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Chapter 11 - Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Chemistry is one of the most essential subjects of the Class 12 syllabus, for students who have taken up science. Without having a good command over the subject of Chemistry, it becomes really difficult to take up science as a subject to major in.

When studying Chemistry, Alcohol Phenol and Ether NCERT Solution and Alcohol Phenols and Ethers Class 12 NCERT Solutions PDF comes very handy.

Let’s take a look at topics and sub-topics of Class 12 Chemistry, Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers.

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Alcohols

 11.2.1 Definition

 11.2.2 Formation

 11.2.3 Physical properties

11.3 Phenols

 11.3.1 Definition

 11.3.2 Formation

 11.3.3 Physical properties

11.4 Ethers

 11.4.1 Definition

 11.4.2 Formation

 11.4.3 Physical properties

Section 11.1 – Alcohols, ethers, and phenols are the primary compounds for the formation of detergents, fragrances and antiseptics and, respectively.

As we all know, the substitution of hydrogen atoms from a hydrocarbon by another atom or a group of atoms forms an entirely new compound having altogether different applications and properties.

Section 11.2 – Phenols are formed when a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, which is aromatic, is replaced by –OH group. These classes of compounds find wide applications in our day-to-day lives and also in the industry. With the help of hydrolysis that takes place in chlorobenzene and oxidation that takes place in isopropyl, phenol is formed.

Just like alcohols, hydroxyl groups present in phenols can take part in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding. These bonds are much stronger than the hydrogen bonds.

As phenols can form strong hydrogen bonds, phenols are highly soluble in water. Phenol gives a 9.3 per cent solution in water, whereas cyclohexanol in water gives a 3.6 per cent solution in water.

Section 11.3 – Alcohols are formed when a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, which is aliphatic, is replaced by –OH group. These classes of compounds find wide applications in our day-to-day lives and also in the industry. The process of fermentation generally forms alcohols. Fermentation takes place by the act of yeast on carbohydrates. It produces carbon dioxide as well as ethanol. Sources of carbohydrates such as rice, malt, fruits, and many other such carbohydrate-rich such compounds are used in order to produce alcohol.

A colourless liquid that is kept in room temperature is referred to as Alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol are liquids that are free-flowing and have a fruity odour. However, alcohols having a stronger fruity scent which are oily and viscous have 4 to 10 carbon atoms.

Section 11.4 – Ethers are organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two aryl or alkyl groups. They have the general formula R–O–R′, where R and R′ represent the alkyl or aryl groups. Ethers are made from either alcohol or their conjugate bases. Two different processes can produce ethers. Firstly by the process of Williamson Ether Synthesis, or secondly, by the process of oxymercuration reaction.

Since ether lacks a hydroxyl group of alcohol, ether molecules cannot take part in hydrogen bonding with each other.

For a more detailed explanation of the topics covered in this chapter, refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 PDF.

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