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Chapter 9 - Heredity and Evolution

In this chapter, you’ll study heredity and evolution. Heredity is the process of
transmitting certain genetic features and traits from parents to their offspring. For
instance, passing the similar skin tone, or colour of the eyes, or hair texture from
parents to their next generation, all this is a part of heredity. Genetics is the science of
studying the genes and heredity in organisms.

Have you ever wondered why the offspring of the same parents are not identical? Why
there are variations among them? Whether it is asexual reproduction or sexual
reproduction, variations in organisms is bound to happen during the duplication of
DNA. However, to your surprise, variation in offspring is a good thing! This is because
variation is important for the survival of organisms and forms the basis of heredity.
This leads to the evolution of life on earth!

Let’s take a look at topics and sub-topics of class 10 Science Chapter 9, Heredity and Evolution

9.1 Accumulation of Variation During Reproduction
9.2 Heredity
9.2.1 Inherited Traits
9.2.2 Rules for the Inheritance of Traits – Mendel’s Contributions
9.2.3 How do these Traits get Expressed?
9.2.4 Sex Determination
9.3 Evolution
9.3.1 An Illustration
9.3.2 Acquired and Inherited Traits
9.4 Speciation
9.5 Evolution and Classification
9.5.1 Tracing Evolutionary Relationships
9.5.2 Fossils
9.5.3 Evolution by Stages
9.6 Evolution should not be equated with ‘Progress’
9.6.1 Human Evolution

In Class 10 Science Chapter 9, you will learn – 

Section 9.1 - In this section, you’ll study variations during reproduction. You’ll come
across certain rules that determine the traits and features inherited by offspring. You’ll
also, study how does the creation of variations in a species encourage survival.

Section 9.2 - In this section, you’ll acquire knowledge about what is heredity, the rules of
heredity, rules of inheritance of traits as described by Mendel, how these traits get
expressed and sex determination of a newborn individual.

Section 9.3 - In this section, you’ll learn about evolution due to the natural tendency of
variation during the process of reproduction. You’ll observe the results of this tendency.
You’ll also come across Charles Darwin’s theory of Evolution of Species.

Section 9.4 - In this section, you’ll learn what speciation is, what factors lead to the rise
of a new species and the role of geographical isolation in speciation of plants and other
organisms.

Section 9.5 - In this section, you’ll study the characteristics being used to determine
how close two species are in evolutionary terms. You’ll also learn about fossils, various
kinds of fossils, how fossils form layer by layer and evolution of organisms stage by
stage.

Section 9.6 - In this section, you will learn (with the help of examples) that ‘evolution’
and ‘progress’ are not the same, and there is a great difference between them. Evolution
actually leads to complex body designs, which may or may not mean progress.

In this chapter, you are provided with several diagrams, activities and examples with
their solutions for a clear understanding of Heredity and Evolution. To know more
about NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Biology Chapter 9 you should explore the
exercises mentioned in this chapter. You can also download the Heredity and
Evolution Class 10 Solutions PDF, solved by our science experts.

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