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Lesson Posted on 23/07/2020 CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology/Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants/Chapter 5- Morphology of Flowering Plants

How Noise Pollution Affects the Human Body

Akanksha Shukla

Hello students! i am a pgt teacher working from last 5 years in education field by providing tutions...

Following are the three ways by which noise pollution affects the human body adversely: Physical effect- Physical effects of noise pollution are direct effects on a person's health, such as hearing loss or tinnitus. Most experts agree that exposure to sound more than 85db for hours is potentially dangerous.... read more

Following are the three ways by which noise pollution affects the human body adversely:

Physical effect- Physical effects of noise pollution are direct effects on a person's health, such as hearing loss or tinnitus. Most experts agree that exposure to sound more than 85db for hours is potentially dangerous. 

Physiological effect- Physiological effects of noise pollution adversely affects health, such as heightened blood pressure and stress. Research has shown that industrial workers regularly exposed to high noise levels have higher cases of nausea, headaches, argumentative and change in mood and anxiety. 

Psychological effect- Psychological effects of noise pollution are distractions and annoyances, which are just as disruptive as physical and physiological effects on productivity. Works productivity can be switched off depending on the length of the time exposed. 

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Lesson Posted on 27/03/2020 CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology/Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function/Chapter 10-Cell Cycle and Cell Division

How U Can Explain Ohm's Law To A Layman Who Is Not Knowing Any Thing About Voltage, Current Or Resistance?

Rahul Kumar

I am a Experienced and passionate Yoga Instructor with over 8 years of teaching experience and advanced...

Consider a tank which is filled with water and placed at some heights. This tank has a pipe connection that is going downwards to another tank in the ground level. The height difference between the two tanks can be considered as the potential difference (which measures in "voltage" ), and the flow of... read more

Consider a tank which is filled with water and placed at some heights. This tank has a pipe connection that is going downwards to another tank in the ground level. The height difference between the two tanks can be considered as the potential difference (which measures in "voltage" ), and the flow of water from the container 1 to tank two can be regarded as the "current". And the funny part is one day a stone got stuck in halfway of pipe and the water flow reduced, which can be considered as the term "resistance."😀

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Lesson Posted on 27/02/2020 CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching

Class 11 Biology: Biomolecules- Carbohydrates

Ravi Singh

Ex-Aakash, Pace IIT & Medical Faculty, Experienced for 19+ years in Teaching Zoology/Biology at various...

CARBOHYDRATES Compounds of C, H, O Also called saccharides (sugars) Biomicromolecules- monosaccharides, derived monosaccharides, olgiosaccharides) Biomacromolecues- polysacharadies MONOSUGARS/MONOSACCHARIDES General formula for monosaccharides where n is the number of C-atoms. Simple... read more
  1. CARBOHYDRATES
    1. Compounds of C, H, O
    2. Also called saccharides (sugars)
    3. Biomicromolecules- monosaccharides, derived monosaccharides, olgiosaccharides)
    4. Biomacromolecues- polysacharadies
  2. MONOSUGARS/MONOSACCHARIDES
    1. General formula for monosaccharides where n is the number of C-atoms.
    2. Simple sugars, can’t be hydrolyzed further
    3. Of 3-7 carbon atoms
    4. Monosaccharides are called sugars as these are sweeter in taste.
  • Types of monosaccharides
    1. Based on C-atoms, monosaccharides are divided into following.
      1. Trioses (with-3carbons)
        1. General formula = C3H6O3
        2. e.g. Glyceraldehyde, Dihydroxyacetone.
      2. Tetroses (with 4-carbons)
        1. General formula = C4H8O4
        2. e.g. Erythrose, Threose.
      3. Pentoses (with 5-carbons)
        1. General formula = C5H10O5
        2. e.g. Ribose, Deoxyribose, Xylose, Xylulose, Ribulose.
      4. Hexoses (with 6-carbons)
        1. General formula = C6H12O6
        2. e.g. Glucose, Mannose, Galactose and Fructose.
      5. Heptoses (with 7-carbons)
        1. General formula = C­7H14O7
        2. e.eg. Sedoheptulose.           
      6. Aldoses.
        1. These monosugars have aldehydic group at C-1’
        2. g. Glucose, Galactose.
      7. Ketoses.
        1. These monosugars have ketonic group at C-2’
        2. g. Fructose.  
      8. General formula Cn (H2O) n, H:O in 2:1 ratio
      9. Aldose and ketose group can also react with alcoholic and nitrogen group of another compound forming C-O-C or C-N-C (glycosidic bond)
      10. Glycosidic bond also established during condensation of monosaccharides for formation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
      11. A molecule of H2O is usually produced at each condensation, called dehydration synthesis
    2. Two cyclic forms of monosaccharides
      1. Furanoses.
        1. All the pentoses (e.g. Ribose, Deoxyribose) and Ketohexoses (e.g. Fructose) occur as a 5-membered ring form which resembles furan so called furanose ring e.g. Ribose and Fructose.
        2. Has pentagon structure with 4 carbons and 1 oxygen
      2. Pyranoses.
        1. Most of aldohexoses (e.g. Glucose, Galactose and Mannose) occur as 6-membered ring form which resembles pyran so called pyranose ring.
        2. Hexagon structure with 5 carbon atoms and one oxygen atom
      3. DEFIVED MONOSACCHARIDES (modified monosaccharides)
        1. DEOXYSUGARS
          1. Deoxyribose
        2. AMINOSUGARS
          1. Monosaccharide has an amino group (-NH2)
          2. g. Glucosamine (forms chitin (NAG), Hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate)
        3. SUGAR ACID
          1. g. Ascorbic Acid, Glucuronic Acid
          2. Glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid occur in mucopolysaccharides

 

  1. SUGAR ALCOHOL
  • g. Glycerol, Mannitol (storage alcohol in some fruits)
  1. Functions of monosaccharides
    1. As respiratory fuel. Glucose acts as chief respiratory fuel because it is easily oxidizable and is present abundantly in the body fluids. Glucose provides energy for about 60 per cent of energy needs of man. One glucose molecule produces about 38 ATP moleculese., 280 Kcal.
    2. Ribose & Deoxyribose for nucleic acids and nucleotides
    3. Intermediates of C3-cycle of photosynthesis e.g. Glyceraldehyde, Xylulose, Ribulose, Sedoheptulose, etc.
    4. Galactose is the component of medullary
    5. Act as monomers.
    6. When excess, monosugars can be changed into amino acids or fats.
    7. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is a sugar acid and maintains capillary wall and helps in tyrosine metabolism.
  • OLIGOSACCHARIDES
    1. 2-9 monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
    2. Are biomicromolecules
    3. Glycosidic bond between aldehyde/ketone group of one monosaccharide and alcohol group of another by dehydration
    4. Normally between C-1 and C-4
    5. They can be disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose, trehalose)
    6. Trehalose ( glu-glu joined by α (1-1)bond, is present in haemolymph of insects
    7. trisaccharide (raffinose= glu + gal + fruct, in sugarbeet, cotton seed, and many cereals), tetrasaccharide ( stachyose= glu + fruct + 2 galactoses, in vegetables etc)
    8. Larger oligosaccharides have branched or unbranched chains occur attached to cell membrane
  • Disaccharides

 

  1. Maltose/Malt Sugar
    1. Occur in malted grains of barley, most germinating seeds and tissues where starch is broken down
    2. Reducing sugar
    3. α (1-4) bond
  2. Lactose/Milk Sugar
    1. In milk, reducing sugar
    2. Β (1-4) bond of glucose and galactose
    3. Souring of milk is conversion of lactose into lactic acid
    4. Lactose composed of β-D-glucose and α-D-galactose units interlinked by β (1 4) glycosidic bond. It is also called milk sugar
  3. Sucrose
    1. Glucose and fructose
    2. Non-Reducing sugar
    3. It is composed of α-D-glucose and β-D-fructose together by the aldehyde and ketone
    4. Carbon by α (1 2) glycosidic bond sucrose is not a reducing sugar as compared to maltose and lactose which are reducing ones. Sweetening power of sucrose is considered to be 100. It is common cane or table sugar.

 

  1. Trisaccharides
    1. Raffinose
      1. is a common trisaccharide found in plants. Raffinose is found in sugarbeet, coffee It is non-reducing sugar.
    2. REDUCING SUGARS
      1. Sugars which can reduce Cu2+--------Cu+ ions
      2. Basis of benedict’s and Felhling’s test
      3. In all those saccharides having free -CHO and -C=O group
      4. All monosaccharides
      5. Among disaccharides, sucrose is non reducing because both aldehyde and ketone groups participate in glycosidic bond formation
      6. Blue alkaline solution (Cupric Sulphate) changes to reddish precipitate (Cuprous Oxide) on gently heating
    3. Functions
      1. Fuel.
        1. Disaccharides can act as fuel to provide energy.
      2. Storage food.
        1. Sucrose is the reserve storage product in sugarbeet and sugarcane.
      3. Recognition point.
        1. Oligosaccharides attached with cell membrane help in recognizing the cells of their own kind.
      4. Sucrose is main transport sugar in the phloem of plants.
  • POLYSACCHARIDE
    1. Called glycans (polymer of glucose), are the polymers of more than 10 monosaccarides, interlinked by glycosidic bonds formed by dehydration synthesis differ in the nature and number of their monosaccharides, and degree of branching
    2. Branched or unbranched
    3. Right end of polysaccharides is reducing and left non reducing
    4. 2 types:
  • Homopolysaccharides
    1. cellulose, starch, glycogen, inulin, agar, xylan, araban, etc.
    2. only one type of monomers
    3. GLYCOGEN
      1. Found in the muscles and liver cells of animals is also a branched homopolysaccharide formed of about 30,000 α-d-Glucose molecules.
      2. α(1-4) and β(1-6) at branching points
      3. Its molecular weight is about 4 millon and it gives red coloured with iodine.
      4. A polysaccharide chain has two specific ends: right reducing end and left non reducing end.
      5. Chemically non-reactive and is osmotically inactive
    4. STARCH
      1. Chemically non-reactive and osmotically inactive
      2. Forms helical secondary structure, into helix
      3. Chemically, the starch is formed of two glucose polymers:
        1. Amylose
          1. α (1-4) glycosidic bonds) between glucose molecules
          2. straight chain of 200-1000 glucose units
          3. it is helical, each turn has 6 glucose units
        2. amylopectin
          1. a branched glucan of about 2,000-200,000 α-Glucose molecules
          2. form straight chains and branches (after 25 glucose units)
  • branching points have α (1-6) bonds

 

  1. CELLULOSE (CELLULIN)
    1. Structural polysaccharide
    2. Paper made from pulp of cellulose
    3. Cotton fibre is cellulose
    4. Most abundant organic compound/carbohydrate in biosphere
    5. 50% of carbon found in plants is cellulose
    6. Forms about 25-50% of wood and about 90% of cotton
    7. Tunicin (of tunicates) related to cellulose
    8. These are unbranched linear chains
    9. A chain contains 6000 or more glucose units
    10. Glucose joined by β (1-4) linkage
    11. Number of chains present in close antiparallel fashion
    12. Molecules are held together by intermolecular Hydrogen bonds between OH groups at position 6 or glucose residue on one molecule and glycosidic oxygen between 2 glucose residues of adjacent molecule
    13. As cellulose does not contain complex helices so cannot hold iodine and give no colour with Iodine.
    14. Artificial fibre Rayon is manufactured by dissolving cellulosic material in alkali and by extruding and coagulating filaments
    15. Artificial silk is polysaccharide prepared from Rayon
    16. By treatment with other chemicals, cellulose is converted into cellulose acetate (used in fabrics, cellulosic plastics and shatter proof glasses)
    17. Cellulose Nitrate is used in propellant explosives
    18. Carboxymethyl cellulose, added to ice-creams, cosmetics, medicines to emulsify and give a smooth texture
    19. Cellulose can be hydrolyzed to soluble sugars, microbes can then convert these sugars to form like ethanol, butanol, acetone, methane etc.
  2. INULIN
    1. A fructan, is storage polysaccharide of roots and tubers of Dahlia
    2. Inulin is not metabolized in human body and is readily filtered through the kidney, therefore used in testing of kidney functions (especially glomerular filtration)
  3. CHITIN
    1. Second most abundant organic substance
    2. Homopolysaccharide of nitrogen containing glucose called N-Acetylglucosamine
    3. Exoskeleton of arthropods have chitin
    4. Chitin is soft and leather, hence provide strength and elasticity
    5. It becomes hard when impregnated with certain proteins and calcium carbonate
    6. Chitin is unbranched
    7. Monomers joined by 1-4 B-linkage
    8. Molecules lie parallel and held by H-bonds
  • Heteropolysaccharides
    1. two or more types of monosaccharides or their derivatives as amino sugars like glucosamine, N-acetyl galactosamine or sugar acids like glucuronic acid, etc.
    2. Hyaluronic acids:
      1. Heteropolymer of D-Glucoronic Acid(a carboxylic Acide) & D-N-Acetyl Glucosamine (glucose derivative)
      2. It gives toughness and flexibility of cartilage and tendons
      3. liner acidic hetropolysaccharide found in various lubricating fluids of body e.g. synovial fluid of limb joints, around the ovum, etc.
    3. Peptidoglycan:
      1. cell wall of bacteria and cyanobacteria
      2. degraed by Lysozyme
      3. it is made of alternate amino sugars, N-Acetyl Glucosamine and N-Acetyl Muramic Acid
      4. It is formed of a polysaccharide chain linked with tetrapeptide molecules.
      5. It prevents the lysis and osmotic inflow of the cell wall.
    4. Agar
      1. In cell wall of red algae, released on boiling
      2. Mucopolysaccharide, repeated units of D-galactose joined by proteins
      3. Used in culture medium
    5. function
      1. Reserve food, structure polysaccharides Cellulose, Chitin, Chondroitin, Peptidoglycans, Anticoagulation, Cellulose, Agar, hyaluronic acid, Hormones, Blood antigens

 

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Lesson Posted on 10/10/2019 Exam Coaching/NEET-UG Coaching CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology

The site of Photosynthesis:- NEET/AIIMS/JIPMER

Anmol

The site of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in Mesophyll cells inside chloroplasts. It is a process which involves chemical reactions in which water and carbon dioxide are converted into energy in the presence of sunlight. Chloroplasts are the structures which are found on the cells of... read more

The site of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis takes place in Mesophyll cells inside chloroplasts. It is a process which involves chemical reactions in which water and carbon dioxide are converted into energy in the presence of sunlight.

  • Chloroplasts are the structures which are found on the cells of plants. Water required in the process is transported via roots through vascular tissue and carbon dioxide enters into the process via stomatal pores.
  • Chloroplast has a membrane structure consisting of grana, stroma lamellae and fluid stroma.
  • The membrane system in chloroplast is responsible for trapping light energy.
  • ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) are also synthesized in it. Starch is formed in stroma by enzymatic reactions involving carbon dioxide which forms sugar.
  • The former set of reactions is known as a Light Reaction as it is dependent on light. Another set of reactions which are not directly dependent on plants is called Dark reaction. These reactions are not directly dependent on light but use the products of light reactions i.e. ATP and NADPH.

 

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Lesson Posted on 08/10/2019 Tuition Fee CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology/Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function/Chapter 9- Biomolecules

Only for 2 months completed all computer work

Neha S.

I am a teacher I am going online home tuition since I am certified in dca I have a degree in b.pharma...

Full computer work and all excel work
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Lesson Posted on 29/08/2019 CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology Tuition

How to remember the nature of 12 pairs of cranial nerves?

Monalisha Mohapatra

I am interested to teach students of class 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th. Also who are interested for a basic...

Trick- Some Says Money Matters But My Brother Says Big Books Matter Most. Now know the initial letter of each word written in capital. And decode them as S stands for sensory, B stands for both(mixed) and M stands for a motor. For example, 1st pair we can get S (Some), i.e. sensory and so on.No need... read more

Trick- Some Says Money Matters But My Brother Says Big Books Matter Most.
Now know the initial letter of each word written in capital. And decode them as S stands for sensory, B stands for both(mixed) and M stands for a motor. For example, 1st pair we can get S (Some), i.e. sensory and so on.
No need to remember it by taking the stress.

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Lesson Posted on 28/08/2019 CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology

Cell membrane

Madhukar Dutt Tripathi

I believe in delivering what has been learnt in the most basic and most straightforward way possible....

One of the most impressive structures to be studied. Given by Singer & Nicholson, a membrane is double lipid layer where lipids are present almost running parallel in the cell circumference. In between the lipid layers, lie small proteins, membrane-spanning proteins as well as flip flop proteins... read more

One of the most impressive structures to be studied.

Given by Singer & Nicholson, a membrane is double lipid layer where lipids are present almost running parallel in the cell circumference.

In between the lipid layers, lie small proteins, membrane-spanning proteins as well as flip flop proteins ( receptors) too..!!

The small ones help in maintaining the quasi-fluid state of the membrane while the membrane-spanning proteins and the receptor proteins are involved in the transfer of chemicals, hormones as well as cell signalling and Cascade mechanisms.

Semi-permeable in nature, cell membrane acts as a scanner to scrutiny the substances interacting with the cell and helps in determining the type and structure of substances to be allowed for entry.

A cell membrane also offers the formation of plasmodesmata in lower forms and as a protective layer in advanced eukaryotic cells.

Hence, a cell membrane can be termed as a sea of lipids where protein components act as floating icebergs.

The wear n tear of the membrane is repaired with the help of Smooth endoplasmic reticulum as well as Golgi Apparatus by a process known as MEMBRANE BIOGENESIS.

The membrane remains continuously in the motion state, can be considered more so as flowing jelly.

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Lesson Posted on 28/08/2019 CBSE/Class 12/Science/Biology/Unit 4- Biotechnology and Its Applications Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Micro- Biology Tuition/MSc Tuition/MicroBiology +8 Exam Coaching/Engineering Entrance Coaching/GATE Coaching/Biotechnology Tuition/BA Tuition/Bio-Chemistry CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology Tuition/BTech Tuition/Cell And Molecular Biology Tuition/BSc Tuition/Genetics & Genomics Tuition/BTech Tuition/Genetic Engineering Tuition/BA Tuition/Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering Tuition/BSc Tuition/Molecular Biology less

Biotechnology

Biju George

I am Biju George, I am Ph.D. in Biotechnology with 5+ years of postdoctoral experience in Biotechnology....

Hi, We all know that only GOD possesses the power of creation, maintenance, and destruction but do you know that there is an enzyme which possesses power similar to GOD (i.e. creation, maintenance, and destruction)Are you curious to know what that enzyme is, and what it creates, how it maintains, and... read more

Hi,
 
We all know that only GOD possesses the power of creation, maintenance, and destruction 
but do you know that there is an enzyme which possesses power similar to GOD (i.e. creation, maintenance, and destruction)
Are you curious to know what that enzyme is, and what it creates, how it maintains, and what it destroys?
 

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Lesson Posted on 02/06/2019 CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology CBSE/Class 12/Science/Biology

Calvin cycle ( light independent cycle of photosynthesis)

Dr. Swati Sucharita Panda

Well experienced and depth knowledge of the subject, make my personality. A facilitator and role model...

Easy trick to remember the starting, intermediate and end product. RuBy PaGAl ToPper RuBy - First compound - Ribulose bisphosphate PaGAl - intermediate compound - Phosphoglyceric acid ToPper - End compound - Triose phosphate Step of Calvin cycle 1. Carboxylation 2. Reduction 3. Regeneration... read more

Easy trick to remember the starting,  intermediate and end product.

RuBy PaGAl ToPper

RuBy - First compound - Ribulose bisphosphate 

PaGAl - intermediate compound - Phosphoglyceric acid

ToPper - End compound - Triose phosphate 

Step of Calvin cycle 

1. Carboxylation 

2. Reduction 

3. Regeneration 

 

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