire. The Daniel cell is based on the Redox reaction.

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Lesson Posted on 03 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science/Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical Reactions and Equation

Arbeit Buk

IITians and experienced faculties smart classroom. study material is provided . Fee can be paid in...

Let us balance the following chemical equation – Fe + H2O → Fe3O4 + H2 Step I: To balance oxygen atoms, we can put coefficient ‘4’ as 4H2O Step II: Let us balance hydrogen atoms as 4H2 in the partly balanced equation. Step III: To equalise Fe, we take three atoms of Fe... read more

Let us balance the following chemical equation –

Fe + H2O → Fe3O4 + H2

 

 

Step I: To balance oxygen atoms, we can put coefficient ‘4’ as 4H2O

Step II: Let us balance hydrogen atoms as 4H2 in the partly balanced equation.

Step III: To equalise Fe, we take three atoms of Fe on the LHS.

The numbers of atoms of elements on both sides of being equal. This equation is now balanced.

3Fe + 4H2O → Fe3O4 + 4H2

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Answered on 22 Feb CBSE/Class 10/Science Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition

Describe the developmental stages of human embryo after fertilization.

Kritika G.

Tutor

There are four stages of human embryo after fertilization: 1. Blastocyst Development: Soon after fertilization, the embryo is created from a small group of cells that are constantly dividing inside of a complex structure called the blastocyst. It is formed by two groups of cells, inner and outer cells,... read more

There are four stages of human embryo after fertilization:

1. Blastocyst Development: Soon after fertilization, the embryo is created from a small group of cells that are constantly dividing inside of a complex structure called the blastocyst. It is formed by two groups of cells, inner and outer cells, and fluids. The blastocyst stays inside a protective cover during maturation called zona pellucida, which could be described as an egg shell. The outer cells are located right below this cover, which will create the future placenta and surrounding tissues to support fetal development in the uterus. The inner cells of the blastocyst will become the different tissues and organs of the human body, such as bones, muscles, skin, liver, and heart.

2. Blastocyst Implantation: When the blastocyst reaches the uterus it implants in the endometrium, the mucus membrane which lines the uterus. The external cells of the blastocyst and the uterine inner lining, together, will create the future placenta. The placenta is a structure that transfers nutrients to the baby and removes his/her wastes.

3. Embryo Development: As the blastocyst reaches the final steps in the implantation process into the inner lining of the uterus, it evolves into a structure called an embryo. This is the time when internal organs and external structures develop. The mouth, lower jaw, throat are emerging, while the blood circulation system starts its evolution and a heart tube is created. The ears arise and arms, legs, fingers, toes, and eyes are being shaped. The brain and the spinal cord are already formed, while the digestive tract and sensory organs start their development. The first bones are replacing the cartilage. After ten-twelve weeks of pregnancy, the embryo moves into the final stage of development, a fetus.

4. Fetal Development: By the twelfth week of fertilization the embryo moves into the final stage of development called the fetal stage. By now, the fetus has formed all of the organs and structures necessary for a baby, but those organs still need to grow and develop.

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Answered on 30 Mar CBSE/Class 10/Science Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition

Shivam Singh

Tutor

In simpler words, this is so because an aqueous solution of water has both cations and anions in it. When two different electrodes are immersed in it and potential difference is applied across the electrodes the anions and cations start flowing to their respective electrodes and hence the electricity... read more

In simpler words, this is so because an aqueous solution of water has both cations and anions in it.  When two different electrodes are immersed in it and potential difference is applied across the electrodes the anions and cations start flowing to their respective electrodes and hence the electricity is generated. 

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Answered on 12 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Science Tuition/Class IX-X Tuition

Name two metals which are found in nature in the free state.

Ayush Singh

Biology Wizard

metals which are less reactive like gold silver copper
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