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Lesson Posted on 09 Apr Tuition/B Ed Tuition/Basics in Education

Nuclear Energy

M.G.RAGHU R.

I have more than 20 Years of experience in teaching PHYSICS for CBSE, ICSE AND STATE BOARD syllabus....

We get the energy to do all our work in our daily life from different sources. Do you know what the source of energy for the plant life and animal life on our planet is? Yes, you are right! It is the sun which gives out light and heat for all the lifeforms on EARTH. But from where the SUN gets its... read more

We get the energy to do all our work in our daily life from different sources.  Do you know what the source of energy for the plant life and animal life on our planet is? Yes, you are right!  It is the sun which gives out light and heat for all the lifeforms on EARTH. But from where the   SUN  gets its energy?  It is obtained from the atoms present in the sun mainly from HELIUM  and HYDROGEN. The nuclear reactions of the atoms of these two elements continuously produce the necessary energy for the sun to survive for millions of years in the Milky Way Galaxy.  These reactions are called  NUCLEAR FUSION.

In nuclear fusion, two NUCLEI  of HYDROGEN  fuse together to form a HYDROGEN nucleus. A large amount of heat and light energy will be emitted, and that is being radiated into space, in this process.  Our planet earth  receives that  energy  and all the life forms survive.

Before we understand the process of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the sun and distant stars, let us understand the process of a nuclear reaction that takes place in our planet, that is  NUCLEAR FISSION.   

Fission
After the discovery of the neutron. Enrico Fermi found that when neutrons bombard various elements, new radioactive elements are produced. However, when a neutron was bombarded on a uranium target, the uranium nucleus broke into two nearly equal fragments releasing a great amount of energy. An example of such a reaction is

n + U 235  ---> U 236 ---> Ba 144  +  Kr89 + 3n
Fission does not always produce barium and krypton. A different
pair can be produced, for example,
 n  +  U235  ---> U236 --->Sb133 + Nb 99 + 4 n

Still another example is
 n + U235 --->  Xe 140   +  Sr94 +   2 n
The fragment nuclei produced in fission are highly neutron-rich and unstable. They are radioactive and emit beta particles in succession until each reaches a stable end product.
The energy released (the Q value ) in the fission reaction of nuclei like uranium is of the order of 200 MeV per fissioning nucleus.

Energy can be released if two light nuclei combine to form a single larger nucleus, a process called nuclear fusion. Some examples of such energy liberating  reactions are

1H +  1H ---> 1H 2  + e+ v + 0.42 MeV
1H + 1H  ---> 2He + n + 3.27 MeV

To generate a useful amount of energy, nuclear fusion must occur in bulk matter. What is needed is to raise the temperature of the material until the particles have enough energy – due to their thermal motions
alone – to penetrate the Coulomb barrier. This process is called thermonuclear fusion.

Thus, for thermonuclear fusion to take place, extreme conditions of temperature and pressure are required, which are available only in the interiors of stars including the sun. The energy generation in stars takes place via thermonuclear fusion.

In the sun the fusion reaction is a multi-step process in which hydrogen is burned into helium; hydrogen is the ‘fuel’ and helium the ‘ashes’. This is called a proton-proton (p, p) cycle.

The first thermonuclear reaction on earth occurred at Eniwetok Atoll on November 1, 1952, when USA exploded a fusion device, generating energy equivalent to 10 million tons of TNT (one ton of TNT on explosion releases 2.6 × 1022 MeV of energy).
A sustained and controllable source of fusion power is considerably more difficult to achieve. It is being pursued vigorously in many countries around the world (including India) because fusion reactor is regarded as the future power source.

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Yashika Trikha

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Answered on 08 Apr Tuition/B Ed Tuition/Addressing Special Needs in the Classroom

My child seems not interested in her studies, she finds ways to escape school. She's very good at grasping... read more
My child seems not interested in her studies, she finds ways to escape school. She's very good at grasping and orals but very poor in writing. Her hand writing and vocabulary is very poor. She struggles with Maths. Please help! read less

Tanvi Madbhavi

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Nothing will improve unless and until you join a good class for her.
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Answered on 03/08/2017 Tuition/B Ed Tuition

SR-IT Academy

First you have to register then read all terms and conditions. If you become a premium member then you will get enquiries.
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Answered on 17/07/2017 Tuition/B Ed Tuition Tuition/B Ed Tuition/Issues of Conservation and Environmental Regeneration

Shallu S.

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For english u hve to read daily newspaper with a high sound...
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Answered on 08/04/2017 Tuition/B Ed Tuition

Kamlesh Meena

A word used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things (common noun ), or to name a particular one of these (proper noun). A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns, you'll learn the difference... read more
A word used to identify any of a class of people, places, or things (common noun ), or to name a particular one of these (proper noun). A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns, you'll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences. read less
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Shainaz

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Answered on 21/02/2017 Tuition/B Ed Tuition Tuition/B Ed Tuition/Pedagogy of English

Riya B.

English Literature

Dear Nandini, for better writing you must read stories and newspapers as much as possible. Variation of words and collocation of words are also necessary for better writing. You may write down your every day works in a lengthy paragraph and find the relevant mistakes that you would make in the written... read more
Dear Nandini, for better writing you must read stories and newspapers as much as possible. Variation of words and collocation of words are also necessary for better writing. You may write down your every day works in a lengthy paragraph and find the relevant mistakes that you would make in the written sentences. Generally mistakes are done in the usage of Prepositions, Adverbs and clauses, you may find these in a good grammar book. read less
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