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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Sujoy D.

Tutor

A . The needs of the readers in the small towns and villages are different from that of the cities and the Indian languages newspapers cater to those needs. Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayala Manorama and the Eenadu launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing... read more

A . The needs of the readers in the small towns and villages are different from that of the cities and the Indian languages newspapers cater to those needs. Dominant Indian language newspapers such as Malayala Manorama and the Eenadu launched the concept of local news in a significant manner by introducing district and whenever necessary, block editions. Dina Thanthi, another leading Tamil newspaper, has always used simplified and colloquial language.
B. While English newspapers, often called National Dailies, circulate across regions, vernacular newspapers have vastly increased their circulation in the states and the rural hinterland. In order to compete with the electronic media, newspapers, especially English language newspapers have on the one hand reduced prices and on the other hand brought out editions from multiple centres.
C.The growth of Indian nationalism was closely linked to its struggle against colonialism.
D.With the industrial revolution, the print industry also grew.
E.The first products of the press were restricted to an audience of literate elites. It was only in the mid-19th century, with further development in technologies, transportation and literacy that newspapers began to reach out to a mass audience.

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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What do you understand by sex ratio?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

The ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be 1:1. This tendency is explained by Fisher's principle. For various reasons, however, many species deviate from anything like an even ratio, either periodically or permanently.In the... read more

The  ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be 1:1. This tendency is explained by Fisher's principle. For various reasons, however, many species deviate from anything like an even  ratio, either periodically or permanently.
In the human species the ratio between males and females at birth is slightly biased towards the male person. The natural “ ratio at birth” is often considered to be around 105. This means that at birth on average, there are 105 males for every 100 females.

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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Name two commissions set up for Other Backward Classes.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Mandal Commission & Kaka Kalelkar Commission
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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

State the meaning of modernization.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

MODERNIZATION THEORY Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, "Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social,... read more

MODERNIZATION THEORY

Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, "Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents" (Eisenstadt 1966, p. 1). Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the 1950s. Primary attention has focused on ways in which past and present premodern societies become modern (i.e., Westernized) through processes of economic growth and change in social, political, and cultural structures.

In general, modernization theorists are concerned with economic growth within societies as indicated, for example, by measures of gross national product. Mechanization or industrialization are ingredients in the process of economic growth. Modernization theorists study the social, political, and cultural consequences of economic growth and the conditions that are important for industrialization and economic growth to occur. Indeed, a degree of circularity often characterizes discussions of social and economic change involved in modernization processes because of the notion, embedded in most modernization theories, of the functional compatibility of component parts. The theoretical assumptions of modernization theories will be elaborated later.

It should be noted at the outset that the sociological concept of modernization does not refer simply to becoming current or "up to date" but rather specifies particular contents and processes of societal changes in the course of national development. Also, modernization theories of development do not necessarily bear any relationship to more recent philosophical concepts of "modernity" and "postmodernity." Modernity in philosophical and epistemological discussions refers to the perspective that there is one true descriptive and explanatory model that reflects the actual world. Postmodernity is the stance that no single true description and explanation of reality exists but rather that knowledge, ideology, and science itself are based on subjective understandings of an entirely relational nature. While their philosophical underpinnings place most modernization theories of development into the "modern" rather than the "postmodern" context, these separate uses of the term modernity should not be confused.

Also, modernization, industrialization, and development are often used interchangeably but in fact refer to distinguishable phenomena. Industrialization is a narrower term than modernization, while development is more general. Industrialization involves the use of inanimate sources of power to mechanize production, and it involves increases in manufacturing, wage labor, income levels, and occupational diversification. It may or may not be present where there is political, social, or cultural modernization, and, conversely, it may exist in the absence of other aspects of modernization. Development (like industrialization) implies economic growth, but not necessarily through transformation from the predominance of primary production to manufacturing, and not necessarily as characterized by modernization theory. For example, while modernization theorists may define development mainly in terms of economic output per capita, other theorists may be more concerned about development of autonomous productive capacity, equitable distribution of wealth, or meeting basic human needs. Also, while modernization theories generally envision democratic and capitalist institutions or secularization of belief systems as components of modern society, other development perspectives may not. Indeed, dependency theorists even talk about the "development of underdevelopment" (Frank 1966).

Each of the social science disciplines pays particular attention to the determinants of modern structures within its realm (social, political, economic) and gives greater importance to structures or institutions within its realm for explaining other developments in society. Emphasis here is given to sociological modernization theory.

Although there are many versions of modernization theory, major implicit or explicit tenets are that (1) societies develop through a series of evolutionary stages; (2) these stages are based on different degrees and patterns of social differentiation and reintegration of structural and cultural components that are functionally compatible for the maintenance of society; (3) contemporary developing societies are at a premodern stage of evolution and they eventually will achieve economic growth and will take on the social, political, and economic features of western European and North American societies which have progressed to the highest stage of social evolutionary development; (4) this modernization will result as complex Western technology is imported and traditional structural and cultural features incompatible with such development are overcome.

At its core modernization theory suggests that advanced industrial technology produces not only economic growth in developing societies but also other structural and cultural changes. The common characteristics that societies tend to develop as they become modern may differ from one version of modernization theory to another, but, in general, all assume that institutional structures and individual activities become more highly specialized, differentiated, and integrated into social, political, and economic forms characteristic of advanced Western societies.

For example, in the social realm, modern societies are characterized by high levels of urbanization, literacy, research, health care, secularization, bureaucracy, mass media, and transportation facilities. Kinship ties are weaker, and nuclear conjugal family systems prevail. Birthrates and death rates are lower, and life expectancy is relatively longer. In the political realm, the society becomes more participatory in decision-making processes, and typical institutions include universal suffrage, political parties, a civil service bureaucracy, and parliaments. Traditional sources of authority are weaker as bureaucratic institutions assume responsibility and power. In the economic realm, there is more industrialization, technical upgrading of production, replacement of exchange economies with extensive money markets, increased division of labor, growth of infrastructure and commercial facilities, and the development of large-scale markets. Associated with these structural changes are cultural changes in role relations and personality variables. Social relations are more bureaucratic, social mobility increases, and status relations are based less on such ascriptive criteria as age, gender, or ethnicity and more on meritocratic criteria. There is a shift from relations based on tradition and loyalty to those based on rational exchange, competence, and other universally applied criteria. People are more receptive to change, more interested in the future, more achievement-oriented, more concerned with the rights of individuals, and less fatalistic.

Underlying the description of social features and changes that are thought to characterize modern urban industrial societies are theoretical assumptions and mechanisms to explain the shift from traditional to modern societal types. These explanatory systems draw upon the dominant theoretical perspectives in the 1950s and 1960s, growing out of classical evolutionary, diffusion, and structural-functionalist theories.

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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Write two examples of competing interests.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

A conflict of interest is a situation in which an individual has competing interests or loyalties. A conflict of interest can exist in many different situations. The easiest way to explain the concept of conflict of interest is by using some examples. Authors: if they are funded by the company that... read more

A conflict of interest is a situation in which an individual has competing interests or loyalties.  A conflict of interest can exist in many different situations. The easiest way to explain the concept of conflict of interest is by using some examples.

  • Authors: if they are funded by the company that produces the products that they are writing about this may influence their reporting.
  • Reviewers: if they are working in the same area of research at a competing institution to the authors, then this will not only influence their judgement, but may encourage them to advise rejection of the competing article so that their research is published first.
  • Editors: if an editor receives an article from a friend or colleague this may bias their judgement of its suitability to publish.



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Answered on 14 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Illustrate the meaning of Secularism in Western context.

D Mukherjee

Teacher

Constitutions of countries in the west permit equal rights for all citizens irrespective of caste, creed, religion or gender. This is called seculrism. So does the Indian constitution. Hence India is also a secular country which gives equal opportunities for all its citizen.
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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Explain the relevance of Civil Society.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

On a global scale, organizations from civil society play an incredibly importantrole. ... NGOs fall into the category of civil society because they are not operated by the government, are very often reliant on donations, and tend to be comprised of volunteers. Think about the country that you live in... read more

On a global scale, organizations from civil society play an incredibly importantrole. ... NGOs fall into the category of civil society because they are not operated by the government, are very often reliant on donations, and tend to be comprised of volunteers.

Think about the country that you live in - what does it take to make that country operate smoothly? The government takes care of law and order and businesses offer goods and services in exchange for money, which both help to keep a society moving. But what about other groups, like churches or the PTA, how do they contribute to your society? These other groups actually play a very big part in how your country operates, and they fall into a category known as civil society.

civil society is comprised of groups or organizations working in the interest of the citizens but operating outside of the governmental and for-profit sectors. Organizations and institutions that make up civil society include labor unions, non-profit organizations, churches, and other service agencies that provide an important service to society but generally ask for very little in return.

Civil society is sometimes referred to as the civil sector, a term that is used to differentiate it from other sectors that comprise a functioning society. For example, the United States is made up of three sectors: the public sector, which is the government and its branches; the private sector, which includes businesses and corporations; and the civil sector, which includes the organizations that act in the public's interest but are not motivated by profit or government.

Examples of Civil Society at Work

In so many cases, it can be hard to know what organization falls into which sector and why. This is because so many of these groups tend to work in collaboration with one another in order to serve the public. Looking at some examples of what falls into a civil society and how they contribute, should help to bring more clarity.

On a global scale, organizations from civil society play an incredibly important role. In the aftermath of a disaster, such as Hurricane Katrina or the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, groups like the American Red Cross and Habitat for Humanity were instrumental in serving those affected and helping them get back to normal. These groups are considered Non-Governmental Aid Organizations (NGOs), which provide assistance to people for little or no fee. NGOs fall into the category of civil society because they are not operated by the government, are very often reliant on donations, and tend to be comprised of volunteers.

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Answered on 26 Jan CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Provide evidence to support the view that tribes are not primitive communities living in isolation.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Tribal policy- Isolation, Assimilation and Integration Historical Perspective -IsolationThe coexistence of fundamentally different culture patterns and styles of living has always been a characteristic feature of the Indian stage. Unlike most parts of the world, in India, the arrival of new immigrants... read more

Tribal policy- Isolation, Assimilation and Integration

Historical Perspective -Isolation
The coexistence of fundamentally different culture patterns and styles of living has always been a characteristic feature of the Indian stage. Unlike most parts of the world, in India, the arrival of new immigrants and the spread of their way of life did not necessarily cause the disappearance of earlier and materially less advanced ethnic groups.

The old and the new co-existed. Such a consequence was partly due to the great size of the sub-continent and dearth of communications. More important than this was an attitude basic to Indian ideology, which accepted variety of cultural forms as natural and immutable, and did not consider their assimilation to one dominant pattern in any way desirable. This does not mean, however, that none of the tribes ever became incorporated in the systems of hierarchically ranked castes. Wherever economic necessity or encroachment of their habitant by advanced communities led to continued inter-action between tribes and Hindus, cultural distinctions were blurred, and what had once been self-contained and more or less independent tribes gradually acquired the status of castes.

In many cases they entered caste systems at the lowest rung of the ladder. Some untouchable castes of Southern India, such as the Cherumans and the Panyers of Kerala, were undoubtedly at one time independent tribes, and in their physical characteristics they still resemble neighboring tribal groups, which have remained outside the Hindu society. There are some exceptions, such as the Meitheis of Assam who achieved a position comparable to that of Kshatriyas. Tribes who retained their tribal identity and resisted inclusion within the Hindu fold fared on the whole better than the assimilated groups and were not treated as untouchables, even if they indulged in such low-caste practices as eating beef. Thus the Raj Gond princes sacrificed and ate cows without thereby debasing their status in the eyes of their Hindu neighbors, who recognized their social and cultural separateness and did not insist on conformity to Hindu patterns of behavior.

This respect for the tribal way of life prevailed as long as contacts between tribes and Hindu populations of open plains were of a casual nature. The tribal people, though considered strange and dangerous, were taken for granted as part of the world of hills and forests, and a more or less frictionless co-existence was possible, because there was no population pressure and the advanced communities did not feel any urge to impose their own values on people placed clearly outside the spheres of Hindu civilization.

This position remained unchanged during the Muslim period. Now and then a military campaign extending for a short spell into the wilds of tribal country would bring the inhabitants temporarily to the notice of princes and chroniclers, but for long period the hill men and forest-dwellers were left to themselves. Under British rule, however, a new situation arose. The extension of a centralized administration over areas, which previously were outside the effective control of princely rulers, deprived many aboriginal tribes of their autonomy. Though British administrators had no intention of interfering with tribesmen's rights and traditional manner of living, the very process of establishment of law and order in outlying areas exposed the tribes to the pressure of more advanced populations.

Thus in areas which had previously been virtually un-administered and hence unsafe for outsiders who did not enjoy the confidence and goodwill of the tribal inhabitants, traders and money-lenders could now establish themselves under the protection of the British administration and in many cases they were followed by settlers who succeeded in acquiring large stretches of tribes' land. Administrative officers who did not understand tribal system of land tenure introduced uniform methods of revenue collection. But these had the un-intended effect of facilitating the alienation of tribal land to members of advanced populations. Though it is unlikely that British officials actively favored the latter at the expense of primitive tribesmen, little was done to stem the rapid erosion of tribal rights to land.

In many areas tribals unable to resist the gradual alienation of their ancestral land, either withdrew further into hills and tracts of marginal land, or accepted the economic status of tenants or agricultural labourers on the land their forefathers had owned. There were some tribes, however, who rebelled against an administration, which allowed outsiders to deprive them of their land. In the Chhota Nagpur and the Santhal pargansas such rebellions of desperate tribesmen recurred throughout the nineteenth century, and there were minor risings in the Agency tracts of Madras and in some of the districts of Bombay inhabited by Bhils. Thus the Santhals are believed to have lost about 10,000 men in their rebellion of 1855. None of these insurrections were aimed primarily at the British administration, but they were a reaction to their exploitation and oppression by Hindu landlords and money-lenders who had established themselves in tribal areas and were sheltered by a Government which had instituted a system of land settlement and administration of justice favoring the advanced communities at the expense of simple and illiterate tribes. In some cases these rebellions led to official inquiries and to legislative enactments aimed at protecting tribes' right to their land. Seen in historical perspective it appears that land alienation laws had, on the whole, only a palliative effect. In most areas encroachment on land held by tribes continued even in the face of protective legislation.
Assimilation of Tribals
Acceptance or denial of the necessity for assimilation with Hindu society is ultimately a question of values. In the past, Hindu society had been tolerant of groups that would not conform to the standards set by the higher castes. True, such groups were denied equal ritual status; but no efforts were made to deflect them from their chosen style of living. In recent years this attitude has changed. Perhaps it is the influence of the Western belief in universal values which has encouraged a spirit of intolerance vis-a-vis cultural and social divergences. Yet India is not only a multilingual and multiracial country, but is also multi-cultural. And as long as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis are free to follow their traditional way of life, it would seem only fair that the culture and the social order of tribes however distinct from that of the majority community should also be respected. Assimilation, of course, will occur automatically and inevitably where small tribal groups are enclosed within numerically stronger Hindu populations. In other areas, however, and particularly all along India's northern and north-eastern frontier live vigorous tribal populations which resist assimilation as well as inclusion within Hindu caste system.

Democratic Decentralization and Tribals
With the introduction of a system of democratic decentralization to take the place of paternalism characteristic of traditional form of Indian government, a new element has entered the relations between tribes and the more advanced majority communities. The ability to vote in general elections for the Parliament in Delhi and the Legislative Assembly of their respective States did not make much difference to tribals, because they did not understand the implication of the franchise, but the local elections aroused their interest to a much greater extent. The very fact, that some of the most powerful people of the district approached the poorest villagers for their votes and tried to gain their confidence, convinced them of a fundamental change. The very idea that they could choose their representatives was novel. At first, tribals only voted, for non-tribals, for very few were sufficiently educated to stand for election. Even in areas with a preponderance of tribals, the elected representatives were often non-tribes and abused their powers by exploiting those who had voted for them. But as time passed and the tribes gained experience, they have become shrewder in the choice of their representatives.

The Government of India has adopted a policy of integration of tribals with the mainstream aiming at developing a creative adjustment between the tribes and non tribes leading to a responsible partnership. By adopting the policy of integration or progressive acculturation the Government has laid the foundation for the uninhibited march of the tribals towards equality, upward mobility, and economic viability and assured proximity to the national mainstream. The constitution has committed the nation to two courses of action in respect of scheduled tribes,viz

  • Giving protection to their distinctive way of life
  • Protecting them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation and discrimination and bringing them at par with the rest of the nation so that they may be integrated with the national life.

Thus by the Constitution Order 1950 issued by the President of India in exercise of powers conferred by Clause9 (i) of Article 342 of the Constitution of India 255 tribes in 17 states were declared to be scheduled tribes. Besides enjoying the rights that all citizens and minorities have the member of the Scheduled Tribes have been provided with special safeguards as follows:

Protective Safeguards

  • Educational safeguards-Article 15(4) and 29
  • Safeguards for employment -Articles 16(4), 320(4) and 333
  • Economic safeguards -Article 19
  • Abolition of bonded labour -Article 23
  • Protection from social injustice and all forms of exploitation -Article 46

Political Safeguards

  • Reservation of seats for ST in LokSabha and Assemblies-Article 330,332,164
  • Appointment of Minister in charge of Tribal welfare
  • Special provisions in respect of Nagaland,Assam and Manipur -Articles-371(A),371(B) and 371

Developmental Safeguards

  • Promoting the educational and economic interests of the Scheduled Tribes-Articles 46
  • Grants from Central Government to the states for welfare of Scheduled Tribes and raising the level of administration of Scheduled Areas-Article 75.

Following the reorganization of states, the list of STs was modified by the Scheduled Castes and Tribes List (Modification) order, 1956 on the recommendations of the Backward Classes Commission. In the revised list 414 tribes were declared STs.Since the revision of the list in 1956 there have been several proposals for fresh inclusions and deletion from the lists of the SC and STs

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Answered on 12 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

How industrialization led to de-industrialisation in some sectors of Indian Society?

D Mukherjee

Teacher

India's share in the economic goods output of the world was about 20% in 1800 and it plummeted to 2% in 1913 thanks to the British who systematically destroyed India's delicate handicraft and home produce in favour of goods produced in industrialized England. This happened in every sector. Thus industrialization... read more

India's share in the economic goods output of the world was about 20% in 1800 and it plummeted to 2% in 1913 thanks to the British who systematically destroyed India's delicate handicraft and home produce in favour of goods produced in industrialized England. This happened in every sector. Thus industrialization in Enland led to de-industrialization in the colonies

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Answered on 03 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

How were capitalism and colonialism linked?

D Mukherjee

Teacher

Capitalism meant establishment of large factories with huge capital investements as a result of the industrial revolution for mass production of goods. These factories needed large quantities of raw material which was not often available in the country. Hence the need arose to acquire this by force from... read more

Capitalism meant establishment of large factories with huge capital investements as a result of the industrial revolution for mass production of goods. These factories needed large quantities of raw material which was not often available in the country. Hence the need arose to acquire this by force from underdeveloped countries and as a result those countries were colonised. 

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