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What is the difference between pass by value and pass by reference in C++?

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The difference between pass-by-reference and pass-by-value is that modifications made to arguments passed in by reference in the called function have effect in the calling function, whereas modifications made to arguments passed in by value in the called function can not affect the calling function.

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The main difference between pass by value and pass by reference is that, in a pass by value, the parameter value copies to another variable while, in a pass by reference, the actual parameter passes to the function.

Computer Science Faculty with 18 years of teaching C++ language

These two types of user-defined functions have a different way of dealing with data. In Call by value function, the main() code and the function maintain separate copies of the same variable in the memory, beacause of which any change in the variable value in the function will not change the value of...
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These two types of user-defined functions have a different way of dealing with data. In Call by value function, the main() code and the function maintain separate copies of the same variable in the memory, beacause of which any change in the variable value in the function will not change the value of the same variable in the main code unless it is returned back.

While, in the Call by reference function, both the main() code and the function refer to the memory address of the same variable. Hence any change in the value of the variable reflects the change for both, permanently. 

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