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Metals And Non-Metals

Tejas Academy Centre
12/04/2017 0 0

Metals and Non-metals:-

Elements are divided mainly into two groups on the basis of physical and chemical properties – Metal and Non-metal.

Physical Properties of Metals:

Hardness: Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, etc. Sodium, potassium, lithium etc. are very soft metals, these can be cut using knife.

Strength: Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this big structures are made using metals, such as copper and iron.

State: Metals are solid at room temperature except mercury.

 

Sound: Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called sonorous. Sound of metals is also known as metallic sound. This is the cause that metal wires are used in making musical instruments.

Conduction: Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. This is the cause that electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminium.

Malleability: Metals are malleable. This means metals can be beaten into thin sheet. Because of this property iron is used in making big ships.

Ductility: Metals are ductile. This means metals can be drawn into thin wire. Because of this property wires are made of metals.

Melting and boiling point: Metals have generally high melting and boiling points.

Density: Most of the metals have high density.

Color: Most of the metals are grey in color. But gold and copper are exceptions.

Chemical Properties of Metals

Reaction with oxygen:

Most of the metals form respective metal oxides when react with oxygen.

Metal + Oxygen ---> Metal oxide

Examples:

Reaction of potassium with oxygen: Potassium metal forms potassium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

4K + O2 ---> 2K2O

Reaction of sodium with oxygen: Sodium metal forms sodium oxide when reacts with oxygen.

4Na + O2 ---> 2Na2O

 

Lithium, potassium, sodium, etc. are known as alkali metals. Alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen.

Reaction of magnesium metal with oxygen: Magnesium metal gives magnesium oxide when reacts with oxygen. Magnesium burnt with dazzling light in air and produces lot of heat.

2Mg + O2 ---> 2MgO

Reaction of aluminium metal with oxygen: Aliminium metal does not react with oxygen at room temperature but it gives aluminium oxide when burnt in air.

4Al + 3O2 ---> 2Al2O3

 

Reaction of zinc metal with oxygen: Zinc does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But it gives zinc oxide when heated strongly in air.

2Zn + O2 ---> 2ZnO

Reaction of Iron metal with oxygen: Iron does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But when iron is heated strongly in air, it gives iron oxide.

3Fe + 2O2 ---> Fe3O4

Iron fillings give sparkle in flame when burnt.

Reaction of copper metal with oxygen: Copper does not react with oxygen at room temperature but when burnt in air, it gives copper oxide.

2Cu + O2 ---> 2CuO

Reaction of metals with water:

Metals form respective metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas when react with water.

Metal + Water ---> Metal hydroxide + Hydrogen

Most of the metals do not react with water. However, alkali metals react vigorously with water.

Reaction of sodium metal with water: Sodium metal forms sodium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with lot of heat when reacts with water.

Na + H2O ---> NaOH + H2

 

Reaction of potassium metal with water: Potassium metal forms potassium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen gas along with lot of heat when reacts with water.

K + H2O ---> KOH + H2

Reaction of calcium metal with water: Calcium forms calcium hydroxide along with hydrogen gas and heat when reacts with water.

Ca + 2H2O ---> Ca(OH)2 + H2

Reaction of magnesium metal with water: Magnesium metal reacts with water slowly and forms magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

Mg + 2H2O ---> Mg(OH)2 + H2

When steam is passed over magnesium metal, magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas are formed.

Mg + H2O ---> MgO + H2

 

Reaction of aluminium metal with water: Reaction of aluminium metal with cold water is too slow to come into notice. But when steam is passed over aluminium metal; aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas are produced.

2Al + 3H2O ---> Al2O3 + 2H2

Reaction of zinc metal with water: Zinc metal produces zinc oxide and hydrogen gas when steam is passed over it. Zinc does not react with cold water.

Zn + H2O ---> ZnO + H2

 

Reaction of Iron with water: Reaction of iron with cold water is very slow and come into notice after a long time. Iron forms rust (iron oxide) when reacts with moisture present in atmosphere.

Iron oxide and hydrogen gas are formed by passing of steam over iron metal.

3Fe + 4H2O ---> Fe3O4 + 4H2

Other metals usually do not react with water or react very slowly.

Reaction of metals with dilute acid:

Metals form respective salts when react with dilute acid.

Metal + dil. acid ---> Metal salt + Hydrogen

Reaction of sodium metal with dilute acid: Sodium metal gives sodium chloride and hydrogen gas when react with dilute hydrochloric acid.

2Na + 2HCl ---> 2NaCl + H2

Reaction of potassium with dilute sulphuric acid: Potassium sulphate and hydrogen gas are formed when potassium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid.

2K + H2SO4 ---> K2SO4 + H2

 

Reaction of magnesium metal with dilute hydrochloric acid: Magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas are formed when magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Mg + 2HCl ---> MgCl2 + H2

Reaction of aluminium with dilute hydrochloric acid: Aluminium chloride and hydrogen gas are formed.

2Al + 6HCl ---> 2AlCl3 + 3H2

Reaction of zinc with dilute sulphuric acid: Zinc sulphate and hydrogen gas are formed when zinc reacts with dilute sulphuric acid. This method is used in laboratory to produce hydrogen gas.

Zn + H2SO4 ---> ZnSO4 + H2

CopperCopper, gold and silver are known as noble metals. These do not react with water or dilute acids.

Metal Oxides: Chemical Properties

Metal oxides are basic in nature. Aqueous solution of metal oxides turns red litmus blue.

Reaction of metal oxides with water:

Most of the metal oxides are insoluble in water. Alkali metal oxides are soluble in water. Alkali metal oxides give strong base when dissolved in water.

Reaction of sodium oxide with water: Sodium oxide gives sodium hydroxide when reacts with water.

Na2O + H2O ---> 2NaOH

Reaction of magnesium oxide with water: Magnesium oxide gives magnesium hydroxide with water.

MgO + H2O ---> Mg(OH)2

 

Reaction of potassium oxide with water: Potassium oxide gives potassium hydroxide when reacts with water.

K2O + H2O ---> 2KOH

Reaction of zinc oxide and aluminium oxide: Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide are insoluble in water. Aluminium oxide and zinc oxide are amphoteric in nature. An amphoteric substance shows both acidic and basic character. It reacts with base like acid and reacts with acid like a base.

When zinc oxide reacts with sodium hydroxide, it behaves like an acid. In this reaction, sodium zicate and water are formed.

ZnO + 2NaOH ---> Na2ZnO2 + H2O

 

Zinc oxide behaves like a base when reacts with acid. Zinc oxide gives zinc chloride and water on reaction with hydrochloric acid.

ZnO + 2HCl ---> ZnCl2 + H2O

In similar way aluminium oxide behaves like a base when reacts with an acid and behaves like an acid when reacts with a base.

Aluminium oxide gives sodium aluminate along with water when reacts with sodium hydroxide.

Al2O3 + 2NaOH ---> 2NaAlO2 + H2O

Aluminium oxide gives aluminium chloride along with water when it reacts with hydrochloric acid.

Al2O3 + 6HCl ---> 2AlCl3 + 3H2O

Reactivity Series of Metals

The order of intensity of reactivity is known as reactivity series. Reactivity of element decreases on moving from top to bottom in the given reactivity series.

In the reactivity series, copper, gold, and silver are at the bottom and hence least reactive. These metals are known as noble metals. Potassium is at the top of the series and hence most reactive.

Reactivity of some metals are given in descending order

K > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu

 

reactivity series of metals

Reaction of metals with solution of other metal salts:

Reaction of metals with solution of other metal salt is displacement reaction. In this reaction more reactive metal displace the less reactive metal from its salt.

Metal A + Salt of metal B ---> Salt of metal A + Metal B

Examples:

Iron displaces copper from copper sulphate solution.

Fe + CuSO4 ---> FeSO4 + Cu

 

Similarly, aluminium and zinc displace copper from the solution of copper sulphate.

2Al + 3CuSO4 ---> Al2(SO4 )3 + 3Cu

Zn + CuSO4 ---> ZnSO4 + Cu

In all the above examples, iron, aluminium and zinc are more reactive than copper. That’s why they displace copper from its salt solution.

When copper is dipped in the solution of silver nitrate, it displaces silver and forms copper nitrate.

Cu + 2AgNO3 + Cu(NO3 )2 + 2Ag

In this reaction copper is more reactive than silver and hence displace silver from silver nitrate solution forming copper nitrate.

 

Silver metal does not react with copper sulphate solution. Because silver is less reactive than copper and not able to displace copper from its salt solution.

Ag + CuSO4 ---> No reaction

Similarly, when gold is dipped in the solution of copper nitrate, no reaction takes place. Because copper is more reactive than gold.

Au + CuSO4 ---> No reaction

In similar way no reaction takes place when copper is dipped in the solution of aluminium nitrate. Because copper is less reactive than aluminium.

Al(NO3 )3 + Cu ---> No reaction

 

Physical properties of non-metals

Hardness: Non-metals are not hard rather they are generally soft. But diamond is exception; it is most hard naturally occurring substance.

State: Non-metals may be solid, liquid or gas.

Lustre: Non-metals have dull appearance. Diamond and iodine are exceptions.

Sonority: Non-metals are not sonorous, i.e. they do not produce a typical sound no being hit.

Conduction: Non-metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity. Graphite which is allotrope of carbon is good conductor of electricity, and is an exception.

Malleability and ductility: Non-metals are brittle.

 

Melting and boiling point: Non-metals have generally low melting and boiling points.

Density: Most of the non-metals have low density.

Color: Non-metals are of many colors.

Chemical properties of Non-metals

Reaction of non-metals with oxygen: Non-metals form respective oxide when react with oxygen.

Non-metal + Oxygen ---> Non-metal oxide

When carbon reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide is formed along with production of heat.

C + O2 ---> CO2 + Heat

When carbon is burnt in insufficient supply of air, it forms carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic substance. Inhaling of carbon monoxide may prove fatal.

2C + O2 ---> 2CO + Heat

Sulphur gives sulphur dioxide when react with oxygen. Sulphur caught fire when exposed to air.

S + O2 ---> SO2

When hydrogen reacts with oxygen it gives water.

2H2 + O2 ---> 2H2O

 

Non-metal oxide:

Non-metal oxides are acidic in nature. Solution of non-metal oxides turns blue litmus red.

Carbon dioxide gives carbonic acid when dissolved in water.

CO2 + H2O ---> H2CO3

Sulphur dioxide gives sulphurous acid when dissolved in water.

SO2 + H2O ---> H2SO3

Sulphur dioxide gives sulphur trioxide when it reacts with oxygen.

2SO2 + O2 ---> 2SO3

Sulphur trioxide gives sulphuric acid when dissolved in water.

SO3 + H2O ---> H2SO4

 

Reaction of non-metal with chlorine:

Non metals give respective chloride when they react with chlorine gas.

Non-metal + Chlorine ---> Non-metal chloride

Hydrogen gives hydrogen chloride and phosphorous gives phosphorous trichloride when react with chlorine.

H2 + Cl2 ---> 2HCl

P4 + 6Cl2 ---> 4PCl3

Occurance and Extraction of Metals

Source of metal: Metals occur in earth’s crust and in sea water; in the form of ores. Earth’s crust is the major source of metal. Sea water contains many salts; such as sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, etc.

Mineral: Minerals are naturally occurring substances which have uniform composition.

Ores: The minerals from which a metal can be profitably extracted are called ores.

 

Metals found at the bottom of reactivity series are least reactive and they are often found in nature in free-state; such as gold, silver, copper, etc. Copper and silver are also found in the form of sulphide and oxide ores.

Metals found in the middle of reactivity series, such as Zn, Fe, Pb, etc. are usually found in the form of oxides, sulphides or carbo

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