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Lesson Posted on 22 Mar CBSE/Class 11/Science Tuition/BTech Tuition/Computer science Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

Software and Hardware

Ganesa Moorthi A

I worked in various institutes and engineering colleges as tutor about 8+ years and currently doing software...

In a computer, there are two major parts available namely hardware and software. both plays an important role in proper functioning of the computer. Hardware are the touchable and physical parts of the computer. Hardware are visible to the user and it is visible even to a blind man. It is like the... read more

In a computer, there are two major parts available namely hardware and software. both plays an important role in proper functioning of the computer. 

Hardware are the touchable and physical parts of the computer. Hardware are visible to the user and it is visible even to a blind man. It is like the body of computer. Hardware provides the basic skeleton to load and work with software.

Software are nothing but the imaginary parts or virtual parts of the computer. Software is more complex and unable to understand easily. It is like mind or soul of the computer. It can't be touched or damaged. After finishing the design of hardware, Software is loaded into it.

When the hardware and software are working together, it becomes a computer. Without software, computer hardware is just a electronic board with connections. Without hardware, software cannot be used and can be stored only in CD or Pen Drive.

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Answered on 22 Mar Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

R K Pathak

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1000 rupees per hour you can expect,
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Lesson Posted on 05 Feb Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

Depth First Traversal For A Graph

SR-IT Academy

SR - IT Academy is one of the leading tutorial point providing services like tutoring and computer training...

Depth First Traversal (or Search) for a graph is similar to Depth First Traversal of a tree. The only catch here is, unlike trees, graphs may contain cycles, so we may come to the same node again. To avoid processing a node more than once, we use a boolean visited array. For example, in the following... read more

Depth First Traversal (or Search) for a graph is similar to Depth First Traversal of a tree. The only catch here is, unlike trees, graphs may contain cycles, so we may come to the same node again. To avoid processing a node more than once, we use a boolean visited array.

For example, in the following graph, we start traversal from vertex 2. When we come to vertex 0, we look for all adjacent vertices of it. 2 is also an adjacent vertex of 0. If we don’t mark visited vertices, then 2 will be processed again and it will become a non-terminating process. A Depth First Traversal of the following graph is 2, 0, 1, 3.

Following are implementations of simple Depth First Traversal. The C++ implementation uses adjacency list representation of graphs. STL‘s list container is used to store lists of adjacent nodes.

First Traversal (or Search) for a graph is similar to Depth First Traversal of a tree. The only catch here is, unlike trees, graphs may contain cycles, so we may come to the same node again. To avoid processing a node more than once, we use a boolean visited array.

For example, in the following graph, we start traversal from vertex 2. When we come to vertex 0, we look for all adjacent vertices of it. 2 is also an adjacent vertex of 0. If we don’t mark visited vertices, then 2 will be processed again and it will become a non-terminating process. A Depth First Traversal of the following graph is 2, 0, 1, 3.

                                        
Following are implementations of simple Depth First Traversal. The C++ implementation uses adjacency list representation of graphs. STL‘s list container is used to store lists of adjacent nodes.

// C++ program to print DFS traversal from
// a given vertex in a  given graph
#include
#include
using namespace std;
 
// Graph class represents a directed graph
// using adjacency list representation
class Graph
{
    int V;    // No. of vertices
 
    // Pointer to an array containing
    // adjacency lists
    list<int> *adj;
 
    // A recursive function used by DFS
    void DFSUtil(int v, bool visited[]);
public:
    Graph(int V);   // Constructor
 
    // function to add an edge to graph
    void addEdge(int v, int w);
 
    // DFS traversal of the vertices
    // reachable from v
    void DFS(int v);
};
 
Graph::Graph(int V)
{
    this->V = V;
    adj = new list<int>[V];
}
 
void Graph::addEdge(int v, int w)
{
    adj[v].push_back(w); // Add w to v’s list.
}
 
void Graph::DFSUtil(int v, bool visited[])
{
    // Mark the current node as visited and
    // print it
    visited[v] = true;
    cout << v << " ";
 
    // Recur for all the vertices adjacent
    // to this vertex
    list<int>::iterator i;
    for (i = adj[v].begin(); i != adj[v].end(); ++i)
        if (!visited[*i])
            DFSUtil(*i, visited);
}
 
// DFS traversal of the vertices reachable from v.
// It uses recursive DFSUtil()
void Graph::DFS(int v)
{
    // Mark all the vertices as not visited
    bool *visited = new bool[V];
    for (int i = 0; i < V; i++)
        visited[i] = false;
 
    // Call the recursive helper function
    // to print DFS traversal
    DFSUtil(v, visited);
}
 
int main()
{
    // Create a graph given in the above diagram
    Graph g(4);
    g.addEdge(0, 1);
    g.addEdge(0, 2);
    g.addEdge(1, 2);
    g.addEdge(2, 0);
    g.addEdge(2, 3);
    g.addEdge(3, 3);
 
    cout << "Following is Depth First Traversal"
            " (starting from vertex 2) \n";
    g.DFS(2);
 
    return 0;
}
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Lesson Posted on 23 Jan Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

Computer Awareness: Important Abbreviations

Parul Singhal

Qualification: B.Tech in Computer Science from Maharaja Agarsain Institute of Technology(M.A.I.T.)-2016. Number...

Important Abbreviations:1. ANSI: American National Standards Institute. 2. ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 3. CGA: Colour Graphics Adapter. 4. DOS: Disk Operating System. 5. DVD: Digital Versatile (Video) Disk. 6. EDP: Electronic Data Processing. 7. HTML: Hyper Text Markup... read more

Important Abbreviations:

1. ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

2. ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

3. CGA: Colour Graphics Adapter.

4. DOS: Disk Operating System.

5. DVD: Digital Versatile (Video) Disk.

6. EDP: Electronic Data Processing.

7. HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language.

8. IBM: International Business Machines.

9. IDE: Integrated Device Electronics.

10. MIPS: Million Instructions Per Second.

11. SCSI: Small Computer System Interface.

12. TCP/ IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol.

13. UPS: Uninterrupted Power Supply.

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Lesson Posted on 23 Jan IT Courses/Computer Course/Basics of Computer usage Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

Computer Awareness

Parul Singhal

Qualification: B.Tech in Computer Science from Maharaja Agarsain Institute of Technology(M.A.I.T.)-2016. Number...

A Computer is an electronic device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. 1. Introduction: i. Speed: The speed of computation is very high as the signals pass at the speed of light. Thus, millions of calculations can be done in a second. ii.... read more

A Computer is an electronic device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.


1. Introduction:


i. Speed: The speed of computation is very high as the signals pass at the speed of light. Thus, millions of calculations can be done in a second.


ii. Accuracy: As computers work on inbuilt software programs, there is no scope for human errors and are hence, highly accurate.


iii. Information and Storage: A computer can store a large amount of data or instructions in its memory which can be retrieved at point of time.


iv. Other characteristics include: Consistency, Automatic Operation, and Flexibility.


2. Characteristics of Computers:

i. Father of Computer: Charles Babbage

ii. Father of Modern Computer Science: Alan Tuning

iii. First Un-programmable Electronic Digital Computer: Atanasoff Berry Computer (ABC)

iv. First Purpose Electronic Digital Computer: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)

 

3. Generations of computers:

a. First Generation (1946 - 1959):

i. Used vacuum tubes & batch processing OS

ii. Machine & Assembly Languages used

iii. Examples: ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701, IBM-650


b. Second Generation (1959 - 1965):

i. Used transistors.

ii. OS: Multi-Bag remaining, Time sharing.

iii. Memory: Magnetic cores, magnetic tapes and disks.

iv. Used assembly and high-level languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol.

v. Examples: IBM 1620, IBM 7094, CDC 1604.


c. Third Generation (1965 - 1971):

i. Used ICs

ii. OS: Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time,

iii. Multi-programming

iv. Used High-level languages FORTRAN-II TO IV, Cobol, Pascal PL/1, Basic, Algol-68

v. Examples: IBM-360 series, Honeywell-6000 series, PDP, IBM-370/168


d. Fourth Generation (1971 - 1980):

i. VLSI Circuits Used.

ii. Memory: Semiconductor and Winchester disk.

iii. High level Languages: Fortan 77, Pascal, Cobol used.

iv. Examples: DEC 10, STAR 1000, PDP 11, Super Computers (CRAY-1, CRAY-X-MP).

 

e. The present generation of computers is the Fifth Generation of computers, i.e. 1980 – till date. The computers use ultra large scale integration (ULSI).

 

f. High level languages like C++, Java, .NET, etc. are used. Some examples are: laptop, desktop, ultrabook etc.

                                         

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Asked on 27/09/2017 Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

Mention two changes that heat cause in a substance.

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Lesson Posted on 24/08/2017 IT Courses/Computer Course/Basics of Computer usage Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Computer Science Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering +1 Tuition/BCA Tuition less

OOPS: Polymorphism

SR-IT Academy

SR - IT Academy is one of the leading tutorial point providing services like tutoring and computer training...

Polymorphism:Polymorphism (from the Greek meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form. There are... read more

Polymorphism:

Polymorphism (from the Greek meaning "having multiple forms") is the characteristic of being able to assign a different meaning or usage to something in different contexts - specifically, to allow an entity such as a variable, a function, or an object to have more than one form. There are several different kinds of polymorphism.

A variable with a given name may be allowed to have different forms and the program can determine which form of the variable to use at the time of execution. For example, a variable named USERID may be capable of being either an integer (whole number) or a string of characters (perhaps because the programmer wants to allow a user to enter a user ID as either an employee number - an integer - or with a name - a string of characters). By giving the program a way to distinguish which form is being handled in each case, either kind can be recognized and handled.

A named function can also vary depending on the parameters it is given. For example, if given a variable that is an integer, the function chosen would be to seek a match against a list of employee numbers; if the variable were a string, it would seek a match against a list of names. In either case, both functions would be known in the program by the same name. This type of polymorphism is sometimes known as overloading. In C++, for example, the operator known as the plus sign (+) - which is effectively a simple named function - can be assigned to operate on two objects such that it adds them together (perhaps the most common form of the + operation) or, as in boolean searching, a + can indicate a logical "and" (meaning that both words separated by the + operator must be present in order for a citation to be returned). In another context, the + sign could mean an operation to concatenate the two objects or strings of letters on either side of the + sign. A given operator can also be given yet another meaning when combined with another operator. For example, in the C++ language, a "++" following a variable can mean "increment this value by 1". The meaning of a particular operator is defined as part of a class definition. Since the programmer can create classes, the programmer can also define how operators work for this class of objects; in effect, the programmer can redefine the computing language.

Polymorphism can mean, as in the ML language, a data type of "any," such that when specified for a list, a list containing any data types can be processed by a function. (For example, if a function simply determines the length of a list, it doesn't matter what data types are in the list.)
In PHP, polymorphism means that if B is a descendant of A and a function can accept A as a parameter, it can also accept B.

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Lesson Posted on 23/08/2017 Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

Object Oriented Programming Paradigm

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SR - IT Academy is one of the leading tutorial point providing services like tutoring and computer training...

Object Oriented Programming Paradigm: OOPS is a better way of solving problems in computers compared to the procedural language programming such as in C. oops is designed around the data being operated upon as opposed to the operations, these operations are designed to fit data. A type of programming... read more

Object Oriented Programming Paradigm:

OOPS is a better way of solving problems in computers compared to the procedural language programming such as in C. oops is designed around the data being operated upon as opposed to the operations, these operations are designed to fit data.

A type of programming in which programmers define not only the data type of a data structure, but also the types of operations that can be applied to the data structure. In this way, the data structure becomes an object that includes both data and functions. In addition, programmers can create relationships between one object and another. For example, objects can inherit characteristics from other objects.

One of the principal advantages of object-oriented programming techniques over procedural programming techniques is that they enable programmers to create modules that do not need to be changed when a new type of object is added. A programmer can simply create a new object that inherits many of its features from existing objects. This makes object-oriented programs easier to modify.

To perform object-oriented programming, one needs an object-oriented programming language such as Java C++ etc.

The C++ programming language provides a model of memory and computation that closely matches that of most computers. In addition, it provides powerful and flexible mechanisms for abstraction; that is, language constructs that allow the programmer to introduce and use new types of objects that match the concepts of an application.

Thus, C++ supports styles of programming that rely on fairly direct manipulation of hardware resources to deliver a high degree of efficiency plus higher-level styles of programming that rely on user-defined types to provide a model of data and computation that is closer to a human’s view of the task being performed by a computer. These higher-level styles of programming are often called data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming.

Features of OOPs are the following:

  • Encapsulation.
  • Data abstraction.
  • Inheritance.
  • Polymorphism.
  • Message passing.
  • Extensibility.
  • Persistence.
  • Delegation.
  • Genericity.
  • Multiple Inheritance.

Elements of Object Oriented Programming:

Object-Oriented Programming is centered around the new concepts such as classes, polymorphism, inheritance, etc. it is a well suited paradigm for the following:

  • Modeling the real world problem as close as possible to the users perspective.
  • Interacting easily with computational environment using familiar metaphors.
  • Constructing reusable software components and easily extendable libraries.
  • Easily modifying and extending implementations of components without having to recode every thing from scratch.

Definition of OOP:

OOP uses objects as its fundamental building blocks. Each object is an instance of some class. Classes allow the mechanism of data abstraction for creating new data types. Inheritance allows building of new classes from existing classes. Hence if any of these elements are missing in a program we cannot consider that program as objected oriented program.

Object oriented programming is a programming methodology that associates data structures with a set of operators which act upon it. In OOP’s terminology an instance of such an entity is known as an object. It gives importance to relationships between objects rather than implementation details. Hiding the implementation details within an object results in the user being more concerned with an objects relationship to the rest of the system, than the implementation of the object’s behavior.

Objects:

Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. Every object is associated with data and functions which define meaningful operations on that object.

What is Encapsulation?

It is a mechanism that associates the code and the data it manipulates into a single unit to and keeps them safe from external interference and misuse. In C++ this is supported by construct called class. An instance of an object is known as object which represents a real world entity.

What is Data Abstraction?

A data abstraction is a simplified view of an object that includes only features one is interested in while hides away the unnecessary details. In programming languages, a data abstraction becomes an abstract data type or a user-defined type. In OOP, it is implemented as a class.

Inheritance is a means of specifying hierarchical relationships between types C++ classes can inherit both data and function members from other (parent) classes. Terminology: "the child (or derived) class inherits (or is derived from) the parent (or base) class."

What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is in short the ability to call different functions by just using one type of function call. It is a lot useful since it can group classes and their functions together. Polymorphism means that the same thing can exist in two forms. This is an important characteristic of true object oriented design which means that one could develop good OO design with data abstraction and inheritance, but the real power of object oriented design seems to surface when polymorphism is used.

In C++, polymorphism means that if the same message is sent to different objects, the object’s behavior depends on the nature of the object itself. This is sort of obvious for completely different objects, but the concept starts making sense when combined with inheritance.

What is Message passing?

It is the process of invoking an operation on an object. In response to a message the corresponding method is executed in the object.

What is Extensibility?

C++ allows the extension of the functionality of the existing software components. In C++ this is achieved through abstract classes and inheritance.

What is Persistence?

The phenomenon where the object (data) outlives the program execution time and exists between executions of a program is known as persistence. All data base systems support persistence. In c++ it is not supported. However the user can build it explicitly using file streams in a program.

What is Delegation?

Delegation is a way of making object composition as powerful as inheritance. In delegation two objects are involved in handling a request a receiving object delegates operations to its delegate. This is analogous to child class sending requests to the parent class.

What is Genericity?

It is technique for defining software components that have more than one interpretation depending on the data type of parameters. Thus it allows the declaration of data items without specifying their exact data type.

What is Multiple Inheritance?

The mechanism by which a class is derived from more than one base class is known as multiple inheritance. Instances of classes with multiple inheritance have instance variables for each of the inherited base classes. C++ supports multiple inheritance.

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Lesson Posted on 23/08/2017 Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Computer Science

Quick Sort Algorithm

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Choose the pivot (using the "median-of-three" technique); also, put the smallest of the 3 values in A, put the largest of the 3 values in A, and swap the pivot with the value in A. (Putting the smallest value in A prevents right from falling off the end of the array in the following steps.) Initialize:... read more
  1. Choose the pivot (using the "median-of-three" technique); also, put the smallest of the 3 values in A[low], put the largest of the 3 values in A[high], and swap the pivot with the value in A[high-1]. (Putting the smallest value in A[low] prevents right from falling off the end of the array in the following steps.)
  2. Initialize: left = low+1; right = high-2
  3. Use a loop with the condition:

while (left <= right)

The loop invariant is:

all items in A[low] to A[left-1] are <= the pivot
all items in A[right+1] to A[high] are >= the pivot

Each time around the loop:

left is incremented until it "points" to a value > the pivot
right is decremented until it "points" to a value < the pivot
if left and right have not crossed each other,
then swap the items they "point" to.

  1. Put the pivot into its final place.
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Answered on 23/08/2017 Tuition/BTech Tuition/BTech Computer Science Engineering

C L Kumar

Maths Tutor

hii saivamsi....start solving aptitude problems and learn c languages ,java,data structure and DBMS.you will surely get placed .thanks
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