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Answered on 01 Apr Learn MCom Tuition

Can anyone provide list of chapters of Strategic cost Management of M.Com Sem 3 panjab university? 

Chirag Dave

Tutor (For Home/Online Tuitions)

Just visit the link below and download your course syllabi which includes all chapters link there https://puchd.ac.in/syllabus.php?qstrfacid=2
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Answered on 18/12/2021 Learn MCom Tuition

I have completed B.com looking for career oriented courses please guide which course will good for my career

Debarshi Gupta

Economics, mathematics and statistics tutor with over 12 years teaching experience

If you are interested in building a career in corporate sector, you may try MBA. If you are interested more in pure accounting you may enroll for CA or costing. If you are interested in becoming financial analyst the best option is to try for CFA. There are few short term courses as well. Such as certificate... read more

If you are interested in building a career in corporate sector, you may try MBA. If you are interested more in pure accounting you may enroll for CA or costing. If you are interested in becoming financial analyst the best option is to try for CFA.

There are few short term courses as well. Such as certificate in management accounting, short courses that prepare you for banking jobs, tally etc.

It will all depend on your ambitions, aspirations, time and money that you may invest for the purpose.

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Lesson Posted on 08/12/2018 Learn MCom Tuition +1 Cost Accounting

M.COM SEM 2

SHEZAD LALANI

I can teach financial accounting, cost accounting, financial Management, direct Tax,indirect tax

Transfer Pricing It is the price set up by the selling division to buying division for the supply of intermediate goods or services Transfer price can be TP=Variable Cost TP=variable cost + Fixed Cost +profi TP= Standard Cost TP= marginal Cost read more

Transfer Pricing

It is the price set up by the selling division to buying division for the supply of intermediate goods or services

Transfer price can be

TP=Variable Cost

TP=variable cost + Fixed Cost +profi

TP= Standard Cost

TP= marginal Cost

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Lesson Posted on 18/03/2018 Learn MCom Tuition +1 Economics

Concept of Disequilibrium in Balance of Payments. Measures adopted for Disequilibrium restoration in B.O.P

Educator Titir S

I am a talent consultant with around 9 years into the Human resource industry. My job has been cultivating...

Please find notes on. read more

Please find notes on.

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Lesson Posted on 31/07/2017 Learn MCom Tuition +4 Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) BCom Tuition BBA Tuition MBA Entrance Coaching

The Golden Rule of Accounting

Kousiki Chakraborty

Teaching is my hobby and not my profession. I have around 16 years teaching experience. I started my...

The Golden Rule of Accounting: Debit The Receiver, Credit The Giver: This principle is used in the case of personal accounts. When a person gives something to the organization, it becomes an inflow and therefore the person must be credit in the books of accounts. The converse of this is also... read more

The Golden Rule of Accounting:

  • Debit The Receiver, Credit The Giver:

This principle is used in the case of personal accounts. When a person gives something to the organization, it becomes an inflow and therefore the person must be credit in the books of accounts. The converse of this is also true, which is why the receiver needs to be debited.

  • Debit What Comes In, Credit What Goes Out:

This principle is applied in case of real accounts. Real accounts involve machinery, land and building etc. They have a debit balance by default. Thus when you debit what comes in, you are adding to the existing account balance. This is exactly what needs to be done. Similarly when you credit what goes out, you are reducing the account balance when a tangible asset goes out of the organization.

  • Debit All Expenses And Losses, Credit All Incomes And Gains:

This rule is applied when the account in question is a nominal account. The capital of the company is a liability. Therefore it has a default credit balance. When you credit all incomes and gains, you increase the capital and by debiting expenses and losses, you decrease the capital. This is exactly what needs to be done for the system to stay in balance.

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Lesson Posted on 31/07/2017 Learn MCom Tuition +10 BBA Tuition BCom Tuition MBA Tuition MBA Entrance Coaching CA Coaching Company Secratary (CS) Coaching ICWA Coaching Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) HR Training Vocational Training

Uses For Computers In Business World

Kousiki Chakraborty

Teaching is my hobby and not my profession. I have around 16 years teaching experience. I started my...

Almost every business uses computers to complete daily tasks. From making contact with clients to inputting data for reports, computers allow businesses a more efficient way to manage affairs when compared to traditional paper and manila folders. Businesses use a variety of different types of computers... read more

Almost every business uses computers to complete daily tasks. From making contact with clients to inputting data for reports, computers allow businesses a more efficient way to manage affairs when compared to traditional paper and manila folders. Businesses use a variety of different types of computers such as desktops, laptops, servers, smartphones and tablets, depending on their needs. With computers, employees are able to work anytime, anywhere.

1. Communication:

Communication is key when gaining and maintaining clients and other important contacts. Computers give businesses access to email, instant messaging and custom customer contact systems. Computerized phone systems allow for automated support during off hours and a virtual operator can quickly direct callers to the correct department for faster support.

2. Marketing:

Computers allow businesses to create websites, stunning ads and complete marketing campaigns. Marketing videos can be edited and custom ads created in-house with the use of specialized software. Businesses can completely develop and manage websites with their own servers or connect remotely to a third-party business to upload their latest content such as articles, product images and blog posts.

3. Accounting:

Accounting without computers presents a high risk for human error. Accounting software allows businesses to simply input their financial data and instantly see gains and losses. All necessary tax reports are available the moment the data is entered. Using computers for invoicing, managing expenses and calculating payroll is vital for ensuring financial data is as accurate as possible.

4. Storage:

Instead of filing cabinets, businesses are able to store millions of files using computers and servers. Data can be stored centrally for easy access from multiple computers or stored locally for individual use. Computerized storage saves space and provides a far more efficient organization strategy. With encryption, passwords and replace keys, data remains secure.

5. Documents and Reports:

Most businesses have some sort of productivity software which typically includes a word processor and spreadsheet application. These two programs allow businesses to create reports, memos, tutorials and even colorful ads for company events. Spreadsheet applications give businesses the chance to organize, manage and calculate both numeric and alphabetic data. With charts and graphs, reporting becomes visual instead of text-based.

6. Education:

Businesses use computers to help educate employees on software, company policy, standard procedures and safety. Instead of hiring teachers, computers can be used to educate employees at their own pace or through an online webinar with live questions and answers. This form of education fits the busy schedules of businesses without sacrificing the quality of the education.

7. Research:

From learning more about the competition to discovering what customers really want, research isn't as difficult as it once was, thanks to computers. Search engines, forums, social networks and industry specific websites provide businesses with a wealth of information and research data.

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Lesson Posted on 31/07/2017 Learn MCom Tuition +3 MBA Tuition HR Training Vocational Training

Human Resource Management: Personal Management

Kousiki Chakraborty

Teaching is my hobby and not my profession. I have around 16 years teaching experience. I started my...

1. Meaning of Personnel Management: Personnel refer to the employees working in an organisation. They represent the manpower which is an important asset of a business unit. Employees are the real supporters of a business unit and they contribute substantially for the stability and prosperity of a business... read more

1. Meaning of Personnel Management:

Personnel refer to the employees working in an organisation. They represent the manpower which is an important asset of a business unit. Employees are the real supporters of a business unit and they contribute substantially for the stability and prosperity of a business unit. Employees have various problems relating to wage payment, promotions, transfers, working conditions, welfare facilities, training and so on. All such problems are treated as personnel problems. These problems come within the scope of personnel management which is one important area of total business management. Naturally, a separate department called 'Personnel Department' is created in every organisation. It looks after the personnel problems. The manager in charge of this department is called personnel manager. He has to perform various functions which are responsible in nature and also delicate. He needs tact and imagination while dealing with personnel problems. He also needs active support of the top management for dealing with personnel problems effectively.

A personnel manager must be a specialist in organisation theory. In addition, he should be an expert in the personnel administration with knowledge of relevant Labour laws, procedures and so on. A personnel manager needs sound academic qualifications, communication skill, broad social outlook, sympathy and consideration for employees. Knowledge of subjects like philosophy, logic, sociology and ethics is also useful while discharging his duties and responsibilities. He needs a keen sense of social justice and also rights and interest of men (employees) at work. A personnel manager also needs other qualities which are normally required by a successful manager.

In short, personnel management deals with the people working in an organisation. It studies and solves their problems in order to create an efficient, loyal and co-operative labour force for the benefit of a business enterprise.

Personnel management deals with "personnel" of the organisation. It is concerned primarily with the manpower resource inputs.

2. Definitions of Personnel Management:

  1. According to Edwin Flippo, "Personnel management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the people for the purpose of contributing to organizational, individual and social goals."

  2. According to George R. Terry, "Personnel management is concerned with the obtaining and maintaining of a satisfactory and a satisfied, workforce."

  3. According to British Institute of Personnel Management, in London, "Personnel management is that part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise."

3. Features of Personnel Management: 

  1. Personnel management relates to managing people at work. It covers all levels of personnel’s and their needs, expectations and so on. In this sense, it is a comprehensive function and is basically concerned with managing people at work.

  2. Personnel management is concerned with employees, both as individuals as well as a group. The aim of personnel management is to get better results (for the Organisation) through their involvement, motivation and co-operation. It is a people-oriented process of bringing people and organisations together so that the goals of each are met property.

  3. Personnel management is concerned with helping the employees to learn and develop their potentialities to the highest level for their benefits as well as for the benefits of their Organisation.

  4. Personnel management is inherent in all organisations as all organisations (including industrial and commercial) need manpower for the conduct of their activities. They are concerned with recruitment, selection, utilisation and development of manpower available. Personnel management is an integral aspect of total business management.

  5. Personnel management is a continuous activity/function in an Organisation as personnel problems continue to exist as long as employees are working in an Organisation. They need constant attention as they may disturb normal working of an Organisation, if neglected.

  6. Personnel management aims as securing willing co-operation of employees for achieving organizational objectives. This is natural as industrial and other activities can be conducted only with the support of human resources.

4. Objectives / Purposes of Personnel Management:

  1. To attain maximum individual development (self development) of the members of an Organisation and also to utilise available human resources fully and effectively.

  2. To mould effectively the human resources.

  3. To establish desirable working relationships between employer and employees and between groups of employees.

  4. To ensure satisfaction to the workers so that they are freely ready to work.

  5. To improve the service rendered by the enterprise to the society through better employee morale which leads to more efficient individual and group performance.

  6. To establish and maintain a productive and self respecting relationship among the members of an Organisation.

  7. To ensure the availability of a competent and willing workforce to the Organisation for its progress and prosperity.

  8. To help Organisation to achieve its goals by providing well trained, efficient and property motivated employees.

  9. To maintain high morale and good human relations within the Organisation for the benefit of employer and employees.

  10. To secure the integration of all the individuals and groups with the Organisation by reconciling individual/group goals with those of an Organisation.

5. Functions of Personnel / HR Management:

The functions of HRM are directly or indirectly related to the human resource available in the organisation. HR manager has to perform the basic functions of management in the area of HRM. These managerial functions include planning, organising, directing and controlling the manpower of his department. The operative functions of the HRM include procurement of manpower, development of manpower, and payment compensation to manpower and so on. In short, HRM involves the following functions and these functions are to be performed by the HRM department of the Organisation:

Functions of Personnel / HR Management are :

  1. Procurement of manpower : Procurement means acquiring or resourcing the human resources or the manpower required by an Organisation from time-to-time. Such procurement will be from the employment market. The basic principle in procurement is "right man for the right job". The procurement function includes manpower planning and forecasting, recruitment, selection, appointment, placement and induction of employees so as to have a team of efficient and capable employees for the benefits of the Organisation. Even promotions and transfers are covered by this broad personnel function. At present, scientific methods are used for recruitment and selection of most suitable manpower for the benefit of the Organisation.

  2. Training and Development of manpower : Development of manpower (human resource development) means planning and execution of the training programmes for all categories of employees in order to develop new skills and qualities required for working at the higher level. Manpower development is possible through training programmes and not simply by offering suitable wages to workers. Such manpower development (possible through systematic training programmes) is required for meeting the growing and changing needs of manpower along with the expansion and diversification of business activities. Executive development programmes are introduced for the benefit of higher level managers. Promotions and transfers are possible when manpower development programmes are introduced regularly. Similarly, future manpower requirement will be met properly through such manpower development programmes. This suggests the importance / significance of human resource development. It aims at educating and training employees for the improvement of overall performance of an Organisation. HRD programmes are for education, training and development of existing manpower in an Organisation. This is for facing new problems and challenges likely to develop in the near future.

  3. Compensation payment and reward to manpower employed : One function of HRM department is to pay compensation (in monetary form) to employees for the services rendered. For this, a fair system of remuneration payment (wages and salaries) needs to be introduced. Remuneration to employees should be suitable so that the labour force will be satisfied and disputes, etc., will be minimized. Fair wage payment acts as a motivating factor. Along with compensation payment, HRM also deals with reward system. It is a type of appreciation of exceptional good work and offer some monetary or non-monetary incentive to suitable employees.

  4. Integration of interests of manpower and the Organisation : Manpower is interested in wage payment while Organisation is interested in higher profits, consumer loyalty market reputation and so on. Personnel management has to reconcile the interests of the individual members of the Organisation with those of the Organisation. This will ensure cordial industrial relations. Reconciliation of individual, social and organizational goals and interest is one challenge before HRM.

  5. Maintenance of manpower : This HRM function relating to maintaining of satisfied manpower in the Organisation through the provision of welfare facilities. For this attention needs to be given to health and safety measures, maintenance of proper working conditions at the work place, provision of welfare facilities and other non-monetary benefits so as to create efficient and satisfied labour force with high morale. Even collective bargaining and workers participation come within this broad personnel function. Maintenance of stable manpower is difficult due to the availability of ample employment opportunities.

  6. Provision of welfare facilities : Employees are offered various welfare facilities. They include medical, educational, recreation, housing, transport and so on. These facilities are given for raising their efficiency and also for making their life happy. Welfare facilities create efficient and satisfied Labour force. To introduce new labour welfare facilities and to maintain the existing facilities is one of the functions of HRM.

  7. Miscellaneous functions : Misc. functions performed under personnel management are :

    1. Maintenance of service records of employees,

    2. Promotions and transfers of employees,

    3. Maintaining cordial industrial relations,

    4. Introduction of rational grievance procedure,

    5. Performance evaluation of employees,

    6. Career planning of employees,

    7. Maintenance of discipline, administering the policies with regard to disciplinary action and compliance of various labour laws,

    8. Restructuring of the Organisation,

    9. Formulating HRM strategy, etc.

 These HRM functions need to be performed regularly for the benefit of employees and also for continuity in the production activities of the Organisation.

W.R. Spriegel has divided the functions of personnel management / HRM department into the following six broad categories:

  1. Employment.

  2. Promotion, Transfer and Termination.

  3. Training.

  4. Wages and other incentives.

  5. Service activities (welfare activities).

  6. Collective bargaining and workers' participation.

As per Indian Institute of Personnel Management (IIMP now called NIPM), the Personnel / HRM functions are classified as noted below :

  1. Improvement of industrial relations,

  2. Promotion of joint consultation,

  3. Helping management to formulate a labour policy and improving communication between management and employees,

  4. Advising management on the fulfillment of statutory obligations relating to safety, health and welfare of the employees,

  5. Improving factory amenities and welfare provisions, and

  6. Advising the management on the training and future education of employees.

In the HRM department, various sections are created in order to give attention to various functions which are basically HRM functions. The functions (as noted above) are varied in character. These are functions of HRM and also the functions of personnel management. They are important and needs constant attention. Efficient, satisfied and co-operative labour force can be created by giving proper attention to various personnel functions.

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Lesson Posted on 30/03/2017 Learn MCom Tuition +6 CA Coaching ICWA Coaching MBA Tuition BCom Tuition BBA Tuition Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Incorporation of a Company

CA Prashanth Reddy

I enjoy teaching and interacting with students. Teaching is my passion, profession and hobby. Every student...

What are the four stages of formation of a company? There are four stages in the formation of a company: STAGE I- Promotion of a company STAGE II- Registration and incorporation of a company STAGE III- Raising of capital STAGE IV- Commencement of business What do you mean by ‘promotion of... read more

What are the four stages of formation of a company?

There are four stages in the formation of a company:

STAGE I- Promotion of a company

STAGE II- Registration and incorporation of a company

STAGE III- Raising of capital

STAGE IV- Commencement of business

What do you mean by ‘promotion of a company’ and ‘promoter’?

Promotion of a Company:

Promotion is the first stage in the formation of a company. Certain persons who wish to carry on some business come together to form a company.

These persons are known as promoters.

  • ‘Promotion’ means the   preliminary steps   undertaken by   the promoters to bring a Company into existence.

It refers to all those steps which are taken from the time of having an idea of starting a company to the time of actual starting of a company.

Meaning Of Promoter:

  • Promoter’ means a person who thinks of forming a Company and actually brings it into
  • He takes all the effective steps to incorporate
  • A person, who was not associated with the initial formation of the Company but subsequently helps in floating its capital, will also be regarded as
  • Persons assisting the promoters by acting in a professional capacity are not promoters. However, if he goes further than this, like, introducing his clients to a person who may be interested in purchasing the shares in the proposed Company would be regarded as
  • A person who originates a scheme for the formation of the company, has the Memorandum and Articles prepared, executed and registered, and finds the first Directors, settles the terms of preliminary contracts and prospectus (if any), and makes arrangements for advertising and circulating the prospectus and placing the capital, is a

The relationship between the promoter and the company starts from the day the work of floating the company starts and continues up to the time the Directors take into their hands what remains to be done in the way of forming the company. Thus, the status of a promoter is generally terminated when the BOD has been formed and the Board starts governing the company.

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Lesson Posted on 30/03/2017 Learn MCom Tuition +12 CA Coaching ICWA Coaching Company Secratary (CS) Coaching MBA Tuition BCom Tuition BBA Tuition B Ed Tuition Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) BCA Tuition Accountancy Corporate Accounting E-Business Accounting

Consignment Meaning & Features

CA Prashanth Reddy

I enjoy teaching and interacting with students. Teaching is my passion, profession and hobby. Every student...

Meaning & Features Of Consignment Meaning: Consignment means the transaction of sending goods by one person (called CONSIGNOR) to another (called CONSIGNEE) who is to sell those goods on behalf of the Ist person. Features The relation between consignor and consignee is that of principal and... read more

Meaning & Features Of Consignment

Meaning: Consignment means the transaction of sending goods by one person (called CONSIGNOR) to another (called CONSIGNEE) who is to sell those goods on behalf of the Ist person.

Features

  • The relation between consignor and consignee is that of principal and agent.
  • Only the possession and not ownership is transferred to
  • Risk of goods remains with Consignor and not with the
  • Only movable property is subject matter of the
  • Consignment goods are dispatched on the basis that the goods will be sold on behalf of, at the expense and at the risk of the consignor.
  • Consignor sends Pro-forma Invoice and not Sales
  • Consignee sends Account Sales (which contains information as to Sales, Expenses, Commission, Advance, and Balance due).
  • The Profit or Loss on consignment belongs to Consignor and not Consignee.
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Working Capital

CA Prashanth Reddy

I enjoy teaching and interacting with students. Teaching is my passion, profession and hobby. Every student...

Introduction A firm invests a part of its permanent capital in fixed assets and keeps a part of it for working capital e., for meeting the day to day requirements. We will hardly find a firm which does not require any amount of working capital for its normal operations. The requirement of working... read more

Introduction

  • A firm invests a part of its permanent capital in fixed assets and keeps a part of it for working capital e., for meeting the day to day requirements.
  • We will hardly find a firm which does not require any amount of working capital for its normal operations. The requirement of working capital varies from firm to firm depending upon the nature of business, production policy, market conditions, seasonality of operations, conditions of supply
  • Working capital to a company is like the blood to human body. It is the most vital ingredient of a
  • Working capital management if carried out effectively, efficiently and consistently, will assure the health of an

Meaning of Working Capital :

Working capital is defined as the excess of current assets over current liabilities.

Current assets are those assets which will be converted into cash within the current accounting period or within the next year as a result of the ordinary operations of the business. They are cash or near cash resources. These include:

  • Cash and Bank Balances
  • Receivables
  • Inventory
    • Raw materials, stores and spares
    • Work – in - progress
    • Finished goods
  • Prepaid expenses
  • Short-term advances
  • Temporary investments

The value represented by these assets circulates among several items. Cash is used to buy raw – materials, to pay wages and to meet other manufacturing expenses. Finished goods are produced. These are held as inventories. When these are sold, accounts receivables are created. The collection of accounts receivable brings cash into the firm. The cycle starts again. Current liabilities are the debts of the firms that have to be paid during the current accounting period or within a year.

These include:

  • Creditors for goods
  • Outstanding expenses e., expenses due but not paid.
  • Short – term
  • Advances received against
  • Taxes and dividends payable
  • Other liabilities maturing within a

Working capital is also known as circulating capital, fluctuating capital and revolving capital. The magnitude and composition keep on changing continuously in the course of business.

Gross and Net Working Capital

Generally the Working capital has its significance in two perspectives – ‘Gross working capital’ and ‘Net Working capital’.

Gross Working capital: The gross working capital refers to investment in all the current assets. The total of investments in all current assets is known as gross working capital.

Net Working Capital:

  • It is the excess of current assets over current This is, as a matter of fact, the most commonly accepted definition. Some people define it as only the difference between current assets and current liabilities.
  • It is that portion of a firm’s current assets which is financed by long – term

Need for Working Capital

The basic objective of financial management is to maximize shareholders’ wealth. This is possible only when the company earns sufficient profit. The amount of such profit largely depends upon the magnitude of sales. However, sales do not convert into cash instantaneously. There is always a time gap between the sale of goods and receipt of cash. Working capital is required for this period in order to sustain the sales activity. In case adequate working capital is not available for this period, the company will not be in a position to sustain the sales since it may not be in a position to purchase raw materials, pay wages and other expenses required for manufacturing the goods to be sold.

Permanent and Temporary Working Capital:

Working capital can be divided into two categories on the basis of time:

  1. Permanent Working Capital
  2. Temporary or Variable Working

Permanent working capital represents the assets required on continuing basis over the entire year, whereas temporary working capital represents additional assets required at different items during the operation of the year.

Permanent working capital: This refers to that minimum amount of investment in all current assets, which is required at all times to carry out minimum level business activities. In other words, it represents the current assets required on a continuing basis over the entire year. Tandon Committee has referred to this type of working capital as “Hard Core current basis”.

The following are the characteristics of this type of working capital:

  1. Amount of permanent working capital remains in the business in one form or This is particularly important from the point of view of financing. The suppliers of such working capital should not expect its return during the life-term of the firm.
  2. It also grows with the size of the In other words, greater the size of the business, greater is the amount of such working capital and vice versa.

Permanent working capital is permanently needed for the business and therefore, it should preferably be financed out of long – term funds.

Temporary working capital: It refers to that part of total working capital which is required by a business over and above permanent working capital. It is also called variable working capital. Since the volume of temporary working capital keeps on fluctuating from time to time. In other words, it represents additional currents assets required at different times during the operating year. For example, extra inventory has to be maintained to support sales during peak sales period. Similarly, receivable also increase and must be financed during period of high sales. On the other hand investment in inventories, receivables, etc., will decrease in periods of depression. Temporary working capital is generally financed from short – term sources of finance such as bank credit.

Permanent working capital is fixed over a period of time, while temporary working capital is fluctuating. The permanent working capital is increasing over a period of time with increase in the level of business activity. This happens in case of a growing company. Hence, the permanent working capital line is not horizontal with the base line.

 

 

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