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OOPs Concepts

Samir Bhogayta
03/01/2018 0 0

Session Objectives:

Discuss the following:

Drawbacks of traditional programming

Need for Object: Oriented approach

Object: Oriented techniques

Discuss Object: Oriented Concepts

  • Objects.
  • Classes.
  • Abstraction.
  • Inheritance.
  • Encapsulation.
  • Polymorphism.

Need for OOP:

  • Languages like C use the traditional programming approach for application development.
  • In this approach, we divide the application into several tasks and write code for all tasks.
  • Therefore, the focus in this approach is on the tasks and not on the objects.
  • The traditional programming approach was not able to handle the increasing demand of software applications

The drawbacks of Traditional Programming approach are:

  • Unmanageable Programs.
  • Code Reusability not Optimum.
  • Problems in Modification of Data.
  • Difficulty in Implementation.

Benefits of Object Oriented Programming approach are:

  • OOP offers better implementation.
  • OOP offers better data security.
  • OOP offers better code reusability.
  • OOP offers more flexibility.
  • OOP offers better manageable programs.


  • An object represents an entity in the real world.
  • An object is simply something that is relevant to a particular application.
  • An object is a concept or a thing, with defined boundaries, that is relevant to the problem being dealt with.


  • A class is a mould or a template of an object.
  • A class is what defines all the data members and the methods that an object should have.
  • The class defines the characteristics that the object will possess;it could also be referred to as a blueprint of the object.
  • Each object is said to be an instance of the class.
  • A class can contain any of the following as its members Properties / Fields,Methods,Constructors & Destructors
  • Properties: A characteristic required of an object when represented in a class is called a property or a field.
  • Method: A method is similar to a function, routine or a procedure; here it is associated to a class.
  • Constructor / Destructor: These are special types of methods that execute when an object is initialized or destroyed respectively.


  • Data abstraction enhances security as use of data is restricted to certain functions only.
  • Abstraction is more used where you want only a certain number of functions/methods are accessing data


  • We can incorporate the functionality of existing classes into any other class just by inheriting the new class from the existing class.
  • The existing class is called the BASE class and the newly created class is called the DERIVED class.

Data Encapsulation:

  • Grouping of data and methods into a single entity is known as Data Encapsulation


  • Object: Oriented languages try to make existing code easily modifiable without changing the code much.
  • Polymorphism allows functions to take more than one form.
  • Polymorphism enables the same method to behave differently on different classes.


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