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Lesson Posted on 13/07/2019 Tuition/LLB Tuition

Section 299 v. Section 300 of IPC

Mohit

The highest degree of harm that can be inflicted on the human body is making that body dies. Individual acts which cause deaths are justified, and some are excusable while some are punishable. The justified and justifiable acts which cause deaths are covered by Chapter 4 of the IPC, 1860. Section 299... read more

The highest degree of harm that can be inflicted on the human body is making that body dies. Individual acts which cause deaths are justified, and some are excusable while some are punishable. The justified and justifiable acts which cause deaths are covered by Chapter 4 of the IPC, 1860. Section 299 & 300 of IPC deal with those acts which are made punishable if death is caused by a human being without any excuse or justifiable reasons. Section 299 defines culpable homicide, and section 300 describes Murder. In both sections, the consequence of one's act is death then how can one figure out whether the act which caused death is a culpable homicide or a Murder?

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Answered on 22/05/2019 Tuition/LLB Tuition

Rebecca F.

Lawyer, Instructional Designer and Language Trainer

Universal's Law series is good also you can practice the reasoning bit from any bank exam preparatory test series.
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Lesson Posted on 02/11/2018 Tuition/LLB Tuition/Regular Classes Tuition/LLB Tuition

LLB - Hindu LAW - Concise Notes Lesson 1

Krishan Coaching Acdemy

Learh basic to proficient english language with personification and communication development. Especially...

HINDU LAW Persons who are not MUSLIMS / CHRISTIANS / PARSIS or JEWS by religion As laid down in SMRITIS or Commentaries it not at all necessary that person shall be completely HINDUANIZED, only partial Hinduanization is right to declare that person as HINDU. Eg. Adi Dravirans, Chamars, Non-Aryan Dravidians,... read more

HINDU LAW

Persons who are not MUSLIMS / CHRISTIANS / PARSIS or JEWS by religion

As laid down in SMRITIS or Commentaries it not at all necessary that person shall be completely HINDUANIZED, only partial Hinduanization is right to declare that person as HINDU.

Eg. Adi Dravirans, Chamars, Non-Aryan Dravidians, Bhurrayahs Jats, Radbansis, Kurmis, Mahtos, Santhal, Thattuas, Exhaust etc. having the customary law as related to Hindus are held to be HINDU’s.

Though Khoja has, Kutchi Memons, Bohras, Mopals, Halai Memon are Muslims subject to SHARIAT ACT 1937 but in the sense of succession and inheritance are governed by HINDU LAW.

Hindu LAW clarifies this point further that person who is not Parsi, Muslim, Jew, Christian are not governed by Hindu law unless they prove that HINDU Law doesn’t apply to them.

Scheduled tribes

Unless GOVT by Off. Not. In G HINDU LAW doesn’t apply to Scheduled tribes (AS IN ARTICLE 266 clause 25). If before codification such ST is covered u/ HL than it still would be governed by HL but UNCODIFIED one.

 

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Lesson Posted on 29/10/2018 Tuition/LLB Tuition

Contract Law Basics

Arnab Kumar Banerjee

I am a practicing lawyer in calcutta high court for 3 years. I have hands on experience in law. I...

The contract is made between 2 parties. It is a tool about the agreement of 2 parties on a particular matter. The essential elements of a valid contract are : Offer and acceptance. Mutual consent of parties. Intention to create a legal obligation. Free consent of parties. Parties must be competent... read more

The contract is made between 2 parties. It is a tool about the agreement of 2 parties on a particular matter. The essential elements of a valid contract are :

  • Offer and acceptance.
  • Mutual consent of parties.
  • Intention to create a legal obligation.
  • Free consent of parties.
  • Parties must be competent to contract.
  • Lawful object.
  • Lawful consideration
  • Possibility of performance
  • Certainty
  • Legal formalities
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Lesson Posted on 23/12/2017 Tuition/LLB Tuition Exam Coaching/Company Secratary (CS) Coaching

Company Law: Issue Of Shares

Aaruni Academy

Aaruni Academy is an one Stop solution for All round Commerce Coaching where we offer private group tuition's...

Meaning Of Bonus Shares: Bonus Shares are fully paid shares given by the Company as a gift, out of accumulated profits or reserves. Bonus shares are given free of cost to equity shareholders in proportion to their existing shareholding. Eg: If ratio is decided at 2:1, it means that shareholder holding... read more

Meaning Of Bonus Shares:

  • Bonus Shares are fully paid shares given by the Company as a gift, out of accumulated profits or reserves.
  • Bonus shares are given free of cost to equity shareholders in proportion to their existing shareholding.
  • Eg: If ratio is decided at 2:1, it means that shareholder holding shares will be allotted one bonus share.

Meaning Of Right Issue Of Shares:

  • Under Right issue, equity shares of the Company are first offered to the existing equity shareholders of the Company.
  • The present shareholders are given a right to apply for new shares in certain proportion to the existing shares held by them
  • Eg: If ratio is decided at 1:1, it means that shareholder holding 100 shares can apply for 100 shares.
  • The Company shall give option to the shareholder, either to buy the share & increase his shareholding or to give up the right.
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Answered on 19/12/2017 Tuition/LLB Tuition Exam Coaching/Company Secratary (CS) Coaching

Aaruni Academy

No, it is not a compulsion to join LL.B with CS. CS + LL.B is a good combination as regards Career prospects. Having a dual degree (LLB & CS), you earn an extra edge over other candidates for job prospects & also you have a specialization in Company law & gain good drafting skills.
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Lesson Posted on 24/08/2017 Tuition/LLB Tuition IBPS SO/IBPS SO Professional Paper/Law/Commercial Laws Tuition/BCom Tuition/Business Laws +1 Tuition/BCom Tuition/Cyber Crimes and Laws less

Civil Procedure Code, 1908

M. Mallick

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Lesson Posted on 12/08/2017 Tuition/LLB Tuition

The Constitution Of India.

Hetal

The constitution of india is the supreme law of india. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. Adopted by the constituent assembly on 26th november 1949 and came into effect on 26th january 1950. India celebrates its coming into force on 26th january each year,... read more

The constitution of india is the supreme law of india. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world.

  • Adopted by the constituent assembly on 26th november 1949 and came into effect on 26th january 1950.
  • India celebrates its coming into force on 26th january each year, as republic day.
  • Constituent assembly: it was drafted by the constituent assembly, which was elected by elected members of the provincial assemblies.
  • The 389 members of constituent assembly took almost three year (3 years) to complete the task. (two years, eleven months and eighteen days to be precise)
  • Drafting committee : Chairmanship- dr. B.r. Ambedkar other important members of assembly: Sanjay Phakey, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prashad, Sardar Vallabhabhai Patel, Kanaiyalal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Sandipkumar Patel.

Structure :

  • The indian constitution is the world’s longest.
  • At its commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is made up of approximately 145000 words, making it the second largest active constitution in the world.

Constitution day:

  • Constitution day, also known as samvidhan divas, is celebrated in india on 26th November every year to commemorate the adoption of constitution of India.
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Lesson Posted on 04/05/2017 Banking Tuition/BCom Tuition Tuition/BCom Tuition/Banking Law and Operation +2 Tuition/LLB Tuition Tuition/BBI Tuition less

Banking Ombudsman Scheme 2006

M. Mallick

Banking Ombudsmen Scheme Banking Ombudsman is a quasi judicial authority functioning under India’s Banking Ombudsman Scheme 2006, and the authority was created pursuant to a decision made by the Government of India to enable resolution of complaints of customers of banks relating to certain services... read more

Banking Ombudsmen Scheme

Banking Ombudsman is a quasi judicial authority functioning under India’s Banking Ombudsman Scheme 2006, and the authority was created pursuant to a decision made by the Government of India to enable resolution of complaints of customers of banks relating to certain services rendered by the banks. The Banking Ombudsman Scheme was first introduced in India in 1995, and was revised in 2002. The current scheme became operative from 1 January 2006, and replaced and superseded the banking Ombudsman Scheme 2002.

Introduction                                                          

An ombudsman is a person who has been appointed to look into complaints about an organization2. Using an ombudsman is a way of trying to resolve a complaint without going to court. Banking Ombudsman is a quasi judicial authority functioning under India's Banking Ombudsman Scheme, and the authority was created pursuant to the a decision by the Government of India to enable resolution of complaints of customers of banks relating to certain services rendered by the banks.

Few Basic Questions-                                                                                          

  1. What is the Banking Ombudsman Scheme?

The Banking Ombudsman Scheme enables an expeditious and inexpensive forum to bank customers for resolution of complaints relating to certain services rendered by banks. The Banking Ombudsman Scheme is introduced under Section 35 A of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 by RBI with effect from 1995.

  1. Who is a Banking Ombudsman?

The Banking Ombudsman is a senior official appointed by the Reserve Bank of India to redress customer complaints against deficiency in certain banking services.

  1. How many Banking Ombudsmen have been appointed and where are they located?

As on date, fifteen Banking Ombudsmen have been appointed with their offices located mostly in state capitals.

  1. Which are the banks covered under the Banking Ombudsman Scheme, 2006?

All Scheduled Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks and Scheduled Primary Co-operative Banks are covered under the Scheme.

  1. What are the grounds of complaints?

The Banking Ombudsman can receive and consider any complaint relating to the following deficiency in banking services (including internet banking):

  • non-payment or  inordinate delay in the payment or collection of cheques, drafts, bills etc.;
  • non-acceptance, without sufficient cause, of small denomination notes tendered for any purpose, and for charging of commission in respect thereof;
  • non-acceptance, without sufficient cause, of coins tendered and for charging of commission in respect thereof;
  • non-payment or delay in payment of inward remittances ;
  • failure to issue or delay in issue of drafts, pay orders or bankers’ cheques;
  • non-adherence to prescribed working hours ;
  • failure to provide or delay in providing a banking facility (other than loans and advances) promised in writing by a bank or its direct selling agents;
  • delays, non-credit of proceeds to parties accounts, non-payment of deposit or non-observance of the Reserve Bank directives, if any, applicable to rate of interest on deposits in any savings,current or other account maintained with a bank ;
  • complaints from Non-Resident Indians having accounts in India in relation to their remittances from abroad, deposits and other bank-related matters;
  • refusal to open deposit accounts without any valid reason for refusal;
  • levying of charges without adequate prior notice to the customer;
  • non-adherence by the bank or its subsidiaries to the instructions of Reserve Bank on ATM/Debit card operations or credit card operations; 
  • non-disbursement or delay in disbursement of pension (to the extent the grievance can be attributed to the action on the part of the bank concerned, but not with regard to its employees);
  • refusal to accept or delay in accepting payment towards taxes, as required by Reserve Bank/Government;
  • refusal to issue or delay in issuing, or failure to service or delay in servicing or redemption of Government securities;
  • forced closure of deposit accounts without due notice or without sufficient reason;
  • refusal to close or delay in closing the accounts;
  • non-adherence to the fair practices code as adopted by the bank or non-adherence to the provisions of the Code of Bank s Commitments to Customers issued by Banking Codes and Standards Board of India and as adopted by the bank ;
  • non-observance of Reserve Bank guidelines on engagement of recovery agents by banks; and
  • any other matter relating to the violation of the directives issued by the Reserve Bank in relation to banking or other services.

A customer can also lodge a complaint on the following grounds of deficiency in service with respect to loans and advances 

  • non-observance of Reserve Bank Directives on interest rates;
  • delays in sanction, disbursement or non-observance of prescribed time schedule for disposal of loan applications;
  • non-acceptance of application for loans without furnishing valid reasons to the applicant; and
  • non-adherence to the provisions of the fair practices code for lenders as adopted by the bank or Code of Bank’s Commitment to Customers, as the case may be;
  • non-observance of any other direction or instruction of the Reserve Bank  as may be specified by the Reserve Bank for this purpose  from time to time.
  • The Banking Ombudsman may also deal with such other matter as may be specified by the Reserve Bank from time to time.
  1. When can one file a complaint?

One can file a complaint before the Banking Ombudsman if the reply is not received from the bank within a period of one month after the bank concerned has received one s representation, or the bank rejects the complaint, or if the complainant is not satisfied with the reply given by the bank.

7. When will one s complaint not be considered by the Ombudsman ?

One’s complaint will not be considered if:

a. One has not approached his bank for redressal of his grievance first.

  1. One has not made the complaint within one year from the date one has received the reply of the bank or if no reply is received if it is more than one year and one month from the date of representation to the bank.
  2. The subject matter of the complaint is pending for disposal / has already been dealt with at any other forum like court of law, consumer court etc.
  3. Frivolous or vexatious.
  4. The institution complained against is not covered under the scheme.
  5. The subject matter of the complaint is not within the ambit of the Banking Ombudsman.
  6. If the complaint is for the same subject matter that was settled through the office of the Banking Ombudsman in any previous proceedings.
  7. What is the procedure for filing the complaint before the Banking Ombudsman?

    One can file a complaint with the Banking Ombudsman simply by writing on a plain paper. One can also file it online or by sending an email to the Banking Ombudsman attaching the form available in the RBI website
  8. Where can one lodge his/her complaint?

One may lodge his/ her complaint at the office of the Banking Ombudsman under whose jurisdiction, the bank branch complained against is situated. 
For complaints relating to credit cards and other types of services with centralized operations, complaints may be filed before the Banking Ombudsman within whose territorial jurisdiction the billing address of the customer is located.

10.Can a complaint be filed by one s authorized representative?

Yes. The complainant can be filed by one s authorized representative (other than an advocate). 

  1. Is there any cost involved in filing complaints with Banking Ombudsman?

No. The Banking Ombudsman does not charge any fee for filing and resolving customers’ complaints.

  1. Is there any limit on the amount of compensation as specified in an award?

The amount, if any, to be paid by the bank to the complainant by way of compensation for any loss suffered by the complainant is limited to the amount arising directly out of the act or omission of the bank or Rs 10 lakhs, whichever is lower.

  1. Can compensation be claimed for mental agony and harassment?

The Banking Ombudsman may award compensation not exceeding Rs 1 lakh to the complainant only in the case of complaints relating to credit card operations for mental agony and harassment. The Banking Ombudsman will take into account the loss of the complainant s time, expenses incurred by the complainant, harassment and mental anguish suffered by the complainant while passing such award.

  1. What details are required in the application?

The complaint should have the name and address of the complainant, the name and address of the branch or office of the bank against which the complaint is made, facts giving rise to the complaint supported by documents, if any, the nature and extent of the loss caused to the complainant, the relief sought from the Banking Ombudsman and a declaration about the compliance of conditions which are required to be complied with by the complainant.

  1. What happens after a complaint is received by the Banking Ombudsman?

The Banking Ombudsman endeavours to promote, through conciliation or mediation, a settlement of the complaint by agreement between the complaint and the bank named in the complaint. 
If the terms of settlement (offered by the bank) are acceptable to one in full and final settlement of one s complaint, the Banking Ombudsman will pass an order as per the terms of settlement which becomes binding on the bank and the complainant.

  1. Can the Banking Ombudsman reject a complaint at any stage?

Yes. The Banking Ombudsman may reject a complaint at any stage if it appears to him that a complaint made to him is:

  • not on the grounds of complaint referred to above 
  • compensation sought from the Banking Ombudsman is beyond  Rs 10 lakh .
  • requires consideration of elaborate documentary and verbal evidence and the proceedings before the Banking Ombudsman are not appropriate for adjudication of such complaint
  • without any sufficient cause
  • that it is not pursued by the complainant with reasonable diligence
  • in the opinion of the Banking Ombudsman there is no loss or damage or inconvenience caused to the complainant.
  1. What happens if the complaint is not settled by agreement?

If a complaint is not settled by an agreement within a period of one month, the Banking Ombudsman proceeds further to pass an award. Before passing an award, the Banking Ombudsman provides reasonable opportunity to the complainant and the bank, to present their case. 
It is up to the complainant to accept the award in full and final settlement of your complaint or to reject it.

 

  1. Is there any further recourse available if one rejects the Banking Ombudsman’s decision?

If one is not satisfied with the decision passed by the Banking Ombudsman, one can approach the appellate authority against the Banking Ombudsmen’s decision. Appellate Authority is vested with a Deputy Governor of the RBI.
One can also explore any other recourse and/or remedies available to him/her as per the law. 
The bank also has the option to file an appeal before the appellate authority under the scheme.

  1. Is there any time limit for filing an appeal?

If one is aggrieved by the decision, one may, within 30 days of the date of receipt of the award, appeal against the award before the appellate authority. The appellate authority may, if he/ she is satisfied that the applicant had sufficient cause for not making an application for appeal within time, also allow a further period not exceeding 30 days.

  1. How does the appellate authority deal with the appeal?

The appellate authority may 

i. dismiss the appeal; or 

ii. allow the appeal and set aside the award; or 

iii. send the matter to the Banking Ombudsman for fresh   disposal in accordance with such directions as the appellate authority may consider necessary or proper; or 

iv. modify the award and pass such directions as may be necessary to give effect to the modified award; or 

v. pass any other order as it may deem fit.

Cases Concerning the Banking Services:

Following are the cases, through which it can be ascertained that what the grievances have been handled by the Banking Ombudsman Scheme:

  1. 1. Failure to issue bank guarantee.The bank was alleged to have failed to issue bank guarantee despite sufficient security and the complainant suffered financial loss. It was held that the non-issuance of bank guarantee despite security deposit with the bank would amount to deficiency in service and the complainant was held entitled to interest on that security amount.
  2. Failure to confirm remittance.In one of the cases, the complainant's son remitted an amount from abroad to be credited to his NRI account with appellant bank. The remittance was not confirmed till a long time. Appellant bank pleaded that non-confirmation was due to failure of computers. The issue is whether this delay on the part of the bank amounted to deficiency in service. The Commission in appeal observed that bank officials could have verified vouchers and cheques received by post or confirmation and could have given correct reply within a reasonable time. It was held that failure of the bank to confirm remittance received from outside country within a reasonable period amounts to deficiency in service
  3. Deficiency in services.In most of the cases against the banks, the costumers have alleged the deficiency in services provided by the banks.
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Lesson Posted on 18/04/2017 Tuition/LLB Tuition Banking Exam Coaching/Law Entrance Exam Coaching

History Of Banking Institution In India

M. Mallick

DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING BUSINESS IN INDIA Banking was in existence during Vedic period. Money lending is regarded as an old art and was practiced in the early Aryan day The term rina(debt) is often found in rig veda Manusmriti has laid down various terms like rnapatra, rnalekhya, kusidin(soodhkhor)... read more

DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING BUSINESS IN INDIA

  • Banking was in existence during Vedic period. Money lending is regarded as an old art and was practiced in the early Aryan day
  • The term rina(debt) is often found in rig veda
  • Manusmriti has laid down various terms like rnapatra, rnalekhya, kusidin(soodhkhor) etc which clearly indicates the prevalence of banking even during the ancient vedic civilization
  • Evidence of banking is also found in epics like Ramayana and mahabharata.
  • Kautilya’s Arthashatra also embodies how banking flourished during mauryan age.
  • There were instruments in the mauryan era called “adesha” which were equivalent to Bill of Exchange of current times.
  • Since ancients times businessmen (vaishyas) like shroffs, seths, mahajans, chettis, sahukars etc carried on banking business. They were small money lenders who charges interest on the amount loaned to people.
  • The Vaishya community performed the main functions of banking viz granting loans, accepting deposits etc. They even granted loans to kings and managed the currency of the kingdom.
  • The use of Bills of exchange were also in practice.
  • Later during muslim and mughal period we find decline in banking system as islam does not allow taking of interest. It is considere to be a sin. However economy boomed to some extent as there was the more use of metallic money which led to appointment of more revenue collectors, bankers, money changers, mint officers etc.
  • With the coming of the East India Company the situation started changing again. The occidental(western) idea of banking stepped into the nation.
  • In 1770 Hindusthan Bank was established followed by Bengal Bank in 1785 and General Bank of India in 1786.
  • The 1st presidency bank was founded in Calcutta ( Bank of Calcutta) in 1806
  • The bank of bombay and bank of madrass followed the chain
  • These 3 banks amalgamated to form imperial bank of india in 1921.
  • Due to Swadeshi Movement various national entities like peoples bank of india, the bank of india, bank of baroda, central bank of india etc started functioning
  • 1913-1924 saw downfall of banking due to trade depression caused by various movements
  • Finally with the establishment of RBI the need of a central bank was met (April 1 ,1935). It took over the functions of Imperial Bank regarding GOVERNMENT’S transactions .
  • The banking Regulation Act 1949 was passed to control all the activities of the commercial banks. RBI,s powers were widened.
  • 1955 SBI was established which totally replaced the imperial bank. It is the largest commercial bank in the country
  • In order to meet the slow economic growth of the country 14 major banks in1969 got nationalized
  • Later 6 more banks got nationalized in 1980.
  • The Nariman Committee in 1969 recommended a scheme to unite the commercials banks co operative banks and govt and semi govt agencies to work together for socio economic growth of the country. The lead bank scheme was also introduces
  • NABARD was set up in 1982 (National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Cevelopment)
  • With the use of technology banking at present has become much more user or customer friendly. Banking ombudsmen was established to take care of the grievances of the customers against the services provided to them by the bank.
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