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Biology Query

Subimal Banerjee
08/04/2017 0 0

The mechanism of alternative splicing:

During alternative splicing, cis-acting regulatory elements in the mRNA sequence determine which exons are retained and which exons are spliced out. These cis-acting regulatory elements alter splicing by binding different trans-acting protein factors, such as SR (Serine-Arginine rich) proteins that function as splicing facilitators, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) that suppress splicing. Inhibition of silencing could be achieved sterically, when binding of splicing inhibitors to splicing silencers located in close proximity to splicing enhancers blocks the binding of snRNPs and other activator proteins or prevents the spliceosome assembly.

The final decision to include or splice an alternative exon is thus determined by combinatorial effects, cellular abundance, and competitive binding between SR activators and hnRNP inhibitors. The outcome of alternative splicing depends on the stoichiometry and interactions of splicing activators and inhibitors as well as the steric conformation and accessibility of the splicing sites.

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