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Computer Awareness

Parul S.
23/01/2018 0 0

A Computer is an electronic device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.


1. Introduction:


i. Speed: The speed of computation is very high as the signals pass at the speed of light. Thus, millions of calculations can be done in a second.


ii. Accuracy: As computers work on inbuilt software programs, there is no scope for human errors and are hence, highly accurate.


iii. Information and Storage: A computer can store a large amount of data or instructions in its memory which can be retrieved at point of time.


iv. Other characteristics include: Consistency, Automatic Operation, and Flexibility.


2. Characteristics of Computers:

i. Father of Computer: Charles Babbage

ii. Father of Modern Computer Science: Alan Tuning

iii. First Un-programmable Electronic Digital Computer: Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC)

iv. First Purpose Electronic Digital Computer: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)

 

3. Generations of computers:

a. First Generation (1946 - 1959):

i. Used vacuum tubes & batch processing OS

ii. Machine & Assembly Languages used

iii. Examples: ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, IBM-650


b. Second Generation (1959 - 1965):

i. Used transistors.

ii. OS: Multi-Bag remaining, Time sharing.

iii. Memory: Magnetic cores, magnetic tapes and disks.

iv. Used assembly and high-level languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol.

v. Examples: IBM 1620, IBM 7094, CDC 1604.


c. Third Generation (1965 - 1971):

i. Used ICs

ii. OS: Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time,

iii. Multi-programming

iv. Used High-level languages FORTRAN-II TO IV, Cobol, Pascal PL/1, Basic, Algol-68

v. Examples: IBM-360 series, Honeywell-6000 series, PDP, IBM-370/168


d. Fourth Generation (1971 - 1980):

i. VLSI Circuits Used.

ii. Memory: Semiconductor and Winchester disk.

iii. High level Languages: Fortan 77, Pascal, Cobol used.

iv. Examples: DEC 10, STAR 1000, PDP 11, Super Computers (CRAY-1, CRAY-X-MP).

 

e. The present generation of computers is the Fifth Generation of computers, i.e. 1980 – till date. The computers use ultra large scale integration (ULSI).

 

f. High level languages like C++, Java, .NET, etc. are used. Some examples are: laptop, desktop, ultrabook etc.

                                         

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