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Answered on 02 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Sujoy D.

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Monaco > 3,850 Km of road per 100 sq. km of land area
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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Why is the number of females more than males in urban areas of U.S.A. and Canada? Give one reason.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Canada and the United States have enjoyed vigorous population growth since the early 1980s. Although mortality is slightly higher in the United States than in Canada, this is largely offset by much higher fertility, with a total fertility rate at replacement level, compared with just 1.5 children per... read more

Canada and the United States have enjoyed vigorous population growth since the early 1980s. Although mortality is slightly higher in the United States than in Canada, this is largely offset by much higher fertility, with a total fertility rate at replacement level, compared with just 1.5 children per woman in Canada. The United States is also the world’s largest immigrant receiving country, although its immigration rate is only half that of Canada, where today one person in five is foreign-born, versus one in eight in the United States. Based on recent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration, the populations of these two North American countries will continue to grow over the next five decades, but at a progressively slower pace. The most acute demographic issue today is not, as in Europe, that of imminent population decline, but rather of the geographic and social inequalities which have increased steadily since the early 1980s and which are reflected in major fertility and health differentials between regions and social groups.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

State any two advantages the nations get by forming â??Regional Trade Blocsâ??.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

A nation’s competitiveness depends on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade. Companies gain advantage against the world’s best competitors because of pressure and challenge. They benefit from having strong domestic rivals, aggressive home-based suppliers, and demanding local... read more

A nation’s competitiveness depends on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade. Companies gain advantage against the world’s best competitors because of pressure and challenge. They benefit from having strong domestic rivals, aggressive home-based suppliers, and demanding local customers.

In a world of increasingly global competition, nations have become more, not less, important. As the basis of competition has shifted more and more to the creation and assimilation of knowledge, the role of the nation has grown. Competitive advantage is created and sustained through a highly localized process. Differences in national values, culture, economic structures, institutions, and histories all contribute to competitive success. There are striking differences in the patterns of competitiveness in every country; no nation can or will be competitive in every or even most industries. Ultimately, nations succeed in particular industries because their home environment is the most forward-looking, dynamic, and challenging.

These conclusions, the product of a four-year study of the patterns of competitive success in ten leading trading nations, contradict the conventional wisdom that guides the thinking of many companies and national governments—and that is pervasive today in the United States. (For more about the study, see the insert “Patterns of National Competitive Success.”) According to prevailing thinking, labor costs, interest rates, exchange rates, and economies of scale are the most potent determinants of competitiveness. In companies, the words of the day are merger, alliance, strategic partnerships, collaboration, and supranational globalization. Managers are pressing for more government support for particular industries. Among governments, there is a growing tendency to experiment with various policies intended to promote national competitiveness—from efforts to manage exchange rates to new measures to manage trade to policies to relax antitrust—which usually end up only under mining it.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Explain the term â??agricultural density of populationâ?? in India.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Population density is often quantified as arithmetic density, physiological density, and agricultural density. Arithmetic density, also known as real density, is very simply the total number of people divided by the total land area. Physiological density is the number of people per unit area of arable... read more

Population density is often quantified as arithmetic density, physiological density, and agricultural density. Arithmetic density, also known as real density, is very simply the total number of people divided by the total land area. Physiological density is the number of people per unit area of arable land.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

â??Kerala and Mizoram have higher literacy rate than other states of India.â?? Explain.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

All of these states are smaller in size and population compared to other indian states. Older generation realized value of education and tried to give a proper education to next generation. Brtter governance by local authorities. Relatively low or negligible effect of upper caste - lower caste system... read more

All of these states are smaller in size and population compared to other indian states.

Older generation realized value of education and tried to give a proper education to next generation.

Brtter governance by local authorities.

Relatively low or negligible effect of upper caste - lower caste system on goverment in thse cities.

Presence of christian missionary

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

â??Indian seaports are highly valuable in handling foreign trade.â?? Justify.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95 per cent of India's trading by volume and 70 per cent by value is done through maritime transport. India has 12 major and 200 notified minor and intermediate ports. Cargo traffic, which recorded 1,052 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) in 2015, is expected to... read more

According to the Ministry of Shipping, around 95 per cent of India's trading by volume and 70 per cent by value is done through maritime transport.

India has 12 major and 200 notified minor and intermediate ports. Cargo traffic, which recorded 1,052 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) in 2015, is expected to reach 1,758 MMT by 2017. The Indian ports and shipping industry plays a vital role in sustaining growth in the country’s trade and commerce. India is the sixteenth largest maritime country in the world, with a coastline of about 7,517 km. The Indian Government plays an important role in supporting the ports sector. It has allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of up to 100 per cent under the automatic route for port and harbour construction and maintenance projects. It has also facilitated a 10-year tax holiday to enterprises that develop, maintain and operate ports, inland waterways and inland ports.

Market Size

Cargo traffic handled by India’s major ports increased 3.64 per cent year-on-year to 499.41 million tonnes (MT) during April-December 2017.The highest growth was witnessed by Cochin Port 17.27 per cent, followed by Paradip 14.59 per cent, Kolkata (including Haldia) 12.45 per cent, New Mangalore 6.6 per cent and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust 5.94 per cent. In terms of composition of cargo traffic, iron ore traffic volume rose 29.32 per cent to 18.73 MT, petroleum oil and lubricants rose 8.36 per cent to 93.14 MT, and container traffic rose 6.44 per cent.

During 2016-17, major and non-major ports in India have accomplished a total cargo throughput of 1,133.09 million tonnes, an increase of 5.7 per cent previous year 2015-16. The growth in cargo handled at major and non-major ports in 2016-17, were 6.8 per cent and 4.2 per cent, respectively. The share of major ports in the total traffic handled by Indian ports increased from 56.5 per cent in 2015-16 to 57.2 per cent in 2016-17.

The country’s major ports handled a combined traffic volume of 647.76 million tonnes during 2016-17, registering an annual growth rate of 6.80 per cent. The major ports recorded the highest ever capacity addition of 100.37 MT in 2016-17, thereby raising the total capacity to 1065 MT per annum, as against a capacity of 965.36 MT per annum in 2015-16.

The government has taken several measures to improve operational efficiency through mechanisation, deepening the draft and speedy evacuations.

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, reported that the Indian ports sector received FDI worth US$ 1.64 billion between April 2000 and September 2017.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Explain any three aspects of environmental determinism.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Environmental determinism would go with the latter when faced with this scenario. The reason is that environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism, is the belief that a physical environment affects social and cultural development. The Theory The theory of environmental... read more

Environmental determinism would go with the latter when faced with this scenario. The reason is that environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism, is the belief that a physical environment affects social and cultural development.

The Theory

The theory of environmental determinism dates back to the 15th century. Plato and Aristotle believed that the climate contributed to the Greeks being highly developed early on, as compared to other civilizations in hotter or colder climates. The Greek geographer, Strabo, also had similar ideas and wrote about climate affecting the development of human beings at the physiological level. This concept was developed further later on and proposed the idea that environmental factors were the origin of different skin colors.

In modern times, environmental determinism rose to popularity during the 19th and 20th centuries. Following Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, German geographer Friedrich Rätzel proposed that evolutionary biology and our environment play the most prominent role in our development as a species. This ideology eventually spread to the United States and remained popular there until the 1940s, when it was accused of supporting racism and imperialism.

Contributions to Culture

The theory of environmental determinism as human development's sole contributor has been mostly abandoned. However, it did play a large role in geographic history and helped us understand that the environment sets certain limitations that can affect a culture.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Describe any three features of compact settlements of the world.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Clustered Rural Settlements: (i) The clustered rural settlement is a compact built up area of houses. (ii) It is found in fertile alluvial plains. (iii) People live in the compact villages for security or defense reason. read more

Clustered Rural Settlements:

(i) The clustered rural settlement is a compact built up area of houses.

(ii) It is found in fertile alluvial plains.

(iii) People live in the compact villages for security or defense reason.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Explain the meaning of metropolitan cities.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metropolitan region, metro area or just metro, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry ,infrastructure and housing.Assuming most viewers will be Indians here is another fact... read more

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metropolitan region, metro area or just metro, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry ,infrastructure and housing.
Assuming most viewers will be Indians here is another fact :In India, the Census Commission defines a metropolitan city as, "one having a population of over 1 million and above".As of 2011 Census India stats, there are 46 metropolitan cities in India. The top ten metropolitan cities based on 2011 Census population are Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Banglore, Surat andJaipur.[13] Residents of these cities are also entitled to a higher house rent allowance.

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Answered on 09 Feb CBSE/Class 12/Humanities/Geography Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Examine the role of liberalization in the development of industries in India.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Table of Content Growth rate Industry Agriculture Services Education Sector & Health Sector We have seen landmark shift in Indian Economy since the adoption of new economic policy in 1991. This had far reaching impacts on all spheres of life in India. There can be no concrete conclusions about... read more

Table of Content

  1. Growth rate
  2. Industry
  3. Agriculture
  4. Services
  5. Education Sector & Health Sector

We have seen landmark shift in Indian Economy since the adoption of new economic policy in 1991. This had far reaching impacts on all spheres of life in India. There can be no concrete conclusions about their impact on Indian people. This turns out to be more of an ideological debate like capitalism vs Socialism. But there is no doubt in the fact that those reforms were unavoidable and very compelling. There was in fact, similar wave all across the globe after disintegration of USSR and end of the Cold War. Many Post-colonial democratic regimes, which were earlier sheltered by USSR, lost their umbrella. They had no option, but to fall in line to new unipolar world order dictated by USA. Even China in late 1980’s adopted ‘Open Door Policy’ through which it liberalized its economy by shedding communist mentality completely. South East Asian economies also reformed their economy and started engaging more with global economy. These along with China, pursued export led growth whereas Indian economy still relies almost wholly on domestic consumption.

Patterns in the above graph explain inequity of Indian growth story. As per principle of economics, when a particular sector performs disproportionately higher than average growth rate, economic wealth starts concentrating into that sector. In this case that sector is Service sector. Within this sector, highest growth is marked by sectors such as financial services, Real estate services etc. , which are least employment elastic. Consequently, Growth of past decade was limited to upscale areas of the countries as almost whole service industry, operates from these areas. Majority of India got spillover or trickle down growth from here. This accelerated migration to urban areas. This in turned created array of social problems associated with urbanization. It fundamentally changed pattern of Indian Society.

Now we have ultra-modern and ultra-primitive society coexisting and conflicting with each other. On one side Social institutions like Personal Law boards, Khaps & kangaroo courts etc. tries to uphold their control over their respective community members, on other hand there is western wave pulling out these very members.

Undoubtedly strongest revolution of new century has been one of Information Technology, which started in last years of past century. This revolution was different because it made globalization even more obvious and stark. It made possible transfer of real time human labor across nations, without transfer humans themselves. Further, it erased all boundaries which hinder free flow of information. This has benefited sharing, nurturing and development of knowledge in societies which earlier had access only to substandard or non-updated information. As always package is coupled with some grim realities too.

Governments all across the world has lost their capacity to regulate and ward of against malicious, false, sensitive information and content. Rise of Islamic State demonstrates that, IT revolution has helped development of global Terrorist links more than anything. Moreover, explicit content is freely available on web, to which unmatured children have unrestricted access

GDP growth rate India’s annual average growth rate from 1990 – 2010 has been 6.6 % which is
almost double than pre reforms era. GDP growth rate surpassed 5% mark in early 1980’s. This made impact of 1990’s reforms on growth unclear. Some believe that 1980’s reforms were precursor to LPG reforms. Other things apart, it is clear that 1980 reforms led to crash of economy in 1991, which was remedied by LPG reforms which were quite more comprehensive. It was IMF loan which gave government to adjust its economy. It was largest ever loan given by IMF. Initially there were global doubts on India’s credibility for loan, but India has been so far a disciplined borrower.

Industrial Growth Rate Barring few years industrial growth rate has been not much impressive. Share of Industry still remains stagnantly low at 25%. Worst is that India has transitioned to be a service led economy, directly from an agrarian one. One expiation of this is end of policy of imports substitution which derived industrial growth upto 1990. Foreign companies got free access to Indian markets and made domestic products uncompetitive. They obviously had better access to technology and larger economies of scale.

India’s position also lagged on account of Research and innovation. Import substitution required certain degree of investment and efforts in domestic production. It was carried out even when imports were cheaper. This resulted in good and better capacity building upto that time. This was coupled with constant technology denial by west, which further pushed government to spend on R&D. Technology Denial ended with liberalization and globalization. Till that time Indian Industry was better and modern than that of China. But in two decades China has surpassed India by huge margin in case of both Industry and innovation.

Impact on Small Scale in India

This impact shall be studied right from the beginning of colonization in 18th century. Colonization can be considered as 1st wave of globalization. In pre colonization era, India’s textiles and handicraft was renowned worldwide and was backbone of Indian economy. With coming of industrial revolution along with foreign rule in India, Indian economy suffered a major setback and much of its indigenous small scale cottage Industry was destroyed.

After independence, government attempted to revive small scale sector by reserving items exclusively for it to manufacture. With liberalization list of reserved items was substantially curtailed and many new sectors were thrown open to big players.

Small scale industry however exists and still remains backbone of Indian Economy. It contributes to major portion of exports and private sector employment. Results are mixed, many erstwhile Small scale industries got bigger and better. But overall value addition, product innovation and technology adoption remains dismal and they exist only on back of government support. Their products are contested by cheaper imports from China. Policies of government toward SSI were covered in previous article access here and here

Impact on Agriculture

As already said, share of agriculture in domestic economy has declined to about 15%. However, people dependent upon agriculture are still around 55%. Cropping patterns has undergone a huge change, but impact of liberalization can’t be properly assessed. We saw under series relating to agriculture that there are still all pervasive government controls and interventions starting from production to distribution (here SPS and here – WTO).

Global agricultural economy is highly distorted. This is mainly because imbalance in economic and political power in hands of farmers of developed and developing countries. In developed countries, commercial and capitalistic agriculture is in place which is owned by influential Agri corporations. They easily influence policies of WTO and extract a better deal for themselves at cost of farmers of developing world.

Farming in developing world is subsistence and supports large number of poor people. With globalization there has been high fluctuation in commodity prices which put them in massive risk. This is particularly true for cash crops like Cotton and Sugarcane. Recent crises in both crops indicate towards this conclusively.

Also there is global Food vs. Fuel confusion going on. Sugar and corn are used to manufacture ethanol which is used as fuel. In USA Corn is produced mainly for this purpose, as sugar cane is in Brazil. Now there are apprehensions that what if converting food into fuel is more remunerative for producers? More than 1 billion people still live in hunger, much more are just hand to mouth. It is futile to expect that free market will take care of these people, who don’t have any purchasing power. Clearly, Agriculture is biggest market failure, but is rarely discussed for being so in WTO.

Another global debate born out of globalization is one of GM crops. Here too powerful MNCs like Monsanto hold the key. USA allows unhindered use of GM crops, but EU bans it. In India field trails are going on. (It was discusses here)

On the positive note, India’s largely self-sufficient and high value distinguished products like Basmati Rice are in high demand all over. Generally speaking, India is better placed to take up challenge of globalization in this case. If done in sustainable and inclusive manner, it will have a huge multiplier impact on whole economy. Worldwide implicit compulsion to develop Food processing Industry is another landmark effect of globalization.

Apart from these, Farm Mechanization i.e. use of electronic/solar pumps, Tractors, combines etc. all are fruits of globalization. Now moving a step further, Information technology is being incorporated into agriculture to facilitate farming.

Impact on Services Sector

In this case globalization has been boon for developing countries and bane for developed ones. Due to historic economic disparity between two groups, human resources have been much cheaper in developing economies. This was further facilitated by IT revolution and this all culminated in exodus of numerous jobs from developed countries to developing countries. Here US have to jealously guard its jobs as we guard our agriculture.

IT industry

Software, BPO, KPO, LPO industry boom in India has helped India to absorb a big chunk of demographic dividend, which otherwise could have wasted. Best part is that export of services result in export of high value. There is almost no material exported which consume some natural resource. Only thing exported is labor of Professionals, which doesn’t deplete, instead grows with time. Now India is better placed to become a truly Knowledge Economy.

Exports of these services constitute big part of India’s foreign Exchange earnings. In fact, the only three years India had Current Account surplus, I.e. 2000-2002, was on back of this export only.

Banking

Further, in banking too India has been a gainer. Since reforms, there have been three rounds of License Grants for private banks. Private Banks such as ICICI, HDFC, Yes Bank and also foreign banks, raised standards of Indian Banking Industry. Now there is cut through competition in the banking industry, and public sector banks are more responsive to customers.

Here too IT is on path of bringing banking revolution. New government schemes like Pradhan Mantri Jan dhan Yojana aims to achieve their targets by using Adhaar Card. Having said this, Public Sector Banks still remain major lender in the country.

Similarly Insurance Industry now offers variety of products such as Unit Linked Insurance plans, Travel Insurance etc. But, in India life Insurance business is still decisively in hands of Life Insurance Corporation of India.

Stock Markets

Another major development is one of Stock Markets. Stock Markets are platforms on which Corporate Securities can be traded real time. It provides mechanisms for constant price discovery, options for investors to exit from or enter into investment any time. These are back bone of free markets these days and there is robust trade going all over the world on stock exchanges. Their Importance can be estimated from the fact that, behavior of stock markets of a country is strongest indicator of health and future prospects of an economy.

These markets has thrown open wide array of associated services such as Investment Banking, Asset Management, Underwriting services, Hedging advice etc. These collectively employ lakhs of people all over India.

Similarly there are commodities market which provides avenues for investment and sale of various eligible commodities.

Telecom Sector

Conventionally, Telecom sector was a government owned monopoly and consequently service was quite substandard. After reforms, private telecom sector reached pinnacle of success. And Indian telecom companies went global. However, corruption and rent seeking marred growth and outlook of this sector.

Entry of modern Direct to Home services saw improvements in quality of Television services on one hand and loss of livelihood for numerous local cable operators.

Education and Health Sector

It should be noted that food (Agriculture), Health and education (and to lesser extent banking) are among basic necessities, which every human being deserves and can’t do without. Unfortunately, in developing countries there is market failure in all these sectors and majority of people can’t afford beyond a certain limit (or can’t afford at all). Concept of free markets, globalization, liberalization etc. fails here miserably. Free markets provid read less

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