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Chapter 10 - Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

In order to pursue a career in science, be it in school or college, chemistry forms an essential part of a student’s academic career. As the three most critical elements of science namely Physics, Chemistry and Biology are inter-related, having a firm command over the subject of chemistry goes a long way when it comes to being proficient at the subject of science.

Even though many students find Chemistry to be a complicated subject to deal with, we at UrbanPro believe that NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Haloalkanes and Haloarenes will help students understand the subject better.

Let’s take a look at the topics and sub-topics of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Haloalkanes

 10.2.1 Definition

 10.2.2 Formation

 10.2.3 Properties

 10.2.4 Uses

10.3 Haloarenes

 10.3.1 Definition

 10.3.2 Formation

 10.3.3 Properties

 10.3.4 Uses.

Section 10.1 – Haloalkanes and haloarenes are very much present in our surrounding environment. Haloarenes were used during the Vietnam War in order to clear forest areas to aid in the battles as they act as herbicides. However, haloalkanes having halogens such as chlorine, bromine, or iodine are a threat to our environment. Chlorofluorocarbon- one of the compounds of haloalkanes is one of the most common causes of ozone layer depletion.

Not only this, but we come across a lot of different forms of haloalkanes and haloarenes in our day to day lives.

Section 10.2 – Organic compounds are formed as the result of the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by a halogen group by an alkaline group os known as haloalkanes. They are organic compounds that are saturated and have chemical bonds attached to the carbon atoms in single bonds. The halogen atom is attached to a single carbon atom.

Halogenoalkanes are formed by the reaction between hydrogen halides and alkenes, but one of the more common ways of making them is by replacing the -OH group in alcohol by a halogen atom. Haloalkanes are generally colourless when pure. However, iodo and bromo alkanes develop colour when exposed to light.

Even though liquid at room temperature, their boiling point is higher than the alkene they are derived from. They are used as synthon equivalents to alkyl cation (R+) in organic synthesis. Short-chain haloalkanes such as dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, and trichloromethane (chloroform) are commonly used as hydrophobic solvents in chemistry.

Section 10.3 – In the world of chemistry, haloarenes is also known as aryl halide. It is an aromatic compound where one or more hydrogen atoms which are directly bonded to an atomic ring, are replaced by halide. Haloarenes differ from haloalkanes because of their different methods of preparation. They can be prepared with the use of alcohol, hydrocarbons, alkenes or halogen exchange reaction.

Haloarenes are crystalline solids or colourless liquids, soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water. Their boiling point increases with the increase in their molecular weight.

They are used as flame propellants, solvents, retardants, pharmaceuticals, refrigerants, fire extinguishants, and many more.

For more detailed explanations of topics given in this chapter, refer to the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 PDF Download.

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