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Computer Fundamentals

M Chandra Rao
16/12/2016 0 0

Computer can be defined on an electronic device that accept data, process then at a high speed according to a set of instructions provide to it and produces the desired output. So computer is a programmable machine.

Generation of computer: 
Generation means variation between different hardware technologies

1st generation: (1946-1956):
First generation computers are made with the use of vacuum tubes. These computers used machine language for programming.


  1. Occupied lot of space
  2. Consumed lot of power
  3. Produced lot of heat
  4. Costly system

Example:     ENIAC(Electronic numeric integrator and computer).
                     UNIVAC(Universal Accounting company)

2nd generation: (1957-1963):
The computer in which vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors are called second generation of computers these computers used assembly language for programming.


  1. Less expensive
  2. Consumed less power
  3. Produced little heat
  4. Less cost and work at higher speed

Example: IBM 7090, IBM 7094.

3rd generation: (1964-1981):
The computers using the integrated circuits came to be known on the third generation of computers. These used high level language.

Example:  IBM 370, Cyber 175

4th generation: (1982-1989):
The computers which were built with microprocessor are identified on the fourth generation computers these computers use VLSI chips for both cpu and memory.

Example: CRAY-2, IBM 3090

5th generation: (1990- up to till):
Fifth generation computers are under development stage these computers use ULSI chips. ULSI chip contains thousands of components into a single IC. Aim of these computers is develop the artificial intelligence.

The physical parts of a computer- the plastic, glass, silicon and metal parts that compose a machine. These parts sometimes called Hardware.

  • A cpu or central processing unit, which is the brain of the computer, where all the actual computation takes place.
  • Main memory, which is short-term storage.
  • An input device, usually a monitor or screen, on which the computer displays the results of its computations.
  • Secondary memory-long term memory
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