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Built-In Functions (Python)

Macooid IT Services
25/07/2017 0 0

Built-in Functions:

The Python interpreter has a number of functions built into it that are always available. They are listed here in alphabetical order.

   

Built-in Functions

   

abs()

divmod()

input()

open()

staticmethod()

all()

enumerate()

int()

ord()

str()

any()

eval()

isinstance()

pow()

sum()

basestring()

execfile()

issubclass()

print()

super()

bin()

file()

iter()

property()

tuple()

bool()

filter()

len()

range()

type()

bytearray()

float()

list()

raw_input()

unichr()

callable()

format()

locals()

reduce()

unicode()

chr()

frozenset()

long()

reload()

vars()

classmethod()

getattr()

map()

repr()

xrange()

cmp()

globals()

max()

reversed()

zip()

compile()

hasattr()

memoryview()

round()

__import__()

complex()

hash()

min()

set()

 

delattr()

help()

next()

setattr()

 

dict()

hex()

object()

slice()

 

dir()

id()

oct()

sorted()

 

In addition, there are other four built-in functions that are no longer considered essential: apply()buffer()coerce(), and intern(). They are documented in the Non-essential Built-in Functions section.

abs(x):

Return the absolute value of a number. The argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. If the argument is a complex number, its magnitude is returned.

all(iterable):

Return True if all elements of the iterable are true (or if the iterable is empty). Equivalent to:

def all(iterable):

    for element in iterable:

        if not element:

            return False

    return True

New in version 2.5:

any(iterable)

Return True if any element of the iterable is true. If the iterable is empty, return False. Equivalent to:

def any(iterable):

    for element in iterable:

        if element:

            return True

    return False

New in version 2.5:

basestring()

This abstract type is the superclass for str and unicode. It cannot be called or instantiated, but it can be used to test whether an object is an instance of str or unicode. isinstance(obj, basestring) is equivalent to isinstance(obj, (str, unicode)).

New in version 2.3:

bin(x)

Convert an integer number to a binary string. The result is a valid Python expression. If x is not a Python int object, it has to define an __index__()method that returns an integer.

New in version 2.6:

class bool([x])

Return a Boolean value, i.e. one of True or False. x is converted using the standard truth testing procedure. If x is false or omitted, this returns False; otherwise it returns Truebool is also a class, which is a subclass of int. Class bool cannot be subclassed further. Its only instances are False andTrue.

New in version 2.2.1:

Changed in version 2.3: If no argument is given, this function returns False.

class bytearray([source[, encoding[, errors]]])

Return a new array of bytes. The bytearray class is a mutable sequence of integers in the range 0 <= x < 256. It has most of the usual methods of mutable sequences, described in Mutable Sequence Types, as well as most methods that the str type has, see String Methods.

The optional source parameter can be used to initialize the array in a few different ways:

  • If it is unicode, you must also give the encoding(and optionally, errors) parameters; bytearray() then converts the unicode to bytes using encode().
  • If it is an integer, the array will have that size and will be initialized with null bytes.
  • If it is an object conforming to the bufferinterface, a read-only buffer of the object will be used to initialize the bytes array.
  • If it is an iterable, it must be an iterable of integers in the range 0 <= x < 256, which are used as the initial contents of the array.

Without an argument, an array of size 0 is created.

New in version 2.6:

callable(object)

Return True if the object argument appears callable, False if not. If this returns true, it is still possible that a call fails, but if it is false, calling object will never succeed. Note that classes are callable (calling a class returns a new instance); class instances are callable if they have a __call__() method.

chr(i)

Return a string of one character whose ASCII code is the integer i. For example, chr(97) returns the string 'a'. This is the inverse of ord(). The argument must be in the range [0..255], inclusive; ValueError will be raised if i is outside that range. See also unichr().

classmethod(function)

Return a class method for function.

A class method receives the class as implicit first argument, just like an instance method receives the instance. To declare a class method, use this idiom:

class C(object):

    @classmethod

    def f(cls, arg1, arg2, ...):

        ...

The @classmethod form is a function decorator  see the description of function definitions in Function definitions for details.

It can be called either on the class (such as C.f()) or on an instance (such as C().f()). The instance is ignored except for its class. If a class method is called for a derived class, the derived class object is passed as the implied first argument.

Class methods are different than C++ or Java static methods. If you want those, see staticmethod() in this section.

For more information on class methods, consult the documentation on the standard type hierarchy in The standard type hierarchy.

New in version 2.2:

Changed in version 2.4: Function decorator syntax added.

cmp(xy)

Compare the two objects x and y and return an integer according to the outcome. The return value is negative if x < y, zero if x == y and strictly positive if x > y.

compile(sourcefilenamemode[, flags[, dont_inherit]])

Compile the source into a code or AST object. Code objects can be executed by an exec statement or evaluated by a call to eval()source can either be a Unicode string, a Latin-1 encoded string or an AST object. Refer to the ast module documentation for information on how to work with AST objects.

The filename argument should give the file from which the code was read; pass some recognizable value if it wasn’t read from a file ('' is commonly used).

The mode argument specifies what kind of code must be compiled; it can be 'exec' if source consists of a sequence of statements, 'eval' if it consists of a single expression, or 'single' if it consists of a single interactive statement (in the latter case, expression statements that evaluate to something other than None will be printed).

The optional arguments flags and dont_inherit control which future statements (see PEP 236) affect the compilation of source. If neither is present (or both are zero) the code is compiled with those future statements that are in effect in the code that is calling compile(). If the flags argument is given and dont_inherit is not (or is zero) then the future statements specified by the flags argument are used in addition to those that would be used anyway. If dont_inherit is a non-zero integer then the flags argument is it – the future statements in effect around the call to compile are ignored.

Future statements are specified by bits which can be bitwise ORed together to specify multiple statements. The bitfield required to specify a given feature can be found as the compiler_flag attribute on the _Feature instance in the __future__ module.

This function raises SyntaxError if the compiled source is invalid, and TypeError if the source contains null bytes.

If you want to parse Python code into its AST representation, see ast.parse().

Note:

When compiling a string with multi-line code in 'single' or 'eval' mode, input must be terminated by at least one newline character. This is to facilitate detection of incomplete and complete statements in the code module.

Changed in version 2.3: The flags and dont_inherit arguments were added.

Changed in version 2.6: Support for compiling AST objects.

Changed in version 2.7: Allowed use of Windows and Mac newlines. Also input in 'exec' mode does not have to end in a newline anymore.

class complex([real[, imag]])

Return a complex number with the value real + imag*1j or convert a string or number to a complex number. If the first parameter is a string, it will be interpreted as a complex number and the function must be called without a second parameter. The second parameter can never be a string. Each argument may be any numeric type (including complex). If imag is omitted, it defaults to zero and the function serves as a numeric conversion function like int()long() and float(). If both arguments are omitted, returns 0j.

Note:

When converting from a string, the string must not contain whitespace around the central + or - operator. For example, complex('1+2j') is fine, but complex('1 + 2j') raises ValueError.

The complex type is described in Numeric Types — int, float, long, complex.

delattr(objectname)

This is a relative of setattr(). The arguments are an object and a string. The string must be the name of one of the object’s attributes. The function deletes the named attribute, provided the object allows it. For example, delattr(x, 'foobar') is equivalent to del

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