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Lesson Posted on 15 Sep Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology/Unit 5: Human Physiology/Chapter 18- Body Fluids and Circulation +2 CBSE/Class 10 CBSE/Class 12 less

Cardiovascular System

Animesh Rathore

I am a medico, a true science lover and passionate teacher. Struggle is real to get into MBBS seat....

The circulatory system consists of a network of artery, veins and pumping organ called the heart. The additional is the lymphatic system which is discussed separately. The circulatory system essentially requires blood and heart. The heart pumps the blood with a force of 120/80mmhg so that it can reach... read more

The circulatory system consists of a network of artery, veins and pumping organ called the heart.

The additional is the lymphatic system which is discussed separately.

The circulatory system essentially requires blood and heart.

The heart pumps the blood with a force of 120/80mmhg so that it can reach to peripheral organs.

Blood carries not only oxygen, co2 but also nutrition.

Hypoglycemia is the condition when the blood glucose level decreases. ( Brain may stop working if glucose don't reach within 6sec)

Hypoxia is the condition when the blood contains less of O2 and more of CO2. Cellular death occurs when prolonged hypoxia leading to ischemia and necrosis.

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Lesson Posted on 03 Aug Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

#NEET#AIIMS

Nandini

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Lesson Posted on 05 Jun Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

Where do you find rectus muscles in eye?

Sally G.

Asst Professor( Handled Postgraduate students of Biotechnology Bioinformatics Microbiology- 10 years IAS...

The rectus muscle derives the name from the Latin word meaning straight. They are attached from the place of origin to the point of attachment in a straight line. There are four types of rectus muscles: Superior rectus Inferior rectus Lateral rectus Medial rectus read more

The rectus muscle derives the name from the Latin word meaning straight. They are attached from the place of origin to the point of attachment in a straight line. 

There are four types of rectus muscles:

Superior rectus

Inferior rectus

Lateral rectus

Medial rectus

 

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Lesson Posted on 05 Jun Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

NEET UG

Sally G.

Asst Professor( Handled Postgraduate students of Biotechnology Bioinformatics Microbiology- 10 years IAS...

What is Double Fertilization? It is a type of reproduction observed in angiosperms in which the male gamete fertilizes the egg and polar nuclei of the female embryo sac. As double fertilization( one male gamete with the egg of micropylar end) and the other( second male gamete fertilizes the central... read more

What is Double Fertilization?

It is a type of reproduction observed in angiosperms in which the male gamete fertilizes the egg and polar nuclei of the female embryo sac. As double fertilization( one male gamete with the egg of micropylar end) and the other( second male gamete fertilizes the central cell or polar nuclei) takes place, it referred to as DOUBLE FERTILIZATION.

Define Siphonogamy

The higher plants like Gymnosperm and Angiosperm do not depend on water for their fertilization. Instead of the pollinating agents like the wind for gymnosperm and insects and others for angiosperm help in bringing the male gamete and female gamete together. Upon landing on the stigma of the pistil, the pollen tube is developed which grows long, which is referred to as pollen germination. This phenomenon is called Siphoonogamy. Nectar, and minerals like Boron help in pollen germination.

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Lesson Posted on 27 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

Class 11 Biology: Biomolecules- Carbohydrates

Ravi Singh

Ex-Aakash, Pace IIT & Medical Faculty, Experienced for 19+ years in Teaching Zoology/Biology at various...

CARBOHYDRATES Compounds of C, H, O Also called saccharides (sugars) Biomicromolecules- monosaccharides, derived monosaccharides, olgiosaccharides) Biomacromolecues- polysacharadies MONOSUGARS/MONOSACCHARIDES General formula for monosaccharides where n is the number of C-atoms. Simple... read more
  1. CARBOHYDRATES
    1. Compounds of C, H, O
    2. Also called saccharides (sugars)
    3. Biomicromolecules- monosaccharides, derived monosaccharides, olgiosaccharides)
    4. Biomacromolecues- polysacharadies
  2. MONOSUGARS/MONOSACCHARIDES
    1. General formula for monosaccharides where n is the number of C-atoms.
    2. Simple sugars, can’t be hydrolyzed further
    3. Of 3-7 carbon atoms
    4. Monosaccharides are called sugars as these are sweeter in taste.
  • Types of monosaccharides
    1. Based on C-atoms, monosaccharides are divided into following.
      1. Trioses (with-3carbons)
        1. General formula = C3H6O3
        2. e.g. Glyceraldehyde, Dihydroxyacetone.
      2. Tetroses (with 4-carbons)
        1. General formula = C4H8O4
        2. e.g. Erythrose, Threose.
      3. Pentoses (with 5-carbons)
        1. General formula = C5H10O5
        2. e.g. Ribose, Deoxyribose, Xylose, Xylulose, Ribulose.
      4. Hexoses (with 6-carbons)
        1. General formula = C6H12O6
        2. e.g. Glucose, Mannose, Galactose and Fructose.
      5. Heptoses (with 7-carbons)
        1. General formula = C­7H14O7
        2. e.eg. Sedoheptulose.           
      6. Aldoses.
        1. These monosugars have aldehydic group at C-1’
        2. g. Glucose, Galactose.
      7. Ketoses.
        1. These monosugars have ketonic group at C-2’
        2. g. Fructose.  
      8. General formula Cn (H2O) n, H:O in 2:1 ratio
      9. Aldose and ketose group can also react with alcoholic and nitrogen group of another compound forming C-O-C or C-N-C (glycosidic bond)
      10. Glycosidic bond also established during condensation of monosaccharides for formation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
      11. A molecule of H2O is usually produced at each condensation, called dehydration synthesis
    2. Two cyclic forms of monosaccharides
      1. Furanoses.
        1. All the pentoses (e.g. Ribose, Deoxyribose) and Ketohexoses (e.g. Fructose) occur as a 5-membered ring form which resembles furan so called furanose ring e.g. Ribose and Fructose.
        2. Has pentagon structure with 4 carbons and 1 oxygen
      2. Pyranoses.
        1. Most of aldohexoses (e.g. Glucose, Galactose and Mannose) occur as 6-membered ring form which resembles pyran so called pyranose ring.
        2. Hexagon structure with 5 carbon atoms and one oxygen atom
      3. DEFIVED MONOSACCHARIDES (modified monosaccharides)
        1. DEOXYSUGARS
          1. Deoxyribose
        2. AMINOSUGARS
          1. Monosaccharide has an amino group (-NH2)
          2. g. Glucosamine (forms chitin (NAG), Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate)
        3. SUGAR ACID
          1. g. Ascorbic Acid, Glucuronic Acid
          2. Glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid occur in mucopolysaccharides

 

  1. SUGAR ALCOHOL
  • g. Glycerol, Mannitol (storage alcohol in some fruits)
  1. Functions of monosaccharides
    1. As respiratory fuel. Glucose acts as chief respiratory fuel because it is easily oxidizable and is present abundantly in the body fluids. Glucose provides energy for about 60 per cent of energy needs of man. One glucose molecule produces about 38 ATP moleculese., 280 Kcal.
    2. Ribose & Deoxyribose for nucleic acids and nucleotides
    3. Intermediates of C3-cycle of photosynthesis e.g. Glyceraldehyde, Xylulose, Ribulose, Sedoheptulose, etc.
    4. Galactose is the component of medullary
    5. Act as monomers.
    6. When excess, monosugars can be changed into amino acids or fats.
    7. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is a sugar acid and maintains capillary wall and helps in tyrosine metabolism.
  • OLIGOSACCHARIDES
    1. 2-9 monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
    2. Are biomicromolecules
    3. Glycosidic bond between aldehyde/ketone group of one monosaccharide and alcohol group of another by dehydration
    4. Normally between C-1 and C-4
    5. They can be disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose, trehalose)
    6. Trehalose ( glu-glu joined by α (1-1)bond, is present in haemolymph of insects
    7. trisaccharide (raffinose= glu + gal + fruct, in sugarbeet, cotton seed, and many cereals), tetrasaccharide ( stachyose= glu + fruct + 2 galactoses, in vegetables etc)
    8. Larger oligosaccharides have branched or unbranched chains occur attached to cell membrane
  • Disaccharides

 

  1. Maltose/Malt Sugar
    1. Occur in malted grains of barley, most germinating seeds and tissues where starch is broken down
    2. Reducing sugar
    3. α (1-4) bond
  2. Lactose/Milk Sugar
    1. In milk, reducing sugar
    2. Β (1-4) bond of glucose and galactose
    3. Souring of milk is conversion of lactose into lactic acid
    4. Lactose composed of β-D-glucose and α-D-galactose units interlinked by β (1 4) glycosidic bond. It is also called milk sugar
  3. Sucrose
    1. Glucose and fructose
    2. Non-Reducing sugar
    3. It is composed of α-D-glucose and β-D-fructose together by the aldehyde and ketone
    4. Carbon by α (1 2) glycosidic bond sucrose is not a reducing sugar as compared to maltose and lactose which are reducing ones. Sweetening power of sucrose is considered to be 100. It is common cane or table sugar.

 

  1. Trisaccharides
    1. Raffinose
      1. is a common trisaccharide found in plants. Raffinose is found in sugarbeet, coffee It is non-reducing sugar.
    2. REDUCING SUGARS
      1. Sugars which can reduce Cu2+--------Cu+ ions
      2. Basis of benedict’s and Felhling’s test
      3. In all those saccharides having free -CHO and -C=O group
      4. All monosaccharides
      5. Among disaccharides, sucrose is non reducing because both aldehyde and ketone groups participate in glycosidic bond formation
      6. Blue alkaline solution (Cupric Sulphate) changes to reddish precipitate (Cuprous Oxide) on gently heating
    3. Functions
      1. Fuel.
        1. Disaccharides can act as fuel to provide energy.
      2. Storage food.
        1. Sucrose is the reserve storage product in sugarbeet and sugarcane.
      3. Recognition point.
        1. Oligosaccharides attached with cell membrane help in recognizing the cells of their own kind.
      4. Sucrose is main transport sugar in the phloem of plants.
  • POLYSACCHARIDE
    1. Called glycans (polymer of glucose), are the polymers of more than 10 monosaccarides, interlinked by glycosidic bonds formed by dehydration synthesis differ in the nature and number of their monosaccharides, and degree of branching
    2. Branched or unbranched
    3. Right end of polysaccharides is reducing and left non reducing
    4. 2 types:
  • Homopolysaccharides
    1. cellulose, starch, glycogen, inulin, agar, xylan, araban, etc.
    2. only one type of monomers
    3. GLYCOGEN
      1. Found in the muscles and liver cells of animals is also a branched homopolysaccharide formed of about 30,000 α-d-Glucose molecules.
      2. α(1-4) and β(1-6) at branching points
      3. Its molecular weight is about 4 millon and it gives red coloured with iodine.
      4. A polysaccharide chain has two specific ends: right reducing end and left non reducing end.
      5. Chemically non-reactive and is osmotically inactive
    4. STARCH
      1. Chemically non-reactive and osmotically inactive
      2. Forms helical secondary structure, into helix
      3. Chemically, the starch is formed of two glucose polymers:
        1. Amylose
          1. α (1-4) glycosidic bonds) between glucose molecules
          2. straight chain of 200-1000 glucose units
          3. it is helical, each turn has 6 glucose units
        2. amylopectin
          1. a branched glucan of about 2,000-200,000 α-Glucose molecules
          2. form straight chains and branches (after 25 glucose units)
  • branching points have α (1-6) bonds

 

  1. CELLULOSE (CELLULIN)
    1. Structural polysaccharide
    2. Paper made from pulp of cellulose
    3. Cotton fibre is cellulose
    4. Most abundant organic compound/carbohydrate in biosphere
    5. 50% of carbon found in plants is cellulose
    6. Forms about 25-50% of wood and about 90% of cotton
    7. Tunicin (of tunicates) related to cellulose
    8. These are unbranched linear chains
    9. A chain contains 6000 or more glucose units
    10. Glucose joined by β (1-4) linkage
    11. Number of chains present in close antiparallel fashion
    12. Molecules are held together by intermolecular Hydrogen bonds between OH groups at position 6 or glucose residue on one molecule and glycosidic oxygen between 2 glucose residues of adjacent molecule
    13. As cellulose does not contain complex helices so cannot hold iodine and give no colour with Iodine.
    14. Artificial fibre Rayon is manufactured by dissolving cellulosic material in alkali and by extruding and coagulating filaments
    15. Artificial silk is polysaccharide prepared from Rayon
    16. By treatment with other chemicals, cellulose is converted into cellulose acetate (used in fabrics, cellulosic plastics and shatter proof glasses)
    17. Cellulose Nitrate is used in propellant explosives
    18. Carboxymethyl cellulose, added to ice-creams, cosmetics, medicines to emulsify and give a smooth texture
    19. Cellulose can be hydrolyzed to soluble sugars, microbes can then convert these sugars to form like ethanol, butanol, acetone, methane etc.
  2. INULIN
    1. A fructan, is storage polysaccharide of roots and tubers of Dahlia
    2. Inulin is not metabolized in human body and is readily filtered through the kidney, therefore used in testing of kidney functions (especially glomerular filtration)
  3. CHITIN
    1. Second most abundant organic substance
    2. Homopolysaccharide of nitrogen containing glucose called N-Acetylglucosamine
    3. Exoskeleton of arthropods have chitin
    4. Chitin is soft and leather, hence provide strength and elasticity
    5. It becomes hard when impregnated with certain proteins and calcium carbonate
    6. Chitin is unbranched
    7. Monomers joined by 1-4 B-linkage
    8. Molecules lie parallel and held by H-bonds
  • Heteropolysaccharides
    1. two or more types of monosaccharides or their derivatives as amino sugars like glucosamine, N-acetyl galactosamine or sugar acids like glucuronic acid, etc.
    2. Hyaluronic acids:
      1. Heteropolymer of D-Glucoronic Acid(a carboxylic Acide) & D-N-Acetyl Glucosamine (glucose derivative)
      2. It gives toughness and flexibility of cartilage and tendons
      3. liner acidic hetropolysaccharide found in various lubricating fluids of body e.g. synovial fluid of limb joints, around the ovum, etc.
    3. Peptidoglycan:
      1. cell wall of bacteria and cyanobacteria
      2. degraed by Lysozyme
      3. it is made of alternate amino sugars, N-Acetyl Glucosamine and N-Acetyl Muramic Acid
      4. It is formed of a polysaccharide chain linked with tetrapeptide molecules.
      5. It prevents the lysis and osmotic inflow of the cell wall.
    4. Agar
      1. In cell wall of red algae, released on boiling
      2. Mucopolysaccharide, repeated units of D-galactose joined by proteins
      3. Used in culture medium
    5. function
      1. Reserve food, structure polysaccharides Cellulose, Chitin, Chondroitin, Peptidoglycans, Anticoagulation, Cellulose, Agar, hyaluronic acid, Hormones, Blood antigens

 

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Lesson Posted on 10/10/2019 Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching Biomolecules

Early Experiment for Photosynthesis :- NEET/AIIMS/JIPMER

Anmol

Photosynthesis is a term used to describe the process of preparation of food by green plants. The process uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into the molecules which are needed for plant’s growth and development. The green pigment in plants is responsible for absorbing... read more

Photosynthesis is a term used to describe the process of preparation of food by green plants. The process uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into the molecules which are needed for plant’s growth and development. The green pigment in plants is responsible for absorbing light energy and converting into food. The process is a very important one as it releases oxygen into the atmosphere and is a primary source of food. 

Early Experiment for Photosynthesis:

Scientist Joseph Priestly performed various experiments in the year of 1770 which showed the role of air in the growth of green plants.

  • The first experiment was carried out using a candle, mice, jar and a plant. When he placed a candle and mice in a jar, candle extinguished and mice fainted after sometime as shown in gif a and b. He then placed a plant in the jar along with mice and candle. Mouse stayed alive and the candle was also burning which brought priestly to the hypothesis that “plants restore the air whatever breathing animals and burning candles remove.
  •  Another experiment he performed involve a similar set of plants. He showed that small bubbles are formed around the green parts of the plants in sunlight whereas there are no bubbles formed during the night. From this experiment, he concluded that those bubbles formed were oxygen molecules.
  • Another scientist named Julius von Sachs performed an experiment in the year 1854 and showed that glucose is produced during the growth of plants. Glucose is made in chlorophyll and is stored in the form of starch.
  • These green pigments (chlorophyll) are stored in specialized plant cells. There were some more scientists who worked in a similar field and described the entire process of photosynthesis by chemical equations.
  • T.W Engelmann carried out an experiment using prism which split the light into several components and illuminated green algae (cladophora) which was placed in the suspension of aerobic bacteria.
  • Using these bacteria, he detected the site of oxygen evolution. Most of the bacteria were accumulated in the red and blue light area. In the 19th century, the empirical equation which represented the process of photosynthesis was:
  • Another Scientist Cornelius van Neil added that the process of photosynthesis is a light dependent reaction and the equation represented as-
  • He even concluded that oxygen evolved from the green plants comes from hydrogen and water. The final equation which represents photosynthesis is

  • Another Scientist Cornelius van Neil added that the process of photosynthesis is a light dependent reaction and the equation represented as-

  • He even concluded that oxygen evolved from the green plants comes from hydrogen and water. The final equation which represents photosynthesis is-

Where C6H12O is glucose.

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Lesson Posted on 10/10/2019 Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology

The site of Photosynthesis:- NEET/AIIMS/JIPMER

Anmol

The site of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in Mesophyll cells inside chloroplasts. It is a process which involves chemical reactions in which water and carbon dioxide are converted into energy in the presence of sunlight. Chloroplasts are the structures which are found on the cells of... read more

The site of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis takes place in Mesophyll cells inside chloroplasts. It is a process which involves chemical reactions in which water and carbon dioxide are converted into energy in the presence of sunlight.

  • Chloroplasts are the structures which are found on the cells of plants. Water required in the process is transported via roots through vascular tissue and carbon dioxide enters into the process via stomatal pores.
  • Chloroplast has a membrane structure consisting of grana, stroma lamellae and fluid stroma.
  • The membrane system in chloroplast is responsible for trapping light energy.
  • ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) are also synthesized in it. Starch is formed in stroma by enzymatic reactions involving carbon dioxide which forms sugar.
  • The former set of reactions is known as a Light Reaction as it is dependent on light. Another set of reactions which are not directly dependent on plants is called Dark reaction. These reactions are not directly dependent on light but use the products of light reactions i.e. ATP and NADPH.

 

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Answered on 06/09/2019 Tuition CBSE Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

Raksha B.

Definitely many are there. It depends on you how you see the potential.
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Answered on 12/12/2016 Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

Auxano EduTech LLP

Yes, if you have to really guts to study more than 10 hrs a day. If you are in pune / nagpur we can guide you.
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