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Basics Of Camera

Vishal Kudale
28/06/2017 0 1

1) Parts of digital camera:

1. Lens: The lens is one of the most vital parts of a camera. The light enters through the lens, and this is where the photo process begins. Lenses can be either fixed permanently to the body or interchangeable. They can also vary in focal length, aperture, and other details.

2. Viewfinder: The viewfinder can be found on all DSLRs and some models of digital compacts. On DSLRs, it will be the main visual source for image-taking, but many of today’s digital compacts have replaced the typical viewfinder with an LCD screen.

3. Body: The body is the main portion of the camera, and bodies can be a number of different shapes and sizes. DSLRs tend to be larger bodied and a bit heavier, while there are other consumer cameras that are a conveniently smaller size and even able to fit into a pocket.

4. Shutter Release: The shutter release button is the mechanism that “releases” the shutter and therefore enables the ability to capture the image. The length of time the shutter is left open or “exposed” is determined by the shutter speed.

5. Aperture: The aperture affects the image’s exposure by changing the diameter of the lens opening, which controls the amount of light reaching the image sensor. Some digital compacts will have a fixed aperture lens, but most of today’s compact cameras have at least a small aperture range. This range will be expressed in f/stops. For DSLRs, the lens will vary on f/stop limits, but it is usually easily defined by reading the side of the lens. There
will be a set of numbers stating the f/stop or f/stop range, ex: f/2.8 or f/3.5-5.6. This will be your lowest settings available with that lens.

6. Image Sensor: The image sensor converts the optical image to an electronic signal, which is then sent to your memory card. There are two main types of image sensors that are used in most digital cameras: CMOS and CCD. Both forms of the sensor accomplish the same task, but each has a different method of performance.

7. Memory Card: The memory card stores all of the image information, and they range in size and speed capacity. The main types of memory cards available are CF and SD cards, and cameras vary on which type that they require.

8. LCD Screen: The LCD screen is found on the back of the body and can vary in size. On digital compact cameras, the LCD has typically begun to replace the viewfinder completely. On DSLRs, the LCD is mainly for viewing photos after shooting, but some cameras do have a “live mode” as well.

9. Flash: The on-board flash will be available on all cameras except some professional grade DSLRs. It can sometimes be useful to provide a bit of extra light during dim, low light situations.

10. User Controls: The controls on each camera will vary depending on the model and type. Your basic digital compacts may only have auto settings that can be used for different environments, while a DSLR will have numerous controls for auto and manual shooting along with custom settings.

2) Parts of manual camera:

1. The Camera Body: All the internal mechanical, optical, and chemical parts of a camera are held together by the Camera body. This serves to protect these very sensitive parts. The Camera body also serves as a framework against which the other parts of the Camera articulate to function properly.

2. The Lens: The Lens is undoubtedly the most important component of the Camera (considering the main purpose of a Camera). The lens takes the beams of light bouncing off an object and focuses this light on the image plane so that a real image is formed that can be photographed. The greater majority of the modifications and refinements that have occurred in the camera since its invention have centered on or around the Lens, and that underscores the importance of this part of the camera.

3. The Film: This is a thin roll of light -sensitive plastic which is placed at the image plane of the Lens. When the Camera is ready to take pictures, several devices combine to ensure that the film is exposed to the image formed by the lens. When the film is exposed to the image coming from the lens it records the image, and we have pictures! Before and after use, the film is stored in a light-tight film holder. Unknown to most persons, there are no black and white or color cameras. We only have black and white and color films. It is the film that determines whether a picture will come out as black and white or colored.

4 .Viewfinder: This is a part of the Camera that helps us decide which object we want to photograph. It helps us point the camera in the correct direction and indicates what will or will not appear in the final photograph. Viewfinders are of two types: (1) Those that work independent of the lens, known as aim-and -shoot cameras; (2) Those that show exactly what the lens is seeing, found in SLR (Single Lens Reflex) cameras.

5. Shutter: The shutter determines how long the film is exposed to light or to the image coming from the lens. Shutters are of two types: the one located just behind the lens, called the leaf shutter; the second type is located in front of the film plane, it's called the focal plane shutter. The shutter consists of two metal sheets or "curtains" which remain shut or closed when the camera is not in use. But when the shutter release button is depressed, one of these curtains slide open to allow the image from the lens to hit the film. After a brief moment, the second metal sheet of curtain will slide in to close the opening. The interval between theopening and closing depends on the speed we selected using the shutter speed knob.

6. Aperture: This is an opening, or hole, at the center of the lens. The function is to cause images to be brightened or dimmed uniformly. This is achieved by increasing or reducing the size of the hole, using a knob called the Aperture Ring. When the opening is enlarged, more light passes through the lens, causing the picture to brighten. Conversely when the opening reduces, less light is let in, thus dimming the image or picture.

7. Flash Shoe (or Accessory Jack): This is the hook to which one may attach a flash, if one chooses to use a flash and the camera supports it. This accessory is located just above the Viewfinder.

8 . Focusing Ring: When we are looking through the Viewfinder, it is the Focusing Ring that is used to bring the object into focus. It is more like an adjuster.

9. Film Cavity: This is the location where the roll of film is placed in the camera. This cavity is secured from light. It is a sort of dark chamber whose job is to ensure that the only light reaching the film is the one coming through the lens, and even then only when the shutter is open. This is important since the film cannot differentiate between the light coming from the lens and the one coming from other sources. Without this cavity lights from the surrounding area would easily hit the film and distort the picture quality.

10. Film Rewind Knob: This knob is used to return all the exposed roll of film back into their casing. This must first be done before removing the exposed film from the camera; otherwise the negative will be ruined! Some modern cameras perform this function automatically once we've taken the last exposure.

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Bhura Ram | 15/05/2021


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