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Asked on 24 Apr CBSE/Class 10/Mathematics CBSE/Class 5 CBSE/Class 6/Maths +2 CBSE/Class 7/Maths/Integers CBSE/Class 10/Mathematics/Coordinate geometry/Class 10 Difference between two points and section formula less

I am teaching all subject from class 5th to 8th and 9th to 12th only Maths & Physics Intrested Student... read more

I am teaching all subject from class 5th to 8th and 9th to 12th only Maths & Physics Intrested Student call 761,7080,267 Delhi NCR

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Asked on 09 Mar CBSE/Class 5/Maths

How much should I ask for one subject for grade 5th if I come for 3 days?

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Lesson Posted on 11 Jan CBSE/Class 5

How To Remeber Something Forever?

AKASH KESHARI

I have 7+ experience in teaching class 1-10, 5+ experience in teaching class 1-12 and 3 years experience...

Usually, it happens that whatever we learn, we forget it after sometimes. There are some tricks to fit a thing in our mind forever: 1. Try to connect it with your surroundings. Always remember any fact with an example. 2. For remembering a formula, write it on a paper and stick it on a place where... read more

Usually, it happens that whatever we learn, we forget it after sometimes. There are some tricks to fit a thing in our mind forever:

1. Try to connect it with your surroundings. Always remember any fact with an example.

2. For remembering a formula, write it on a paper and stick it on a place where you always happen to see it. You don't need to remember it, you just have to look it.

3. Revise the things. First revision should be after 3-4 days. 2nd revision after 10 days and third revision after 28-30 days.

4. Practice the things as often as you can. If you want to be best at something, you will have to spend more time doing that thing.

5. Read a book of your interest. It increases your thinking and imagining power.

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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

The Respiratory System

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen vary greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment... read more
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen vary greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. Inland animals, the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs.  Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi. These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds, the bronchioles are termed parabronchi. It is the bronchioles or parabronchi that generally open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds. Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing which involves the muscles of respiration.
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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

Respiration In Mammals

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

Anatomy: Fig. 1. Respiratory system Fig. 2. The lower respiratory tract, or "Respiratory Tree" Trachea Mainstem bronchus Lobar bronchus Segmental bronchus Bronchiole Alveolar duct Alveolus In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory... read more

Anatomy:

Fig. 1. Respiratory system
Fig. 2. The lower respiratory tract, or "Respiratory Tree"
  1. Trachea
  2. Mainstem bronchus
  3. Lobar bronchus
  4. Segmental bronchus
  5. Bronchiole
  6. Alveolar duct
  7. Alveolus

In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract. The tract is divided into an upper and a lower respiratory tract. The upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds. The lower tract (Fig. 2.) includes the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli.

The branching airways of the lower tract are often described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree (Fig. 2). The intervals between successive branch points along the various branches of "tree" are often referred to as branching "generations", of which there are, in the adult human about 23. The earlier generations (approximately generations 0–16), consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which simply act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli (approximately generations 17–23), where gas exchange takes place. Bronchioles are defined as the small airways lacking and cartilaginous support.

The first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi. Second, only in diameter to the trachea (1.8 cm), these bronchi (1 -1.4 cm in diameter) enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, and these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi (1 to 6 mm in diameter)[7] are known as the 4th order, 5th order, and 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi.

Compared to the, on average, 23 number of branchings of the respiratory tree in the adult human, the mouse has only about 13 such branchings.

The alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route. A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air (about 150 ml in the adult human) that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before the environmental air reaches them. At the end of inhalation, the airways are filled with environmental air, which is exhaled without coming in contact with the gas exchanger.

Ventilatory volume:

The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. The volume of air moved in or out of the lungs under normal resting circumstances (the resting tidal volume of about 500 ml), and volumes moved during maximally forced inhalation and maximally forced exhalation are measured in humans by spirometry. A typical adult human spirogram with the names given to the various excursions in volume the lungs can undergo is illustrated below (Fig. 3):

Fig. 3 Output of a 'spirometer'. Upward movement of the graph, read from the left, indicates the intake of air; downward movements represent exhalation.

Not all the air in the lungs can be expelled during maximally forced exhalation. This is the residual volume of about 1.0-1.5 liters which cannot be measured by spirometry. Volumes that include the residual volume (i.e. the functional residual capacity of about 2.5-3.0 liters, and total lung capacity of about 6 liters) can therefore also not be measured by spirometry. Their measurement requires special techniques.

The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated below, together with how they are calculated. The number of breath cycles per minute is known as the respiratory rate.

Measurement

Equation

Description

Minute ventilation

tidal volume * respiratory rate

the total volume of air entering, or leaving, the nose or mouth per minute.

Alveolar ventilation

(tidal volume – dead space) * respiratory rate

the volume of air entering or leaving the alveoli per minute.

Dead space ventilation

dead space * respiratory rate

the volume of air that does not reach the alveoli during inhalation, but instead remains in the airways, per minute.

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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

Respiration In Birds

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

Fig. 15 The arrangement of the air sacs, and lungs in birds Fig. 16 The anatomy of bird's respiratory system, showing the relationships of the trachea, primary and intra-pulmonary bronchi, the dorso- and ventro-bronchi, with the parabronchi running between the two. The posterior and anterior... read more

 

Fig. 15 The arrangement of the air sacs, and lungs in birds
Fig. 16 The anatomy of bird's respiratory system, showing the relationships of the trachea, primary and intra-pulmonary bronchi, the dorso- and ventro-bronchi, with the parabronchi running between the two. The posterior and anterior air sacs are also indicated, but not to scale.
Fig. 17 A dove skeleton, showing the movement of the chest during inhalation. Arrow 1 indicates the movement of the vertebral ribs. Arrow 2 shows the consequent movement of the sternum (and its keel). The two movements increase the vertical and transverse diameters of the chest portion of the trunk of the bird.
Key:
1. skull; 2. cervical vertebrae; 3. furcula; 4. coracoid; 5. vertebral ribs; 6. sternum and its keel; 7. patella; 8. tarsus; 9. digits; 10. tibia (tibiotarsus); 11. fibia (tibiotarsus); 12. femur; 13. ischium (innominate); 14. pubis(innominate); 15. ilium (innominate); 16. caudal vertebrae; 17. pygostyle; 18. synsacrum; 19. scapula; 20. dorsal vertebrae; 21. humerus; 22. ulna; 23. radius; 24. carpus (carpometacarpus); 25. metacarpus (carpometacarpus); 26. digits; 27. alula
Fig. 18 Inhalation-exhalation cycle in birds.

The respiratory system of birds differs significantly from that found in mammals. Firstly they have rigid lungs which do not expand and contract during the breathing cycle. Instead an extensive system of air sacs(Fig. 15) distributed throughout their bodies act as the bellows drawing environmental air into the sacs, and expelling the spent air after it has passed through the lungs (Fig. 18). Birds also do not have diaphragms or pleural cavities.

Bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, but the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, compared to the 7% devoted to the alveoli which act as the bellows in mammals.

Inhalation and exhalation are brought about by alternately increasing and decreasing the volume of the entire thoraco-abdominal cavity (or coelom) using both their abdominal and costal muscles. During inhalation the muscles attached to the vertebral ribs (Fig. 17) contract angling them forwards and outwards. This pushes the sternal ribs, to which they are attached at almost right angles, downwards and forwards, taking the sternum (with its prominent keel) in the same direction (Fig. 17). This increases both the vertical and transverse diameters of thoracic portion of the trunk. The forward and downward movement of, particularly, the posterior end of the sternum pulls the abdominal wall downwards, increasing the volume of that region of the trunk as well. The increase in volume of the entire trunk cavity reduces the air pressure in all the thoraco-abdominal air sacs, causing them to fill with air as described below.

During exhalation the external oblique muscle which is attached to the sternum and vertebral ribs anteriorly, and to the pelvis (pubis and ilium in Fig. 17) posteriorly(forming part of the abdominal wall) reverses the inhalatory movement, while compressing the abdominal contents, thus increasing the pressure in all the air sacs. Air is therefore expelled from the respiratory system in the act of exhalation.

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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

Respiration In Reptiles

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

Play media Fig. 20 X-ray video of a female American alligator while breathing. The anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive airway tree structure found in mammalian lungs. Gas exchange in reptiles still occurs in... read more
File:X-ray video of a female American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) while breathing - pone.0004497.s009.ogvPlay media
Fig. 20 X-ray video of a female American alligator while breathing.

The anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive airway tree structure found in mammalian lungs. Gas exchange in reptiles still occurs in alveolihowever. Reptiles do not possess a diaphragm. Thus, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of intercostal muscles in all reptiles except turtles. In turtles, contraction of specific pairs of flank muscles governs inhalation and exhalation.

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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

Respiration In Amphibians

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on positive pressure ventilation. Muscles lower the floor of the buccal cavity, enlarging it and drawing in air through the nostrils into the buccal cavity. With the nostrils and mouth... read more

Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on positive pressure ventilation. Muscles lower the floor of the buccal cavity, enlarging it and drawing in air through the nostrils into the buccal cavity. With the nostrils and mouth closed, the floor of the buccal cavity is then pushed up, which forces air down the trachea into the lungs. The skin of these animals is highly vascularized and moist, with moisture maintained via secretion of mucus from specialized cells, and is involved in cutaneous respiration. While the lungs are of primary organs for gas exchange between the blood and the environmental air (when out of the water), the skin's unique properties aid rapid gas exchange when amphibians are submerged in oxygen-rich water. Some amphibians have gills, either in the early stages of their development (e.g. tadpoles of frogs), while others retain them into adulthood (e.g. some salamanders).

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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

Respiration In Invertebrates

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

Arthropods: Some species of crab use a respiratory organ called a branchiostegal lung. Its gill-like structure increases the surface area for gas exchange which is more suited to taking oxygen from the air than from water. Some of the smallest spiders and mites can breathe simply by exchanging gas through... read more

Arthropods: Some species of crab use a respiratory organ called a branchiostegal lung. Its gill-like structure increases the surface area for gas exchange which is more suited to taking oxygen from the air than from water. Some of the smallest spiders and mites can breathe simply by exchanging gas through the surface of the body. Larger spiders, scorpions, and other arthropods use a primitive book lung.

Insects: Most insects breath passively through their spiracles (special openings in the exoskeleton) and the air reaches every part of the body by means of a series of smaller and smaller tubes called 'trachea' when their diameters are relatively large, and 'tracheoles' when their diameters are very small. The tracheoles make contact with individual cells throughout the body. They are partially filled with fluid, which can be withdrawn from the individual tracheoles when the tissues, such as muscles, are active and have a high demand for oxygen, bringing the air closer to the active cells. This is probably brought about by the buildup of lactic acid in the active muscles causing an osmotic gradient, moving the water out of the tracheoles and into the active cells. Diffusion of gases is effective over small distances but not over larger ones, this is one of the reasons insects are all relatively small. Insects which do not have spiracles and trachea, such as some Collembola, breathe directly through their skins, also by diffusion of gases.

The number of spiracles an insect has is variable between species, however, they always come in pairs, one on each side of the body, and usually one pair per segment. Some of the Diplura have eleven, with four pairs on the thorax, but in most of the ancient forms of insects, such as Dragonflies and Grasshoppers there are two thoracic and eight abdominal spiracles. However, in most of the remaining insects, there are fewer. It is at the level of the tracheoles that oxygen is delivered to the cells for respiration.

Insects were once believed to exchange gases with the environment continuously by the simple diffusion of gases into the tracheal system. More recently, however, large variation in insect ventilatory patterns have been documented and insect respiration appears to be highly variable. Some small insects do not demonstrate continuous respiratory movements and may lack muscular control of the spiracles. Others, however, utilize muscular contraction of the abdomen along with coordinated spiracle contraction and relaxation to generate cyclical gas exchange patterns and to reduce water loss into the atmosphere. The most extreme form of these patterns is termed discontinuous gas exchange cycles.

Molluscs: Molluscs generally possess gills that allow gas exchange between the aqueous environment and their circulatory systems. These animals also possess a heart that pumps blood containing hemocyanin as its oxygen-capturing molecule. Hence, this respiratory system is similar to that of vertebrate fish. The respiratory system of gastropods can include either gills or a lung.

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Lesson Posted on 06/11/2017 CBSE/Class 5

Digestive System In Humans

Bhuvaneshwari M.

I have little experience but more knowledge and I can teach CBSE,ICSE and SSC very well. I mould myself...

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. Digestion involves the breakdown... read more

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). In this system, the process of digestion has many stages, the first of which starts in the mouth. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body.

Human digestive system
Sobo 1906 323.png
Human digestive system
Details
Identifiers
Latin Systema digestorium
MeSH D004064
TA A05.0.00.000
FMA 7152
Anatomical terminology
[edit on Wikidata]

Chewing, in which food is mixed with salivabegins the process of digestion. This produces a bolus which can be swallowed down the esophagus and into the stomach. Here it is mixed with gastric juice until it passes into the duodenum where it is mixed with a number of enzymes produced by the pancreas. Saliva also contains a catalyticenzyme called amylase which starts to act on food in the mouth. Another digestive enzymecalled lingual lipase is secreted by some of the lingual papillae on the tongue and also from serous glands in the main salivary glands. Digestion is helped by the masticationof food by the teeth and also by the muscular actions of peristalsis and segmentation contractions. Gastric juice in the stomach is essential for the continuation of digestion as is the production of mucus in the stomach.

Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of muscles that begins in the esophagus and continues along the wall of the stomach and the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This initially results in the production of chymewhich when fully broken down in the small intestine is absorbed as chyle into the lymphatic system. Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine. Water and some minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon of the large intestine. The waste products of digestion (feces) are defecated from the anus via the rectum.

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