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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What is authority?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Institutionalized and legal power inherent in a particular job, function, or position that is meant to enable its holder to successfully carry out his or her responsibilities. ... It includes a right to command a situation, commit resources, give orders and expect them to be obeyed
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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Why is environmental management a complex and huge task for society?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Environmental management as a complex and huge task for society : It is correct to say that environmental management is very complex and difficult task for society. It is not enough known about biophysical processes to predict and control them. In addition, human relations with the environment have become... read more

Environmental management as a complex and huge task for society :

It is correct to say that environmental management is very complex and difficult task for society. It is not enough known about biophysical processes to predict and control them. In addition, human relations with the environment have become increasingly . sufficient information is not available about the biophysical processes to predict and control them. The relation between humans and environment has become complex as industrialisation has accelerated the extraction of resources.

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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Mention any two chief characteristic of caste system given by G.S Ghurye.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

G.S. Ghurye has proposed six main characteristics of caste system. 1. Segmental ... Many theories have been put forward regarding the origin of caste system but, so far, no solid proof has been collected in this regard. The records of the Hocart and Senart are the two main advocates of religious theory. 1.... read more

G.S. Ghurye has proposed six main characteristics of caste system. 1. Segmental ... Many theories have been put forward regarding the origin of caste system but, so far, no solid proof has been collected in this regard. The records of the Hocart and Senart are the two main advocates of religious theory.

1. Segmental division of society:

The caste system divides the whole society into various segments or sections. Each of these castes is a well developed social group, the membership of which is fixed by birth. So change from one caste to another caste is not possible.

2. Hierarchy:

The caste system is characterized by hierarchical order. Dumount believes that the hierarchical order of caste system is based on the concept of purity and pollution. At the top of this hierarchy are the Brahmins and at the bottom is the Shudras.

3. Restriction on feeding and social inter-course:

In caste system there are several restrictions which are related to food, drink and social inter-course. The members of the upper caste cannot take food or water from the lower caste members, even not interact with the members of the other castes but the vice-versa is permissible.

4. Civil and religious disabilities:

In caste system, there is an unequal distribution of privileges and restrictions among its members. Generally, the higher caste people enjoy all the privileges and the lower caste people are put to all kinds of restrictions.

5. Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation:

Under caste system, each caste has its own traditional occupation. Occupation is fixed at the time of birth and the members of a caste are forced to follow the occupation of that caste.

6. Restriction on marriage:

In caste system the principles of endogamy is strictly followed. That means, marriage within the own caste on sub-caste is purely followed.

 

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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

"Religion affects the economic development of a country." Justify the statement.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Religion and Economic Growth "For given religious beliefs, increases in church attendance tend to reduce economic growth. In contrast, for given church attendance, increases in some religious beliefs -- notably heaven, hell, and an afterlife -- tend to increase economic growth." Some researchers argue... read more

Religion and Economic Growth

"For given religious beliefs, increases in church attendance tend to reduce economic growth. In contrast, for given church attendance, increases in some religious beliefs -- notably heaven, hell, and an afterlife -- tend to increase economic growth."

Some researchers argue that explanations for economic growth should be broadened to include cultural determinants. Culture may influence economic outcomes by affecting such personal traits as honesty, thrift, willingness to work hard, and openness to strangers. Although religion is an important dimension of culture, economists to date have paid little attention to its role in economic growth.

But in Religion and Economic Growth (NBER Working Paper No. 9682), authors Robert Barro and Rachel McCleary analyze the influences of religious participation and beliefs on a country?s rate of economic progress. The authors use six international surveys conducted between 1981 and 1999 to measure religiosity -- church attendance and religious beliefs -- for 59 countries. There is more information available about rich countries than poor ones and about countries that are primarily Christian. Barro and McCleary consider first how religiosity responds to economic development, government influences on religion, and the composition of religious adherence. They find that their measures of religiosity are positively related to education, negatively related to urbanization, and positively related to the presence of children. Overall, religiosity tends to decline with economic development.

The presence of a state religion is positively related to religiosity, probably because of the subsidies that flow to established religions in those countries. However, religiosity declines with greater government regulation of religion and with the religious oppression associated with Communism. Greater diversity of religions -- that is, religious pluralism -- is associated with higher church attendance and stronger religious beliefs. Countries in the sample that had low levels of pluralism include some that are predominantly Catholic (Spain, Italy, Portugal, Belgium, Ireland, and much of Latin America), as well as Protestant Scandinavia, Orthodox Greece, and Muslim Pakistan and Turkey. Countries studied that exhibit high levels of pluralism include the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Africa.

The authors turn next to the assessment of how differences in religiosity affect economic growth. For given religious beliefs, increases in church attendance tend to reduce economic growth. In contrast, for given church attendance, increases in some religious beliefs -- notably heaven, hell, and an afterlife -- tend to increase economic growth. In other words, economic growth depends mainly on the extent of believing relative to belonging. The authors also find some indication that the fear of hell is more potent for economic growth than the prospect of heaven. Their statistical analysis allows them to argue that these estimates reflect causal influences from religion to economic growth and not the reverse.

Barro and McCleary suggest that higher rates of religious beliefs stimulate growth because they help to sustain aspects of individual behavior that enhance productivity. They believe that higher church attendance depresses growth because it signifies a greater use of resources by the religion sector. However, that suppression of growth is tempered by the extent to which church attendance leads to greater religious beliefs, which in turn encourages economic growth.

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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What do you understand by socialization? Explain any four agencies of socialization?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

The socialization that we receive in childhood has a lasting effect on our ability to interact with others in society. In this lesson, we identify and discuss four of the most influential agents of socialization in childhood: family, school, peers, and media. Socialization How do we learn to interact... read more
The socialization that we receive in childhood has a lasting effect on our ability to interact with others in society. In this lesson, we identify and discuss four of the most influential agents of socialization in childhood: family, school, peers, and media.

Socialization

How do we learn to interact with other people? Socialization is a lifelong process during which we learn about social expectations and how to interact with other people. Nearly all of the behavior that we consider to be 'human nature' is actually learned through socialization. And, it is during socialization that we learn how to walk, talk, and feed ourselves, about behavioral norms that help us fit in to our society, and so much more.

Socialization occurs throughout our life, but some of the most important socialization occurs in childhood. So, let's talk about the most influential agents of socialization. These are the people or groups responsible for our socialization during childhood - including family, school, peers, and mass media.

Family

There is no better way to start than to talk about the role of family in our social development, as family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. As infants, we are completely dependent on others to survive. Our parents, or those who play the parent role, are responsible for teaching us to function and care for ourselves. They, along with the rest of our family, also teach us about close relationships, group life, and how to share resources. Additionally, they provide us with our first system of values, norms, and beliefs - a system that is usually a reflection of their own social status, religion, ethnic group, and more.

 

 

For example, Alexander, a young boy who lives in America, was born to an immigrant family. He grew up bilingual and was taught the importance of collectivistic values through socialization with his family. This experience differs drastically from someone born to an older, 'traditional' American family that would emphasize the English language and individualistic values.

Schools

The next important agent of childhood socialization is the school. Of course, the official purpose of school is to transfer subject knowledge and teach life skills, such as following directions and meeting deadlines. But, students don't just learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. In school, we also learn social skills through our interactions with teachers, staff, and other students. For example, we learn the importance of obeying authority and that to be successful, we must learn to be quiet, to wait, and sometimes to act interested even when we're not.

Alexander, like other children, might even learn things from his teacher that she did not intend to teach. For instance, he might learn that it's best to yell out an answer instead of raising his hand. When he does so, he gets rare attention from the teacher and is hardly ever punished.

Peers

 

Another agent of socialization that relates to school is our peer group. Unlike the agents we've already discussed - family and school - peer groups give us an opportunity as children to form relationships with others on our own terms, plus learn things without the direction of an adult. Our peers have an incredible amount of influence on us when we're young, so it's understandable that parents worry about the type of friends we choose. Often, we discuss topics and learn behavioral norms from our peers that our parents do not or would not approve of.

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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

"Competition, cooperation and conflict co-exist in modern society." Justify

Sujoy D.

Tutor

People work together, strive with one another, and have personal issues that drive conflict. This lesson defines the social processes of cooperation, competition, and conflict and discusses their similarities and differences. Social Processes at Work Building a business had always been the biggest goal... read more
People work together, strive with one another, and have personal issues that drive conflict. This lesson defines the social processes of cooperation, competition, and conflict and discusses their similarities and differences.

Social Processes at Work

Building a business had always been the biggest goal of Brady's life. He wanted to start it on his own and make it a proposition of which he could be proud. He had learned how to use a smoker from his mother and had several good family spice rub recipes that he was going to use to start a barbecue place. He had help getting the restaurant started and the day came when he was able to open his doors.

Before he got into the business, he checked the competition and determined the best place to locate. He had a good location in the town and no other barbecue restaurants within a couple of miles. Unfortunately, there was a long-established Chinese restaurant right next door. He began to have problems with the owner of that restaurant as soon as he opened and the antagonism just got worse.

Brady was realizing his dream, but he was also beginning to realize that he couldn't have opened without the cooperation of those who had helped him. He also saw that there was always going to be competition for customers and conflict with other business owners. Brady was in the midst of a class in social processes whether he wanted to be or not.

Social Processes

The term social process describes a change that is consistent within a society over time. Though many of these processes have been defined, the processes of cooperation, competition, and conflict are three of the most common and stable within a society. These three processes, along with the others that have been defined, are seen as interactions between individuals within a society.

Defining Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict and their Intersections

When people interact, there are a few outcomes that can happen. Among these possible outcomes are:

  • Cooperation: when two or more people have a common goal that they work together to accomplish.
  • Competition: when two or more people strive against one another to gain possession of some good or service.
  • Conflict: this is a deliberate action in which one individual attempts to thwart the will of another.

At times people will cooperate dependently, meaning they work directly together and at other times independently, which means that they work toward the same goal but separately. These two types of cooperation are termed direct and indirect. Competition occurs in many endeavors such as athletics, business, and among nations. The concept of conflict is very broad and encompasses many different types of actions.

Intersections and Differences

Of course, these social processes do not always happen independently. People who are working together toward a common goal (cooperation) will often have a conflict until they resolve a difficulty in their decision making. In an athletic competition, there is often a great deal of conflict between the opposing sides, but there is a great deal of cooperation among the members of each team.

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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Define social groups. Explain any four types of social groups.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Social Groups Social groups are everywhere and are a basic part of human life; everywhere you look there seem to be groups of people! A main focus of sociology is the study of these social groups. A social group consists of two or more people who regularly interact and share a sense of unity and common... read more

Social Groups

Social groups are everywhere and are a basic part of human life; everywhere you look there seem to be groups of people! A main focus of sociology is the study of these social groups. A social group consists of two or more people who regularly interact and share a sense of unity and common identity. In other words, it's a group of people who see each other frequently and consider themselves a part of the group. Except in rare cases, we all typically belong to many different types of social groups. For example, you could be a member of a sports team, club, church group, college class, workplace, and more.

Primary Groups

No two groups are created equal. Each typically has its own purpose, culture, norms, etc. Sociologists differentiate between several different types of social groups. In this lesson, we'll discuss primary groups, secondary groups, and reference groups. Primary groups are those that are close-knit. They are typically small scale, include  relationships, and are usually long lasting. The members of primary groups feel a strong personal identity with the group.

 

nuclear family

 

Although the nuclear family is considered the ideal primary group by some sociologists, it is not the only example. Many people are also a member of a group of close friends. This group is usually small, and the relationships are still close-knit and enduring, so it is also a primary group. The term 'primary' is used with these groups because they are the primary source of relationships and socialization. The relationships in our primary groups give us love, security, and companionship. We also learn values and norms from our family and friends that stay with us for most, if not all, of our lives.

Secondary Groups

Secondary groups are another type of social group. They have the opposite characteristics of primary groups. They can be small or large and are mostly impersonal and usually short term. These groups are typically found at work and school. An example of a secondary group is a committee organized to plan a holiday party at work. Members of the committee meet infrequently and for only a short period of time. Although group members may have some similar interests, the purpose of the group is about the task instead of the relationships. Sometimes, secondary groups become pretty informal, and the members get to know each other fairly well. Even so, their friendships exist in a limited context; they won't necessarily remain close beyond the holiday party.

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Answered on 21 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What is meant by social order and how is it maintained?

Thirumani

Tutor

The term social order can be used in two senses. In the first sense, it refers to a particular set or system of linked social structures, institutions, relations, customs, values and practices, which conserve, maintain and enforce certain patterns of relating and behaving. read more

The term social order can be used in two senses. In the first sense, it refers to a particular set or system of linked social structures, institutions, relations, customs, values and practices, which conserve, maintain and enforce certain patterns of relating and behaving.

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Answered on 23 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Why is enlightenment important for development of sociology?

Ramya

Primary Teacher

shape the structure of society and make more secular.
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Answered on 07 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/Sociology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

How is ethnocentrism different from cosmopolitan outlook?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Highlights • PCI effects differ between developed country and developing country consumers. • Consumers with high COS from developing countries now have a higher HPCI. • The relationship between COS and HPCI is stronger for developed country consumers. • The relationship... read more

Highlights

 

PCI effects differ between developed country and developing country consumers.

Consumers with high COS from developing countries now have a higher HPCI.

The relationship between COS and HPCI is stronger for developed country consumers.

The relationship between CET and FPCI is stronger for developing country consumers.

 

Abstract

Although the differences between developed and developing countries have been extensively studied in the context of globalization strategies, few studies have so far been conducted on the relationship between country development status and the possession by countries of a favorable (or unfavorable) product country image (PCI). Moreover, the results of such studies to date have been inconclusive. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of country developmental status on PCI coupled with two antecedents of PCI, namely consumer ethnocentrism and cosmopolitanism. The paper also distinguishes between the PCI of the home and foreign country images of respondents. We test a new model that incorporates these constructs with a sample of 2655 younger generation consumers. The results show that country development status moderates some relationships but does not moderate others. These findings have significant implications for international companies from both developed and developing countries when developing global strategy.

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