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Lesson Posted on 28 Mar Functional Training/Payroll Training Tuition/BBA Tuition/Human Resource Management

Budget Changes April 2018-2019 -80DDB , 80TTA , 80TTB

Yog Praveen

I provide online Training on Hr & Payroll Management (Payroll software). 100 % interview based training. Material:...

80DDB It has been suggested to make the amendments in the provisions of section 80DDB of the Act to raise this monetary limit of deduction to Rs 1 lakh for both senior citizens and very senior citizens. This amendment will be effective, from April 1, 2019, and will, accordingly, apply about the assessment... read more

80DDB

It has been suggested to make the amendments in the provisions of section 80DDB of the Act to raise this monetary limit of deduction to Rs 1 lakh for both senior citizens and very senior citizens.

This amendment will be effective, from April 1, 2019, and will, accordingly, apply about the assessment year 2019-20 and subsequent assessment years.

The list of specified diseases covered in the section is available in Rule 11-DD of Income-tax Rules. Some of them include neurological diseases, AIDS, malignant cancers, and haematological disorders.

80TTA

Interest on savings bank but interest on FDs, Post Office and Cooperative Society is also to be covered.

80TTB

The government has removed senior citizens from the ambit of 80TTA and added under a new Section 80TTB. This section provides deduction up to Rs. 50,000 /- in interest on income from deposits in banks, cooperative society and post office for senior citizens.

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Lesson Posted on 06 Mar Tuition/BBA Tuition/Micro and Macro Economics CBSE/Class 11/Commerce/Economics Tuition/BCom Tuition/Micro & Macro Economics +1 CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Economics less

ELASTICITY of demand

Manik

Teaching 11-12 Economics since 4 years Graduate level since 2 years Study materials ,notes and other...

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Lesson Posted on 07 Feb Tuition/BBA Tuition/Mathematics

Topic: Critical Thinking In Social Sciences

Velmurugan K S

I am a associate professor in economics & director of a pg center( autonomous). I have rich teaching...

Critical thinking is the need of the hour. Be it Economics, Business, Commerce, distribution, as well as in marketing & in showcasing your " stuff", be it whatever discipline, more so in humanistic pursuits like Economics, theory as well applied, Banking, Monetary and even in Intenational Monetary... read more

Critical thinking is the need of the hour. Be it Economics, Business, Commerce, distribution, as well as in marketing & in showcasing your " stuff", be it whatever discipline, more so in humanistic pursuits like Economics, theory as well applied, Banking, Monetary and even in Intenational Monetary aspects like IMF, World bank, Nafta, Safta and Comecon trade groups. Rivalaries, Globalisation paradigms, shift to insular, unipolar global outr each like today Trump's US economy, as well in application sciences like pure Mathematics, Mathematical reasoning, applied statistical tools of analyses from simple multiple or multivariate regression tecniques to anovaand to manova techniques to simulation to synegies, symbiotic relationships, and modern mulivariables, multi layer analyses like spectral analyses etc. All argument considerable expertise beyond the "books" and model specific ones to new hybrid cloned systems.

There may be different ways for students to equip themselves:

1) Strong theoretical, empirirical as well field tested diagnoses. Whatever be your field or study. If you really want to excell in it.

2) Willing to try new risky ideas & premises which may form or reintepret the established theories or doctrines or dogmas.

3) Willing to deep study on it professionally like Ph.D, post doctoral research or do a D.Sc etc.

4) Wholehearted committment and may need good financial support from other members of the family.

5 ) Must get fellowships or assistanceships. Available in foreign universites? Autonomous institutes & in India to

To be continued..

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Lesson Posted on 07 Feb Tuition/BBA Tuition/Fundamentals of Accounting Tuition/BCom Tuition/Financial Accounting

Accounting Basics

Khevana S.

I am a qualified teacher with good teaching experience. I can teach each and every topics very easily...

Accounting Equation : Assets = Liabilities + Capital (Equity) Important points to remember for journal entries: If value of assets increases, assets account will be debited. If value of assets decreases, assets account will be credited. If value of liabilities increases,liabilities account will... read more

Accounting Equation :

Assets = Liabilities + Capital (Equity)

Important points to remember for journal entries:

  • If value of assets increases, assets account will be debited.
  • If value of assets decreases, assets account will be credited.
  • If value of liabilities increases,liabilities account will be credited.
  • If value of liabilities decreases,liabilities account will be debited.
  • All incomes / gains are credited.
  • All expenses / losses are debited.

Three types of accounts:

i. Personal (Natural person, artificail person or representative of person).

ii. Real (tangble real (includes all assets) & intangible real).

iii. Nominal (all accounts having a name like rent ac named on type of expense): All incomes & expenses fall under this category.

Please note that as soon as a prefix (prepaid) or suffix (outstanding) attaches to an account, it becomes a  personal account.

Three Golden rules of accounting:

i. Personal Account: Debit the receiver, Credit the giver.

ii. Real Account: Debit what comes in, Credit what goes out.

iii. Nominal Account: Debit all expenses, Credit all incomes.

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Lesson Posted on 01 Feb Tuition/MBA Tuition Tuition/BBA Tuition Functional Training/Business Analysis Training

People Preparing For Case Discussion Or Guesstimate Can Go Through This Crucial Point

Sujoy D.

1. Strong concept building classes. 2. Weekly tests in weak areas for students to improve their confidence. 3....

The focus of this session is to bring to your notice case solving skills so that you can incorporate them from the very start of your preparation. The following are the skills which would be explained further: 1. Asking Preliminary Questions. 2. Having and Conveying an Overall Strategy & Sub-Strategies. 3.... read more

The focus of this session is to bring to your notice case solving skills so that you can incorporate them from the very start of your preparation.

The following are the skills which would be explained further:

1. Asking Preliminary Questions.

2. Having and Conveying an Overall Strategy & Sub-Strategies.

3. Problem Isolation Tools:

  • Segmentation.

  • Company Specific or Industry wide issue.

  • Hypothesis driven approach.

4. Improving Drill Speed (If there are 4 possible causes to a problem, knowing how to assign priority to the investigation process to reach the solution faster).

  • Using the 80/20 rule.

  • Benchmarking with competition.

  • Using Business insights.

1. Asking Preliminary Questions: You’re given a problem statement like “Client ABC which is part of the X industry has lost 20%  profits, please suggest recommendations to turnaround the problem”. The next thing to do is ask some preliminary questions. This is the most underestimated part of the case interview. Its importance cannot be stressed enough.

Preliminary questions help you to scope out the problem, setting the boundary walls in which analysis needs to be done. It also enables you to get a ‘look and feel’ of your client’s company. At the same time it communicates to the interviewer that you're thinking of the different angles to the problems and are checking what needs to be done. Here are different types of preliminary  questions to ask:

i) Clarifying the objectives: In standard profitability cases, usually, there is little ambiguity like "Our client is an electronics manufacturing company. You are hired to find out why our profits in the mobile division have decreased by 20% in the last year". However there are ambiguous questions also for example, "Our client is an electronics manufacturing company with a sales stagnation issue in its mobile division. Find out what is happening". There are several ambiguities here. Sales could mean revenues or #units sold. You don’t know what  are the different divisions of the company and if the mobile division’s sales can be treated and  analysed independently. You’re not sure of why stagnation of profits is even a problem, because at  the end of the day the company is still profitable. These can be good questions to ask:

  • What are the different divisions of the company?

  • Do I have to look at stagnation in the mobile division only?

  • How much were our sales growing by earlier, since when has there been stagnation?

  • Why is stagnation of sales even a problem?(Did the company expect them to keep growing, why didit have this expectation.)

  • By sales do you mean revenue or #units sold?

A typical market entry case statement looks like this, "Our client is X company and they are wondering if they should enter the Y market? This is a very ambiguous question. The problem here is that the decision to enter Y market can be based on different reasons such as:

  • Client’s ability to capture a market share target in the first year.

  • Client’s ability to achieve a profit target in the first two years.

  • Strategic reasons (long term profit); Example- Amazon entered the e-reading market through Kindle even though it was a zero profit venture. The price of Kindle was so low that they were just breaking even. The strategic reason for entering the e-reading market was so that they can push sales of their digital books.

A good clarifying question to ask to find out what an interesting market means according to the client is:

a) “What metric should we use to decide if we should enter the market or not?”

b) “Is there any reason why the company is considering market Y in particular?”

ii) Understanding Client’s company:

1. Product

2. Geography

3. Value chain

This is a simple value chain:
Production --> Distribution --> Retailing
It is useful to know upfront which part of the value chain the company operates in as it better helps you figure out what the company can control and what it can’t. Together-product, geography and value chain-give you a good ‘look and feel’ of the company, makes it easy for you to visualize the company and puts you in a comfortable spot to analyze the rest of the case.

2. Having and conveying overall strategies: After asking the requisite preliminary questions to understand the problem statement and the  Client’s company, you must proceed by laying out the Overall Strategy to solve the case. Typically, it is simply a breakdown of the case into simpler parts, the analysis of which will help you  give direction to the subsequent parts you are tackling and eventually to the final recommendations.

Example : Let’s say there is a market entry case about introducing a luxury car in the Indian market. After asking the requisite preliminary questions, you can state your overall strategy as follows: “First, I will estimate the potential profits that can be made in the Indian market for the Car. After establishing that this will be a sufficiently profitable venture for Company, I will find out the feasibility of setting up the entire value chain. Finally, we can discuss the potential challenges after which I will give my final recommendation to the client.”

3. Problem Isolation tools:

i) Segmentation: Segmentation is breaking a problem into smaller, simpler parts.
Example: Narrowing down the broad problem of “Revenues guitar sales is down by 10%” to a  specific problem of “sales having declined of the electric guitar segment due to a production issue”. Segmentation can be done in different MECE (Mutually Exclusive & Comprehensively Exhaustive) ways:

  • Geography.

  • Value chain.

  • Product parameter: (Color, Price, Size).

  • Distribution channels.

Segmentation should be such that:

a) Segmentation is Simple: We will explain this through an example. Let’s say for a particular case, we want to segment the  fuel transportation cost of trucks. This is the complicated way of segmenting all at once.

Transport Cost= (#Trucks) x (#Trips per Truck) x (Distance travelled per trip)/ (Avg. mileage) x (Cost of fuel)

While the above segmentation is correct, here is a simpler way of doing the same segmentation,

Transport Cost= (#Trucks) x (Cost per Truck)

= (#Trucks) x (#Trips per Truck) x (Cost per Trip)
= (#Trucks) x (#Trips per Truck) x (Fuel per Trip) x (Cost of fuel)
= (#Trucks) x (#Trips per Truck) x (Distance travelled per trip)/ (Avg. mileage) x (Cost of fuel)

b) Segmentation is Reasonable: When segmenting why Guitar Sales are down, unless there is sound  logic it would not be reasonable to segment guitar sales by gender of customers.

c) Information of component parts is easily obtainable It’s better to break down monthly revenue of a coffee shop as,

Monthly revenue= (#Transactions in a month) x (Spend per transaction); instead of

Monthly revenue= (#Unique Customers per month) x (#Transaction per customer) x (Spend per Transaction)

Since it’s difficult to keep track of #Unique Customers but easier to keep track of #Transactions and Spend per transaction. Unless knowing #Unique Customers is crucial to your analysis avoid segmenting that way. Also notice that the former segmentation is ‘Simpler’ than the latter. How to use Segmentation? Ask “What has changed” within the segments.

Candidates when segmenting often lose track of why they are segmenting. Suppose if profits have changed (reduced), then something somewhere has gone wrong or changed to cause the change in profits. By segmenting we are trying to get at what specifically has "changed". So it’s important to  not only segment but also ask "What has changed?".

For example: Let’s say profit margins (Profit margin = Profit/Revenue) for guitar sales has gone down and we know there are two channels for distribution, Company owned stores and third-party stores. Since overall profit margin will depend on profit margins of each channel as well as the revenue split across both channels.

Think about this, it’s not enough to know the current profit margin and split in revenues of each segment. You need to ask if the profit margin for each segment has "changed" or if the revenue split has "changed" to identify what is causing the problem.

ii) Company Specific or Industry Wide issue:

4. Improving Drill Speed:

i) Using the 80/20 rule: The 80/20 rule here signifies analyzing the branch responsible for 80% of the problem first and then analyzing the branch responsible for 20% of the problem.

In short, analyze the more important things first. You need to know the weights of sub-parts to a
problem and choose which sub part to analyze first. Let’s say costs are up by 50%. You need to find out why. You know that 60% of the cost is Raw-Materials and 40% is Manufacturing cost. If both costs have gone up by 50%, you should begin by analyzing why raw material cost has gone up rather than manufacturing cost since that is the bigger chunk of the problem.

ii) Competitor benchmarking: Benchmarking different metrics with respect to competitors better helps distinguish where we are lagging behind industry. Let’s say the reason why we are losing market share to competitors is because of a higher price of our product which in turn is because of a higher cost of our product.

Let’s say cost comprises of manufacturing, distribution and marketing related costs. Now it’s useful to benchmark each of these costs with respect to competitors to get a sense of where we are lagging behind industry. If our distribution cost is twice as much as industry but production and marketing costs are almost the same, then distribution cost should be analyzed further even if on an absolute scale our production & marketing costs are greater than distribution costs.

iii) Business Insights: Sometimes business insights can help you gauge which branch to drill first. This should be used carefully since your assumptions of the business may lead you to assign a wrong priority of drilling. It’s important to use this in conjunction with the previous two ways of drilling effectively. There could be several parameters which could be compared with competition for this:

Customer Characteristics:

i. Customer segments (age group, gender, income, geography, type of requirement) targeted.

ii. Product Characteristics:

  • Laptop price

  • Specifications-battery life, hard disk, RAM, graphics, monitor size, etc.

  • After sales services, complimentary products

iii. Brand image.

iv. Sales and Marketing:

  • No. of Retail outlets, location of outlets, visibility in stores, sales representatives.

  • Discounts & offers.

  • Online marketing.

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Lesson Posted on 23 Jan Tuition/BTech Tuition/(Dc- Ac) Direct Current-Alternatiing Current System Interaction Tuition/MBA Tuition Tuition/BBA Tuition

Economics: A Multi Tasking Tool Set In Any Form Of Business With Profit Or Cba Score

Velmurugan K S

I am a associate professor in economics & director of a pg center( autonomous). I have rich teaching...

Economics is age-old subject started in Greek or Roman era 15th or 16-century b.c. It was defined initially as money or money making as early mercantilist said or beneficial gold or silver as latter mercantilists opined, or even as trade surplus as exports in late years Economics became the Study of... read more

Economics is age-old subject started in Greek or Roman era 15th or 16-century b.c. It was defined initially as money or money making as early mercantilist said or beneficial gold or silver as latter mercantilists opined, or even as trade surplus as exports in late years

Economics became the Study of State or Statism under the physiocrats regime late 17th-century or early 18th-century government producing all good & services to humans was leading economics thought.

In 1776 though Adam Smith was the first father of Economics who defined it as  "Science of Wealth ". Then came in the 19th century two brilliant economist who defined it as a study of human welfare in the ordinary business of life. It is one side pursuit of material welfare. On the other side, it is a study of acquirement of material requisites of well being (called nonmaterial welfare).

 With the turn of the late 19th century, we have the most scientific explanation " Economics is a study of human being, as a choice between ends & scarce means which have alternative uses (choice making or scarcity)."

With the advent of modern era 1990s & year 2000, further Economics became further crystalized into newer forms like "Economics as choice making or alternative cost like Revenue - Costs Direct & indirect ones + imputed costs, which will be real net revenues spread across time as well as intertemporally. Across different projects, different strategies (politics, management, business, and government, etc.).

This is where economics became a dynamic area of profit making & policy-making across material and nonmaterial pursuits in a modern age economies. It is here it became a basic tool in deciding different courses action or losses, across different consumers, producers, distributors, and marketing too. Quite naturally top business schools & academic across the globe recognize this toolbox discipline and their newer courses recognize as a basic paper in different general courses like M.A, M.B.A, as well as in technical course like B.Tech or in Cost Accountancy /pure business models. Thus the Key point is Economics, becoming quantitative is more application-oriented subject, among the Liberal Arts & Humanities.

In other words, Economics appears to be simplistic two variable but in reality, it encompasses multi as well as multiple variables in dynamic & in futuristic projections of physical and meta psychical ones in real life settings. In this sense " Economics is what we do & also what we don't do. "

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Lesson Posted on 03 Jan Tuition/BCom Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/BBA Tuition

What Are The Two Sources Of Stockholders' Equity?

Khushboo B.

I am having an experience of 5+ years in teaching Maths/Accounting/Economics/Statistics/Costing/Taxation/Law/Business...

The two basic sources of stockholders’ equity are: Contributed Capital Retained Earnings i. Contributed Capital: One of the two main sources of stockholders’ equity is contributed capital. Contributed Capital is the money brought into the business by selling stock in the company.... read more

The two basic sources of stockholders’ equity are:

  • Contributed Capital
  • Retained Earnings

i. Contributed Capital:

One of the two main sources of stockholders’ equity is contributed capital. Contributed Capital is the money brought into the business by selling stock in the company. These funds are often the initial source of stockholders’ equity. When more stocks are sold, the firm’s stockholders’ equity increases.

 

ii. Retained Earnings:

Retained Earnings are the other main source of stockholders’ equity. Retained earnings are the accumulated amount of all net income since the organization of the corporation. Retained earnings are a reflection of how successful a company has operated over time.

 

iii. Conclusions:

Thus, the two main sources of stockholders’ equity are Contributed Capital and Retained Earnings.

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Lesson Posted on 03 Jan Tuition/BCom Tuition Tuition/BBA Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Account Used To Record The Premium When Issuing Common Stock

Khushboo B.

I am having an experience of 5+ years in teaching Maths/Accounting/Economics/Statistics/Costing/Taxation/Law/Business...

The premium on issuing common stock is rarely recorded in an account having that name. It is more commonly recorded in an account called Paid-In Capital In Excess of Par Value. It may also be recorded in an account called Additional Paid-In Capital. Paid-In Capital In Excess of Par Value is essentially... read more

The premium on issuing common stock is rarely recorded in an account having that name. It is more commonly recorded in an account called Paid-In Capital In Excess of Par Value. It may also be recorded in an account called Additional Paid-In Capital.

Paid-In Capital In Excess of Par Value is essentially the difference between the fair market value paid for the stock and the stock’s par value. In other words, it is the premium paid for an appreciated stock. Paid-In Capital In Excess of Par Value is created when investors pay more for their shares or stocks than the par value.

The account appears in the Shareholders’ equity section of the Balance Sheet. It does not appear in the Income Statement.

Conclusions:

Thus, premium on issuing common stock is recorded in Paid-In Capital In Excess of Par Value account or an account called Additional Paid-In Capital.

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Answered on 02 Jan Tuition/BBA Tuition

Shahil Abdullah

Corporate Trainer

There is no scope for any course. The scope lies with you. your interest matters much more than the course itself. Any IIT will be the best institute India. Studying abroad any 5-star status university in Canada / Finland will pave way for a bright scope if taken seriously.
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Answered on 25/08/2016 Tuition/BA Tuition Tuition/BA Tuition/Regular Classes Tuition/BCom Tuition +6 Tuition/BCom Tuition/Indian Economy Tuition/BBA Tuition Tuition/BBA Tuition/Micro and Macro Economics Tuition/BCom Tuition/Micro & Macro Economics Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Economics less

Hlo.. I'm interested in teaching so how should i contact the interested students

Gurgaonacademy

Pls fill online tutor registration form with link http://www.gurgaontutor.com/register-as-tutor/
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