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V

Vikas 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The combined width of a slit and a ruling is called -----------------

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Manish 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

In a plane diffraction grating, ? = ------------

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Ravi 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The phenomenon of ---------------- proves that light waves are transverse.

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Kamal 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The plane perpendicular to the plane of vibration is called plane of -----------------

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Avinash 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

A device that produces a plane ------------- light is called polariser.

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Jagabandhu 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The angle of incidence at which the reflected beam is completely plane polarised is angle of ----

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Amit 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The equation for Brewster’s law is ? = ----------------

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A

Abdul 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The polarising angle for glass is -------------------

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A

Aravind 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The pile of plates uses the polarisation by ---------------- phenomenon. 45. The double refraction phenomenon was discovered by ------------------

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Devi 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

Crystals like mica, topaz etc. having two optic axes are called ------------------

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Altaf 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

The refractive index for Canada balsam cement is -------------- for both the rays.

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Manjunath 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

H polaroids use a thin film of ----------------

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Akshay 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

Polaroids are used as ----------------------- glasses

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Aksabanu 01 Jun in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

In an EM wave, the angle between the electric and the magnetic field vectors are at ------------.

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Sanjay 20 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

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Swagata replied | 29 May

a mixture of dyes that changes colour gradually over a range of pH and is used (especially as indicator paper) in testing for acids and alkalis.

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Oasis Gurgaon replied | 29 May

A universal indicator is a solution which undergoes several color changes over a wide range of pH's. The color is used to "indicate" pH directly. Universal indicators are usually mixtures of several indicators.

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Maheshwari 20 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

What is methyl orange? How is it made?

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Kamal replied | 21 May

Methyl orange is a pH indicator frequently used in titrations because of its clear and distinct colour change. Because it changes colour at the pH of a midstrength acid, it is usually used in titrations for acids.

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Swagata replied | 29 May

Methyl orange is an intensely colored compound used in dyeing and printing textiles. It is also known as C.I. Acid Orange 52, C.I. 13025, helianthine B, Orange III, Gold orange, and Tropaeolin D . Chemists use methyl orange as an indicator in the titration of weak bases with strong acids.

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Soumya 20 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

What are some natural acid/base indicators?

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Nimesh replied | 24 May

Many flowers,fruits,vegtables are natural indicators. One such example is rose anthocyanins.

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Swagata replied | 29 May

Many flowers, fruits and vegetables contain chemical substances that change color in solutions of different pH. acid or base natural indicator, such as hibiscus, turmeric, red cabbage, and some other kinds of plants. Many indicators have been extracted from plants.

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Hima 20 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

What household substances can be used as acid/base indicators?

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Jayasimha replied | 20 May

Carrots
Cherries and cherry juice is bright red in acidic solution but purple to blue in basic solution.
Cranberries
Curry powder and tumeric are spices that contain a bright yellow pigment called curcumin (which is not an anthocyanin). It turns from yellow at pH 7.4 to red at pH 8.6.
Delphinium petals contain an anthocyanin called delphinin, which changes from...  more»
Carrots
Cherries and cherry juice is bright red in acidic solution but purple to blue in basic solution.
Cranberries
Curry powder and tumeric are spices that contain a bright yellow pigment called curcumin (which is not an anthocyanin). It turns from yellow at pH 7.4 to red at pH 8.6.
Delphinium petals contain an anthocyanin called delphinin, which changes from bluish red in acid to blue to violet in basic solution.
Red cabbage contains a mixture of anthocyanins and other pigments that indicate a wide range of pH. The photograph at right shows how red cabbage juice changes from deep red at pH 1 to purple at pH 7 to to green at pH 12. At higher pH (13-14) it turns yellow.
Red radish
Rhubarb
Rose petals contain the oxonium salt of cyanin, and they turn blue in basic solution. (The potassium or calcium salt of the same pigment makes cornflowers blue!)
Strawberries
Tea «less

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Swagata replied | 29 May

Here's a partial list of house and garden materials that can be used as acid/base indicators. Notice that most of the materials are derived from plants. Almost any flower, fruit, or plant part that is red, blue, or purple contains a class of chemical compounds called anthocyanins that change color with pH.

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Boyina.bala 20 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

What are some novel ways to use indicators (besides titrations)?

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Jayasimha replied | 20 May

Mood lipstick. Acid-base indicators in the cosmetics change color on application due to skin pH.
Turning "water" to "wine". Add phenolpthalein to a clear dilute NaOH solution.)
Making real wines red. Red wines contain anthocyanins, which are pH indicators. Adjusting the pH of the wine changes its color (and its taste). Welch's grape juice works, too.
Disappearing...  more»
Mood lipstick. Acid-base indicators in the cosmetics change color on application due to skin pH.
Turning "water" to "wine". Add phenolpthalein to a clear dilute NaOH solution.)
Making real wines red. Red wines contain anthocyanins, which are pH indicators. Adjusting the pH of the wine changes its color (and its taste). Welch's grape juice works, too.
Disappearing ink and invisible ink Write a message in colorless phenolthalein. Spray the paper with a dilute NaOH solution and the letters appear in pink.
Demonstrating how an ion exchange column works (see the July 1996 issue of the Journal of Chemical Education for more).
Food coloring
Monitoring swimming pool pH. «less

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Swagata replied | 29 May

Mood lipstick. Acid-base indicators in the cosmetics change color on application due to skin pH.
Turning "water" to "wine". Add phenolpthalein to a clear dilute NaOH solution.)
Making real wines red. Red wines contain anthocyanins, which are pH indicators. Adjusting the pH of the wine changes its color (and its taste). Welch's grape juice works, too.
Disappearing...  more»
Mood lipstick. Acid-base indicators in the cosmetics change color on application due to skin pH.
Turning "water" to "wine". Add phenolpthalein to a clear dilute NaOH solution.)
Making real wines red. Red wines contain anthocyanins, which are pH indicators. Adjusting the pH of the wine changes its color (and its taste). Welch's grape juice works, too.
Disappearing ink and invisible ink Write a message in colorless phenolthalein. Spray the paper with a dilute NaOH solution and the letters appear in pink.
Demonstrating how an ion exchange column works (see the July 1996 issue of the Journal of Chemical Education for more).
Food coloring
Monitoring swimming pool pH.
Soil pH kits.
Demonstrating the electrolysis of water
Making a "voice activated" chemical reaction. (a solution of phenol red in very slightly alkaline water will turn from red to yellow, if you talk to it for a while :) Carbon dioxide from your breath neutralizes the solution and causes the color change. «less

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Laxmi 19 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

Why is atomic number called "Z"? Why is mass number called "A"?

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Nakshatratuitions And replied | 25 May

Index and bases so

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Swagata replied | 29 May

"Atomic number" in German is "Atomzahl", so the Z symbol for atomic number probably comes from "Zahl" (number).

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Vg.manikandan 19 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

How do I know that atoms really exist?

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Jayasimha replied | 19 May

Today, we can not only "see" individual atoms on surfaces- we can also move them from place to place, and build things from them. The strongest evidence for the reality of atoms comes from scanning tunneling microscopy, studies of Brownian motion, and by the remarkably good agreement for experimental estimates of Avogadro's Number.

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Swagata replied | 29 May

In the early years of the twentieth century, atoms were still theoretical entities. Strong circumstantial evidence suggested that atoms existed, but no one had ever actually seen an atom. Today, we can not only "see" individual atoms on surfaces- we can also move them from place to place, and build things from them. The strongest evidence for the reality of atoms comes from scanning...  more»
In the early years of the twentieth century, atoms were still theoretical entities. Strong circumstantial evidence suggested that atoms existed, but no one had ever actually seen an atom. Today, we can not only "see" individual atoms on surfaces- we can also move them from place to place, and build things from them. The strongest evidence for the reality of atoms comes from scanning tunneling microscopy, studies of Brownian motion, and by the remarkably good agreement for experimental estimates of Avogadro's Number.
Scanning tunneling microscopy. Pictures of atoms can be taken by placing the tip of very sharp needle just above a sample surface. A very small voltage is applied to cause electrons to "tunnel" from the tip to the surface. As the tip is dragged over an atom on the surface, more electrons tunnel and the needle is rigged so that the increase in current causes the tip to move up. As the tip is dragged off the atom, the distance between the tip and the surface widens, causing a decrease in current which moves the tip down. The tip height can be monitored to build an image of the actual shape and features of the sample surface on the atomic scale.
Seeing is believing. The STM Image Gallery at IBM's Almaden Research Center contains many pictures of atoms taken with a the scanning tunneling microscope.

Brownian movement. Botanist Robert Brown noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly seventy years later, Albert Einstein explained this "Brownian motion" as the result of bombardment by molecules. His explanation was quantitative; he was able to mathematically estimate the average distance that the particles should be moved over time as a result of molecular bombardment. A few years later Jean Perrin painstakingly measured the displacements of particles of a resin suspended in water; his experimental average displacement was in excellent agreement with Einstein's theoretical prediction.
Avogadro's number. Avogadro's number is the number of molecules in one mole of any compound. There are dozens of different experimental methods for measuring Avogadro's number. All give the same result. The fact that Avogadro's number seems to be independent of any particular method implies that it actually has meaning- and so is strong circumstantial evidence that molecules actually exist. «less

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Shagufta 19 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

How were atomic masses measured before mass spectrometry?

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Swagata replied | 29 May

This useful fact allowed chemists to compare the relative weights of equal volumes of different gases to determine the relative masses of the atoms composing them. They measured atomic weights in terms of atomic mass units (u), where 1 u was equal to one-twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom.

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Shivaji replied | 10 Jun

This useful fact allowed chemists to compare the relative weights of equal volumes of different gases to determine the relative masses of the atoms composing them. They measured atomic weights in terms of atomic mass units (u), where 1 u was equal to one-twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom

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Vishal 19 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

How many excess electrons does an oil droplet contain, given its charge?

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Swagata replied | 29 May

Suppose you wanted to figure out how many Hershey's kisses you get in a one-pound bag. If you knew that one kiss weighed 22.7 g, you could find the number of kisses as
1 kiss
22.7 g 454 g
1 pound = 20 kisses per 1 lb. bag

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Shivaji replied | 10 Jun

charge of -4.8 x 10^(-19) C. Q = ne • -4.8 x 10^(-19) C = n(1.6 x 10^(-19) • n = -4.8 x 10^(-19)/1.6 x 10^(-19) = 3 electrons

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S

Somil 19 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

What indicators change from clear to colored?

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Jayasimha replied | 19 May

Phenolpthalein turns from clear in neutral solution to pink in alkaline solution.

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Swagata replied | 29 May

Phenolpthalein turns from clear in neutral solution to pink in alkaline solution. An old trick is to pour a phenolpthalein solution into a cup containing a little sodium hydroxide; the result is an apparent transformation of 'water' into 'wine'.

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R

Ravikumar 18 May in  IIT JEE Coaching classes

How do you find the number of neutrons in an atom?

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Jayasimha replied | 19 May

If you know the mass number and atomic number of the atom, the number of neutrons is just the difference between them. For example, in a carbon-13 atom, the atomic number is six and the mass number is thirteen, so the number of neutrons is seven.

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Swagata replied | 29 May

If you know the mass number and atomic number of the atom, the number of neutrons is just the difference between them.

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