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Answered on 31 Jan CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What was the Copernican revolution?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.The 16th century finally saw what came to be a watershed... read more

The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.The 16th century finally saw what came to be a watershed in the development of Cosmology. In 1543 Nicolas Copernicus published his treatise De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (The Revolution of Celestial Spheres) where a new view of the world is presented: the heliocentric model. The story of Copernican Revolution is the classic example of a major shift in worldview. So, before exploring what is happening in the present day and where it may be leading us, let us first go back and briefly recap the salient features of this earlier revolution. 

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Answered on 31 Jan CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Mention any two characteristic features of Genghis Khan.

Sujoy D.

Tutor

In his opinion , the most important thing was loyalty. He didn’t recruit the ones who seem rebellious. You can walk from Korea to Germany and nothing will happen to you in his empire because his authority was so strong that peoples can’t dare to commit a crime. He basically made the trade... read more

In his opinion , the most important thing was loyalty. He didn’t recruit the ones who seem rebellious.

You can walk from Korea to Germany and nothing will happen to you in his empire because his authority was so strong that peoples can’t dare to commit a crime. He basically made the trade in the Silkroad and the Spice route safe again. Everyone accepted that. If you are a merchant, than you might thank to Genghis Khan for making you rich, if you can survive.

His empire based on meritocracy. He gathered all the qualified men no matter the race. One of his best commanders, Subedei, he was a Tuvan , a Turkic tribe in Central Asia.

We all know that his wrath is deadly but he didn’t massacred the peoples if they surrender at first. Basically, he kills you if you fight against them.

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Answered on 31 Jan CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

How Deng Xioping brought the socialist market economy in china?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Although the United States and the European Union continue to deny that China has established a market economy, a number of other nations, including New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand, have agreed that China has. When most Chinese were fearful even to mention the term "market economy," the... read more

Although the United States and the European Union continue to deny that China has established a market economy, a number of other nations, including New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand, have agreed that China has.

When most Chinese were fearful even to mention the term "market economy," the late leader Deng Xiaoping vigorously preached its adoption during his historic 1992 inspection tour to south China. Deng's bold remarks brushed aside ignorance and deep-rooted prejudice over market economies, which socialist Chinese used to call "capitalist rubbish."

What Deng clarified on the market economy issue made him an unrivaled economic pioneer in China. He said in his most frequently quoted words that "Practice of a planned economy is not equivalent to socialism because there is planning under capitalism too; Practice of a market economy is not equivalent to capitalism because there are markets under socialism too."

Experts believe Deng's simple but penetrating paradox opened China's access to a market economy.

In 1993, the year after Deng made his historic remarks, more than 40 well-known Chinese economics scholars published the book " Chinese Leading Economists on Reform." In it, the economists discuss the feasibility and legality of the market economy that would come into being in a socialist country.

It seemed that academic thinkers were following in the statesman's steps.

Deng originally surprised the world with his "non-socialist" opinions in 1979, when China kicked off the landmark government reform and opening up drive. In a meeting with visiting foreign guests, Deng amazed them by unexpectedly asking "Why can't a socialist country have a market economy?" Later China created its four Special Economic Zones where a fledgling market economy began to take shape.

"Deng Xiaoping is known as the 'chief architect' for China's reform and opening up policies," said Ding Chun, an economics professor at Shanghai-based Fudan University. "China didn't clearly articulate that the goal of economic reform was to establish a socialist market economy until 1992 when Deng Xiaoping made his south China tour and gave speeches on the market economy."

Deng's foresight and determination encouraged him to push through implementation and improvement of Chinese-style market economy, which maintained many "Chinese characteristics" that fit China's actuality, according to Ding.

China's market economy has been successful and prosperous, though negotiations over the market economy status will continue and bargaining between China and its US and EU partners will remain hard.

Over the past decade, China's gross domestic product grew by more than 8 percent per year, and its foreign currency reserve exceeds 400 billion US dollars. Most economists agree that it is simply a matter of time until China's full market economy status is recognized by major economic powers.  Some Chinese see US and EU reluctance to grant China full market economy status might result from the desire to hold the upper hand in negotiations over other issues, such as pressuring China to open its doors wider and faster in some industries.

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Answered on 31 Jan CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Why Dr. Sun-Yet-Sen. is regarded as the founder of modern china?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

It is clear why ROC considers Sun as the father of the nation.The reason why PRC takes Sun yat-senas the father of the nation is somehow as Richie said. There are some other points I can add.PRC, or CCP considers Chiang Kai-shek was not the successor of Sun, and the KMT ruled by Chiang was not the same... read more

It is clear why ROC considers Sun as the father of the nation.
The reason why PRC takes Sun yat-senas the father of  the nation is somehow as Richie said. There are some other points I can add.
PRC, or CCP considers Chiang Kai-shek was not the successor of Sun, and the KMT ruled by Chiang was not the same as the KMT founded by Sun. CCP claims that Chiang went against Sun's will and CCP is somehow the successor of KMT founded by Sun and Sun's will. When Sun was alive, he tried to cooperate with CCP in order to reunite China. Sun was friendly to CCP, even at that time CCP was very weak. When CCP took over the most part of China, some CCP leaders would even like to use ROC as the name of the China controlled by CCP.
Personally, I think CCP knows that KMT has great influence on the Chinese people  for its contribution to the founding of a new China. If CCP claims that Sun is "as bad as Chiang", most Chinese people will not support CCP.

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Answered on 31 Jan CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What led to the rise of the communist party in china? How new democracy was established in 1949 in china?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

On October 1, 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People's Republic of China (PRC). ... The Chinese Communist Party, founded in 1921 in Shanghai, originally existed as a study group working within the confines of the First United Front with the Nationalist Party. On... read more

On October 1, 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People's Republic of China (PRC). ... The Chinese Communist Party, founded in 1921 in Shanghai, originally existed as a study group working within the confines of the First United Front with the Nationalist Party.

On October 1, 1949, Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The announcement ended the costly full-scale civil war between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the Nationalist Party, or Kuomintang (KMT), which broke out immediately following World War II and had been preceded by on and off conflict between the two sides since the 1920’s. The creation of the PRC also completed the long process of governmental upheaval in China begun by the Chinese Revolution of 1911. The “fall” of mainland China to communism in 1949 led the United States to suspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades.


Communists entering Beijing in 1949.

The Chinese Communist Party, founded in 1921 in Shanghai, originally existed as a study group working within the confines of the First United Front with the Nationalist Party. Chinese Communists joined with the Nationalist Army in the Northern Expedition of 1926–27 to rid the nation of the warlords that prevented the formation of a strong central government. This collaboration lasted until the “White Terror” of 1927, when the Nationalists turned on the Communists, killing them or purging them from the party.

After the Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931, the Government of the Republic of China (ROC) faced the triple threat of Japanese invasion, Communist uprising, and warlord insurrections. Frustrated by the focus of the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek on internal threats instead of the Japanese assault, a group of generals abducted Chiang in 1937 and forced him to reconsider cooperation with the Communist army. As with the first effort at cooperation between the Nationalist government and the CCP, this Second United Front was short-lived. The Nationalists expended needed resources on containing the Communists, rather than focusing entirely on Japan, while the Communists worked to strengthen their influence in rural society.

During World War II, popular support for the Communists increased. U.S. officials in China reported a dictatorial suppression of dissent in Nationalist-controlled areas. These undemocratic polices combined with wartime corruption made the Republic of China Government vulnerable to the Communist threat. The CCP, for its part, experienced success in its early efforts at land reform and was lauded by peasants for its unflagging efforts to fight against the Japanese invaders.


Chiang Kai-shek

Japanese surrender set the stage for the resurgence of civil war in China. Though only nominally democratic, the Nationalist Government of Chiang Kai-shek continued to receive U.S. support both as its former war ally and as the sole option for preventing Communist control of China. U.S. forces flew tens of thousands of Nationalist Chinese troops into Japanese-controlled territory and allowed them to accept the Japanese surrender. The Soviet Union, meanwhile, occupied Manchuria and only pulled out when Chinese Communist forces were in place to claim that territory.

In 1945, the leaders of the Nationalist and Communist parties, Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, met for a series of talks on the formation of a post-war government. Both agreed on the importance of democracy, a unified military, and equality for all Chinese political parties. The truce was tenuous, however, and, in spite of repeated efforts by U.S. General George Marshall to broker an agreement, by 1946 the two sides were fighting an all-out civil war. Years of mistrust between the two sides thwarted efforts to form a coalition government.

As the civil war gained strength from 1947 to 1949, eventual Communist victory seemed more and more likely. Although the Communists did not hold any major cities after World War II, they had strong grassroots support, superior military organization and morale, and large stocks of weapons seized from Japanese supplies in Manchuria. Years of corruption and mismanagement had eroded popular support for the Nationalist Government. Early in 1947, the ROC Government was already looking to the island province of Taiwan, off the coast of Fujian Province, as a potential point of retreat. Although officials in the Truman Administration were not convinced of the strategic importance to the United States of maintaining relations with Nationalist China, no one in the U.S. Government wanted to be charged with facilitating the “loss” of China to communism. Military and financial aid to the floundering Nationalists continued, though not at the level that Chiang Kai-shek would have liked. In October of 1949, after a string of military victories, Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the PRC; Chiang and his forces fled to Taiwan to regroup and plan for their efforts to retake the mainland.

The ability of the PRC and the United States to find common ground in the wake of the establishment of the new Chinese state was hampered by both domestic politics and global tensions. In August of 1949, the Truman administration published the “China White Paper,” which explained past U.S. policy toward China based upon the principle that only Chinese forces could determine the outcome of their civil war. Unfortunately for Truman, this step failed to protect his administration from charges of having “lost” China. The unfinished nature of the revolution, leaving a broken and exiled but still vocal Nationalist Government and Army on Taiwan, only heightened the sense among U.S. anti-communists that the outcome of the struggle could be reversed. The outbreak of the Korean War, which pitted the PRC and the United States on opposite sides of an international conflict, ended any opportunity for accommodation between the PRC and the United States. Truman’s desire to prevent the Korean conflict from spreading south led to the U.S. policy of protecting the Chiang Kai-shek government on Taiwan.

For more than twenty years after the Chinese revolution of 1949, there were few contacts, limited trade and no diplomatic ties between the two countries. Until the 1970s, the United States continued to recognize the Republic of China, located on Taiwan, as China’s true government and supported that government’s holding the Chinese seat in the United Nations.

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Answered on 15 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

What was the protestant reformation?

Ramya

Primary Teacher

The Protestant Reformation was a widespread theological revolt in Europe against the abuses and totalitarian control of the Roman Catholic Church. Reformers such as Martin Luther in Germany, Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland, and John Calvin in France protested various unbiblical practices of the Catholic... read more

The Protestant Reformation was a widespread theological revolt in Europe against the abuses and totalitarian control of the Roman Catholic Church. Reformers such as Martin Luther in Germany, Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland, and John Calvin in France protested various unbiblical practices of the Catholic Church and promoted a return to sound biblical doctrine. The precipitating event of the Protestant Reformation is generally considered to be Luther’s posting of his Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Church on October 31, 1517.

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Answered on 07 Mar CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

State any two problems faced by Al-Biruni in writing an account of India.

Ramya

Primary Teacher

(I) He faced the problem of language.According to him,the Sanskrit language was so distinct from Arabic that it was very difficult to translate the ideas and principles of one language into another (II) Another problem that he faced was that of tradition and religious system.He had to take the help... read more

(I) He faced the problem of language.According to him,the Sanskrit language was so distinct from Arabic that it was very difficult to translate the ideas and principles of one language into another 

(II) Another problem that he faced was that of tradition and religious system.He had to take the help of Vedas and other brahmana texts to comprehend these ideas and principles 

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Answered on 22 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Critically examine the impact of Cabinet Mission Proposals on Indian polity.

Diksha Marwaha

Tutor

The mission arrived on March 24, 1946. The objective of this mission was to Devise a machinery to draw up the constitution of Independent India. Make arrangements for interim Government. Thus the mission was like a declaration of India’s independence. The mission spent some 3 weeks to discuss... read more

The mission arrived on March 24, 1946. The objective of this mission was to

  • Devise a machinery to draw up the constitution of Independent India.
  • Make arrangements for interim Government.
  • Thus the mission was like a declaration of India’s independence.

The mission spent some 3 weeks to discuss with the leaders of various political parties, but could not arrive at any agreed solution. So finally it announced its own recommendations on May 16, 1946.

  • The cabinet mission plan of 1946 proposed that there shall be a Union of India which was to be empowered to deal with the defense, foreign affairs and communications.
  • The cabinet mission recommended an undivided India and turned down the Muslim league’s demand for a separate Pakistan. The Cabinet mission restricted the Communal representation
  • It provided that all the members of the Interim cabinet would be Indians and there would be minimum interference by the Viceroy.
  • It also provided for formation of the constituent assembly on democratic principle of population.
  • It recognized Indian Right to cede from the Commonwealth
  • The Princely states would retain all subjects and all residuary powers.
  • A Constituent Assembly will be formed of the representatives of the Provincial Assemblies and the Princely states. Each province had to be allotted a total number of seats in proportion to the its population. The Constituent assembly had to comprise 293 Members from the British Provinces and 93 members from the Princely states.
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Answered on 17 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Why did the Dargah of Shaikh Moinuddin Chishti attract a lot of devotees?

D Mukherjee

Teacher

It is believed that sincere prayer at the Dargah of the Sufi Saint, "Garib Nawaz" Shaikh Mainuddin Chisti is always fulfilled and hence both Hindus and Muslims come here in large numbers
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Answered on 04 Feb CBSE/Class 11/Humanities/History Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

Describe the events that led to the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Hari Om Sharan

Home Tutor

Non cooperation movement was a significant move in the history of indian independence movement. It was led by mahatma gandhi following the massacre at jallianwala bagh in the year 1919. This movement was kiced off on 1st august 1920. Gandhi's newly experimented ahimsa and truce played an important role... read more

Non cooperation movement was a significant move in the history of indian independence movement. It was led by mahatma gandhi following the massacre at jallianwala bagh in the year 1919. This movement was kiced off on 1st august 1920. Gandhi's newly experimented ahimsa and truce played an important role in this movement. Gandhi's ability to rally thousands of common citizens was first seen on large scale through this movement.

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