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Chapter 2 - Solutions

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances that are chemically non-reactive to each other. Thus there can be nine possible types of solution that can be formed in three major states.

Gaseous State:

 1) Gas in Gas Solution: Air, Mixture of N2 and O2.

 2) The liquid in Gas solution: Water Vapour, Chloroform in Nitrogen gas.

 3) Solid In Gas State: Camphor Vapours in N2, Smoke etc.

Liquid State:

 1) Gas in Liquid solution: O2 dissolved in water, air dissolve in water (aerated water).

 2) The liquid in Liquid solution: Ethanol dissolved in water, milk dissolved in water.

 3) Solid in Liquid solution: Salt in water (Saline Water), Sugar dissolved in water.

Solid State:

 1) Gas in Solid: Hydrogen in Palladium.

 2) The liquid in Solid: an amalgam of Mercury with sodium.

 3) Solid in Solid: Mixture of Gold with copper, various alloys.

Let’s take a look at the topics and sub-topics of Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 2

1) Types of Solutions

2) Expressing Concentration of Solutions

3) Solubility

 3.1 Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid

 3.2 Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid

4) Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions

 4.1 Vapour Pressure of Liquid-Liquid Solutions

 4.2 Raoult’s Law as a special case of Henry’s Law

 4.3 Vapour Pressure of Solutions of Solids in Liquids

5) Ideal and Non- ideal Solutions

 5.1 Ideal Solutions

 5.2 Non-ideal Solutions

6) Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass

 6.1 Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure

 6.2 Elevation of Boiling Point

 6.3 Depression of Freezing Point

 6.4 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

 6.5 Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification

7) Abnormal Molar Masses

Solutions are essential in all branches of Chemistry, and hence, the chapter is quite an important one. It is used in all both large commercial and large scale industrial operations as well as experiments. In the chapter, students shall also learn about essential laws regarding Solubility. The students shall learn about Henry’s Law and a particular case of Henry’s law: Raoult’s law. These laws have significant applications in Science and are extensively used.

Expressing Concentration of Solutions

The concentration of a Solution refers to the amount of Solute dissolved in a solution. It can be further described as qualitatively or quantitatively.


Solubility refers to the maximum amount of substance that can be dissolved in a Solvent. The amount of solvent to be used must be of a specific amount. This topic is further divided into:

  1) The Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid.

  2) The Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid.

Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions

In this topic, we shall learn about the pressure exerted by vapour on the liquid solvent at equilibrium and at a specific temperature. The problem is further categorised into:

  4.1 Vapour pressure of Liquid-Liquid Solutions.

  4.2 Raoult’s law as a particular case of Henry’s Law.

  4.3 Vapour pressure of Solutions of Solids in Liquids.

Ideal and Non-Ideal Solutions

This topic is divided into :

 1)Ideal Solutions: Solutions with thermodynamic properties similar to ideal gases.

 2)Non-Ideal Solutions: Solutions which are not suitable in nature.

Colligative Properties And Determination of Molar Mass

Specific properties are depending on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent particles in a solution. They are not dependent on the chemical properties of the particles. This topic is further split into:

 6.1 Relative lowering of Vapour Pressure

 6.2 Elevation of Boiling Point.

 6.3 Depression of Freezing Point.

 6.4 Osmosis and Osmotic pressure.

 6.5 Reverse Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure.

Abnormal Molar Mass

When the molar mass is higher or lower than the expected value of the calculated molar mass- it is referred as to Abnormal Molar Mass.

To know more about topics covered under Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 2, you can refer to the exercises given below. Also, download the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 PDF for  NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Exercise and Solutions.

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