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Lesson Posted on 07/09/2020 Exam Coaching/CMA Coaching Exam Coaching/CA Coaching Exam Coaching/ICWA Coaching

Incorporation of Company

Nandhini Nagendhran

I have been handling courses of Accountancy fields for the past 2 to 3 years.

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Lesson Posted on 03/08/2020 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/CA Final Exam Coaching/Company Secratary (CS) Coaching Exam Coaching

How to clear professional exams in first attempt.

CA. Shailesh Vakharia

I am a qualified chartered accountant with more than fifteen years of industry experience. I am possess...

Professional exams require some extra efforts than non-professional reviews. Following are some handy tips to get through these exams: 1. Yoga/ meditation: Doing yoga or meditation for at least forty five minutes per day will not only improve your health but will also enhance your concentration and... read more

Professional exams require some extra efforts than non-professional reviews. Following are some handy tips to get through these exams:

1. Yoga/ meditation: Doing yoga or meditation for at least forty five minutes per day will not only improve your health but will also enhance your concentration and enable you to focus more deeply into a subject.

2. Try and understand the concept of the chapter in a topic which will help you in answering the most tricky questions at the exams.

3. Don't carry books or notes at the reviews for revision. Always prepare yourself well in advance so that any matter comes to you before a day of the exam is known to you entirely.

4. Feel happy and have some funny moments with your friends just before exams to ease yourself from exam pressure.

5. Don't indulge in any topic related to exam subject just before exam hour. This might demoralize you if the question is unknown to you.

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Answered on 02/07/2019 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/Crash Course

Subhash Verma

Commerce Classes

Yes, you can join for CA-CPT now or can go for direct entry after graduation in CA.PCC (Intermediate).
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Answered on 17/12/2019 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching

Yash

no not necessary u can start CA as fastas u can
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Lesson Posted on 22/10/2018 Exam Coaching/Company Secratary (CS) Coaching/Crash Course Exam Coaching/Company Secratary (CS) Coaching Exam Coaching/CA Coaching +2 IBPS SO/IBPS SO Professional Paper/Law/Types of Companies Exam Coaching/CMA Coaching less

Company Law chapter one - characteristics of company with case law

Krishan Coaching Acdemy

Learh basic to proficient english language with personification and communication development. Especially...

COMPANY LAWCHP - 1 COMPANY = COM + PANIS It is called a body corporate because the persons comprising it are made into a single entity by incorporating it according to the law and clothing it with legal personality. The word ‘corporation’ is derived from the Latin term ‘corpus’... read more

COMPANY LAW
CHP - 1

COMPANY = COM + PANIS

It is called a body corporate because the persons comprising it are made into a single entity by incorporating it according to the law and clothing it with legal personality.

 

The word ‘corporation’ is derived from the Latin term ‘corpus’ which means ‘body’. Accordingly, ‘corporation’ is a legal person created by a process other than natural birth. It is, for this reason, sometimes called the artificial juridical person. As a legal person, a corporation is capable of enjoying many rights and incurring many liabilities of a natural person.

 

U/s 2(20) COMPANY MEANS INCORPORATED UNDER THIS ACT OR ANY PREVIOUS ACT.

 

Characteristics of company

Corporate personality: So redundant bears own name/ under own name/ separate property from members
incurring debts, borrowing money, employ people, have to Bank a/c.

CASE LAW:
Salomon vs Salomon and Co Ltd. – 1897 (Salomon, four sons, wife & daughter -$ 38782, 20K shares/10K debs secured with floating charge/ 8782 cash, creditors claimed but lordship of the house of lords observed.)

Lee vs Lee Air farming Ltd. - 1961(the same person can be employee & owner)

Kandoli tea Co Ltd. (1882)(transferred TEA estate to claim exemption from ad Valero)

New Horizon Ltd vs Union of India (1994):: Experience of shareholder are generally not consider but in this case ARUN PURIEE & TPI ltd, LMI ltd & WM Ltd + IIP Ltd (Singapore) tender for telephone directory – evaluation committee refused – Delhi HC upheld -=- Supreme court reversed

Artificial Person: enjoy rights & obligation of duties::--Union bank of India VsKhader international construction & Others: indigent Person Order 33 rule 1 CPC1908

Not citizen: Rights of shareholder not impugned with action against the company: RC COOPER vs UOI

Bennet Coleman co vs UOI: SC observed if fundamental rights of a shareholder are impaired by state legislation their power as shareholders are protected.
Has Nationality and Residence: GaaqueVs Inland water revenue commissioners (1940) &
Tulika v Parry & Co (1903) place of registration + residence & domicile
JV company resides where it meets in general presence of persons who represent it.

Limited Liability: Buckley, J in London& globe finance Corporation (1903)observed in last 50 yrs legislation of limited liability has done well to the economy
Exceptions of Limited liability:

Section 3(2)(c) : Unlimited Lia. Co
Section 7(7) : fraudulent doc for incorporation
Section 35(3): Fraudulent Prospectus
Section 75(1): Deposit
Section 224(5): During Investigation by an officer
Section 339(1): During winding up
Section 251(1): Fraudulently removal of the name

Perpetual Succession: LCB Gower ( Hydrogen Bomb)

Separate Property: Member even doesn’t have an insurable interest in property of the company.
Bacha f Guzdar V income tax commissioner(1955)
SC observed that tea company to have 60% exemption in its income but not shareholders
Transferability of shares: re Balia and San Francisco Railway co (1968), Section 44 provides that shares held by members are moveable property in the manner provided by AOA if AOA is silent that by TABLE F Schedule 1.

Capacity to sue and be sued: TVS Employees Fed. V TVS & Sons Ltd. : workers allowed to realise film of their struggle
LalitSurajmalKanodia v Office Tiger Database India (Pvt) Ltd ( 2006) co not liable for contempt by officers

Contractual Rights: shareholder cannot enforce any contract nor derive benefit not a party to contract, co is not a trustee of shareholders and shareholder cannot be sued for deals by the company.
British Thompson Huston co. v Sterling Accessories Ltd (1924)

Limitation of action MOA AOA

Separate Management:

Voluntary association for profit

Termination of existence
It is the Easiest way to grab the company's characteristics. Just look out for more lessons.

Join my classes and surety if you learn with our way, you 'll never forget company law. Just copy to your mobile and study when in hush in the metro.

I have designed such notes to enable you to understand easily not only mugging.

All the best for your upcoming exams and concentrate on studying ICSI course book.

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Lesson Posted on 09/08/2018 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/CA Final Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/CPT +9 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/Crash Course Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/IPCC Group 1 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/IPCC Group 2 Tuition/BCom Tuition Financial Planning/Taxation Exam Coaching/Company Secratary (CS) Coaching Exam Coaching/ICWA Coaching CBSE/Class 11 CBSE/Class 12 less

Margin of Safety?

CA Prashanth Reddy

I enjoy teaching and interacting with students. Teaching is my passion, profession and hobby. Every student...

What is the Margin of Safety? Suppose a class 11th student need 33 marks to pass a paper. If a student gets exactly 33 marks, then he will be a pass. These 33 marks are called Break-Even-Point Marks. If a student get marks above 33, then such excess marks shall be safety marks for him hence shall... read more

What is the Margin of Safety?

Suppose a class 11th student need 33 marks to pass a paper.

If a student gets exactly 33 marks, then he will be a pass. These 33 marks are called Break-Even-Point Marks.

 

If a student get marks above 33, then such excess marks shall be safety marks for him hence shall be called Margin of Safety Marks (i.e. bonus marks in layman language)

 

Similarly, Margin of Safety means Sales above Break-Even Point Sales. Profit is ZERO at BEP Sales. The company makes a profit only when the margin of safety sales occurs.

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Answered on 16/08/2018 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/IPCC Group 1 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching/IPCC Group 2

Sneha V.

Commerce Tutor

Hi, For direct entry route, you must complete your Bcom to register under the Direct entry scheme and complete 9 months of articleship training to appear for the exam as per ICAI. However, you can start classes right now as it will help you prepare easily. Coaching is available for this. read more

Hi, 

For direct entry route, you must complete your Bcom to register under the Direct entry scheme and complete 9 months of articleship training to appear for the exam as per ICAI. However, you can start classes right now as it will help you prepare easily. Coaching is available for this.

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Answered on 16/06/2018 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching

Rohith Kumar

Tutor

No actually one cannot expect the changes in auditing in respect of standards on ayditing, statutory audit related to taxation , stock markets etc. So my suggestion is to take classes minimum of 6months to 1 year before exams.
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Answered on 25/07/2018 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching

How do I prepare for CA IPCC accounts without taking any coaching?

Hitesh Arora

Tutor

What you can do is, arrange the notes of ca parveen sharma & read those notes chapterwise. After reading the notes of particular chapter practice the questions of that chapter from the practice manual issued by the institute
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Answered on 31/01/2016 Exam Coaching/CA Coaching

Akon

for commerce students Maths & Statistic part goes hard.
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