The number system is a foundational concept in mathematics and plays a vital role in various aspects of our daily lives. Whether you're counting, measuring, or performing complex mathematical operations, numbers are always at the core. In this lesson, we'll delve into the world of numbers, exploring their different types and applications.

**I. Types of Numbers:**

**A. Natural Numbers (N):**

- Definition: Natural numbers are the set of positive integers, excluding zero.
- Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

**B. Whole Numbers (W):**

- Definition: Whole numbers include all the natural numbers along with zero.
- Example: 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

**C. Integers (Z):**

- Definition: Integers consist of both positive and negative whole numbers, including zero.
- Example: ..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

**D. Rational Numbers (Q):**

- Definition: Rational numbers are numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers (a/b), where 'a' and 'b' are integers, and 'b' is not zero.
- Example: 1/2, -3/4, 7, 2.5, ...
**E. Irrational Numbers:**- Definition: Irrational numbers cannot be expressed as a simple fraction or ratio. They have non-repeating, non-terminating decimal expansions.
- Example: √2, π (pi), e (Euler's number), ...

**F. Real Numbers (R):**- Definition: Real numbers encompass all rational and irrational numbers. They are located on the real number line.
- Example: All numbers that can be found on the number line.

**II. Number Bases:****A. Decimal Number System (Base-10):**- Definition: In the decimal system, each digit can have 10 possible values (0-9).
- Example: 254 (2
*10^2 + 5*10^1 + 4*10^0)

**B. Binary Number System (Base-2):**- Definition: In the binary system, each digit can have only two values (0 and 1).
- Example: 1011 (1
*2^3 + 0*2^2 + 1*2^1 + 1*2^0)**C. Hexadecimal Number System (Base-16):**- Definition: The hexadecimal system uses 16 possible digits (0-9 and A-F, where A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15).
- Example: 1A3 (1
*16^2 + 10*16^1 + 3*16^0)

**III. Applications of Number Systems:**-
**Computer Science**: Binary is fundamental in computing. It represents the on/off states of electronic components, forming the basis of all computer operations. -
**Engineering**: Different number systems are used in various engineering fields. For example, hexadecimal is commonly used in programming microcontrollers. -
**Mathematics**: Understanding numbers and their properties is crucial in mathematics for solving equations, proofs, and various mathematical operations. -
**Finance**: Real numbers are used in financial calculations, such as interest rates and currency conversions. -
**Science**: Scientific notation, based on powers of ten, is used to express very large or very small numbers in a concise form.