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Lesson Posted on 10 Feb Exam Coaching/CSIR NET CBSE/Class 12/Science/Biology CBSE/Class 11/Science/Biology +4 Exam Coaching/Medical Entrance Coaching Tuition/BSc Tuition/BSc Micro- Biology Tuition/BSc Tuition/Biotechnology Tuition/MSc Tuition/Biology less

IMMUNITY: IMMUNE SYSTEM

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The immune system protects the body like a guardian from harmful influences from the environment and is essential for survival. It is made up of different organs, cells and proteins and aside from the nervous system, it is the most complex system that the human body has. The tasks of the immune system Without... read more

The immune system  protects the body like a guardian from harmful influences from the environment and is essential for survival. It is made up of different organs, cells and proteins and aside from the nervous system, it is the most complex system that the human body has.

The tasks of the immune system

Without an immune system, a human being would be just as exposed to the harmful influences of pathogens or other substances from the outside environment as to changes harmful to health happening inside of the body. The main tasks of the body's immune system are:

  • Neutralizing pathogens like bacteriavirusesparasites or fungithat have entered the body, and removing them from the body
  • Recognizing and neutralizing harmful substances from the environment
  • Fighting against the body's own cells that have changed due to an illness, for example cancerous cells.

    Cells and Organs of the Immune System

    The immune system includes primary lymphoid organs, secondary lymphatic tissues and various cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems.

    • The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system are the thymus and bone marrow, and secondary lymphatic tissues such as spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, and skin and liver.
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system.
    • The innate leukocytes include the phagocytes ( macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells ), mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, and natural killer cells. These cells identify and eliminate pathogens and are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system.
    • The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes and are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.
    • The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic system has multiple functions such as the transportation of white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones

      Immune System Organs

      The key primary lymphoid organs of the immune system include the thymus and bone marrow, as well as secondary lymphatic tissues including spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, skin, and liver.

      The thymus “educates” T cells and provides an inductive environment for the development of T cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. The thymus is largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods of development. By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is replaced by adipose tissue. Nevertheless, residual T-lymphopoiesis continues throughout adult life.

      Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the interior of bones. In humans, red blood cells are produced in the heads of long bones. The red bone marrow is a key element of the lymphatic system, being one of the primary lymphoid organs that generate lymphocytes from immature hematopoietic progenitor cells. Bone marrow and thymus constitute the primary lymphoid tissues involved in the production and early selection of lymphocytes.

      The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid, called lymph, unidirectionally towards the heart. The lymphatic system has multiple interrelated functions including the transportation of white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes into the bones, and the transportation of antigen -presenting cells (such as dendritic cells) to the lymph nodes where an immune response is stimulated. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes.

      image

      The Lymph Nodes and Lymph Vessels in Human Beings: The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph.

      The spleen is similar in structure to a large lymph node and acts primarily as a blood filter. It synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria along with antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation.

      The palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located near the oropharynx and nasopharynx. These immunocompetent tissues are the immune system’s first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens. The fundamental immunological roles of tonsils aren’t yet understood.

      Lymph nodes are distributed widely throughout areas of the body, including the armpit and stomach, and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T and other immune cells. Lymph nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system. They are packed tightly with the white blood cells, called lymphocytes and macrophages.

      The skin is one of the most important parts of the body because it interfaces with the environment, and is the first line of defense from external factors, acting as an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense. Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.

      The liver has a wide range of functions, including immunological effects—the reticuloendothelial system of the liver contains many immunologically active cells, acting as a “sieve” for antigens carried to it via the portal system.

    • ymphocytes: A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system. The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bursa-derived cells) are the major cellular components of the adaptive immune response.
    • Leukocytes: Cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist.
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Kingdom protista

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The Kingdom Protista consists of eukaryotic protists. Members of this very diverse kingdom are typically unicelluar and less complex in structure than other eukaryotes. In a superficial sense, these organisms are often described based on their similarities to the other groups of eukaryotes: animals,... read more

The Kingdom Protista consists of eukaryotic protists. Members of this very diverse kingdom are typically unicelluar and less complex in structure than other eukaryotes. In a superficial sense, these organisms are often described based on their similarities to the other groups of eukaryotes: animalsplants, and fungi. Protists do not share many similarities, but are grouped together because they do not fit into any of the other kingdoms. Some protists are capable of photosynthesis, some live in mutualistic relationships with other protists, some are single celled, some are multicellular or form colonies, some are microscopic, some are enormous (giant kelp), some are bioluminescent, and some are responsible for a number of diseases that occur in plants and animals. Protists live in aquatic environments, moist land habitats, and even inside other eukaryotes.

It may be photosynthetic, holotrophic, saprotrophic, parasitic and symbionts. Some have mixotrophic nutrition (holotrophic + saprobic).

- The photosynthetic, floating protists are collectively called phytoplankton.

- The free-floating, holozoic protozoans are collectively termed zooplankton.

- Unicellular protists have been broadly divided in to three major groups:

(a) Photosynthetic Protists: Example: Dinoflagellates, Diatoms, Euglenoids

(b) Consumer Protists: Example: Slime moulds or Myxomycetes

(c) Protozoan Protists: Example: Zooflagellata, Sarcodina, Sporozoa, Ciliata

Major Groups of Protists


Chrysophytes

  • This group includes diatoms and golden algae (desmids).Golden Algae

  • They are found in fresh water as well as in marine environments.

  • They are microscopic and float passively in water currents (plankton).

  • In diatoms the cell walls form two thin overlapping shells, which fit together as in a soap box.

  • The walls are embedded with silica and thus the walls are indestructible. Thus, diatoms have left behind large amount of cell wall deposits in their habitat; this accumulation over billions of years is referred to as 'diatomaceous earth'.

  • Being gritty this soil is used in polishing, filtration of oils and syrups.

  • Diatoms are the chief 'producers' in the oceans

    Dianoflagellates

    • These organisms are mostly marine and photosynthetic.

    • They appear yellow, green, brown, blue or red depending on the main pigments present in their cells.

    • The cell wall has stiff cellulose plates on the outer surface.

    • Most of them have two flagella; one lies longitudinally and the other transversely in a furrow between the wall plates.Dinoflagellate-Gonyaulax

    • Very often, red dianoflagellates (Example: Gonyaulax) undergo such rapid multiplication that they make the sea appear red (red tides).

    • Toxins released by such large numbers may even kill other marine animals such as fishes.

      Euglenoids

      • Majority of them are fresh water organisms found in stagnant water.

      • Instead of a cell wall, they have a protein rich layer called pellicle which makes their body flexible.

      • They have two flagella, a short and a long one. The two flagella join with each other at a swelling called paraflagellar body. An orange red coloured eye-spot or stigma is located at the base of flagellum attached to the membrane of reservoir at the level of paraflagellar body.Euglena-Kingdom Protista

      • Both paraflagellar body; and eye spot act as photoreceptors and direct the organism towards the optimum light.

      • Though they are photosynthetic in the presence of sunlight, when deprived of sunlight they behave like heterotrophs by predating on other smaller organisms. Interestingly, the pigments of euglenoids are identical to those present in higher plants. Example: Euglena. They contain red pigment astaxanthin.

      • Nutrition is holophytic (photoautotrophic), saprobic (e.g., Rhabdomonas) or holozoic (e.g., Peranema). Even holophytic forms can pick up organic compounds from the outside medium. Such a mode of nutrition is called mixotrophic.

      • Euglena is a connecting link between animals and plants. Nutrition in Euglena is mixotrophic, when light is available it is photosynthetic, in darkness it is saprophytic absorbing food from surrounding water.


      Slime Moulds

      • Slime moulds are saprophytic protists.

      • The body moves along decaying twigs and leaves engulfing organic material.

      • Under suitable conditions, they form an aggregation called plasmodium which may grow and spread over several feet.

      • During unfavourable conditions, the plasmodium differentiates and forms fruiting bodies bearing spores at their tips. The spores possess true walls. The spores are dispersed by air currents.

      • They are extremely resistant and survive for many years, even under adverse conditions.
         

        Protozoans

        All protozoans are heterotrophs and live as predators or parasites. They are believed to be primitive relatives of animals.

        There are four major groups of protozoan


        Group 1. Flagellated Protozoans

        Characters:

        Flagellated Protozoans(i) They possess flagella for locomotion.

        (ii) They may be free living aquatics, parasites, commensals or symbionts.

        (iii) Zooflagellates are generally uninucleate, occasionally multinucleate.

        (iv) The body is covered by a firm pellicle.

        (v) Nutrition is holozoic, saproboic and parasitic

        Examples:

        • Trypanosome gambiense – The parasite of sleeping sickness. It was first observed by Forde in 1901. Fruce discovered that the parasite of sleeping sickness is transmitted by tse-tse fly. It causes Gambian sleeping sickness. The disease, also called Gambain trypanosomiasis, is found in western and central parts of Africa.

        • Trypansoma rhodesiense - It causes Rhodesian sickness. The disease is also called Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. The parasite is transmitted by the bites of tse-tse fly (glossina palpalis and glossina morsitans). Initially parasite is present in the blood of man but later on it enters the cerebrospinal fluid.

        • Trypanosome cruzi - It causes South American trypanosomiasis (also called Chagas disease). The symptoms of the disease are fever, diarrhea, anaemia and enlargement of lymphoid glands.


        Group 2. Amoebid Protozoans

        Characters:Amoeboid Proteus

        (i) They develop pseudopodia which are temporary protoplasmic outgrowths. They are of four types- lobopodia (broad and blunt), filppodia (slender, unsupported, independent), axpodia (slender with axial support) and reticulopodia (slender, reticulate).

        (ii) pseudopodia are used for locomotion and engulfing food articles.

        (iii) Sarcodines are mostly free living, found in fresh water, sea water and on damp soil. Only a few are parasitic.

        (iv) The body may be covered with plasmalemma or a shell.

        Examples: Amoebe, pelomyxa, entamoeba, radiolarians, foraminiferans, heliozoans.

        • Amoeba proteus- The Proteus Animalcule. Amoeba was discovered by Russel Von Rosenhoff in 1755. H.I. Hirschfied(1962) has given a detailed account of the biology of amoeba. It is found in fresh water. Types of pseudopodia are lobopodia.

        • Pelomyxa - It is also known as giant amoeba. The size is about 2.5 mm long. Pelomyxa occurs in fresh water. Nutrition is holozoic. The chief food article is diatoms.

        • Entamoeba histolytica – Lamble (1859) discovered Entamoeba histolyticaLosch (1875) discovered its pathogenic nature. The life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica is monogenetic (single host life cycle). It resides in the upper part of the human large intestine and causes the disease known as amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis.


        Group 3. Sporozoans

        Characters:

        (i) All sporozoans are endoparsites.

        (ii) Some sporozoans such as Eimeria cause severl diseases like coccidiosis in the birds.

        (iii) Locomotory organelles (cilia, flagella,pseudopodia,etc.)are absent.

        (iv) Nutrition is parasitic (absorptive). Phagotrophy is rare.

        (v) The body is covered with an elastic pellicle or cuticle.

        (vi) Contractile vacuoles are absent.

        Group 4. Ciliated Protozoans

        Characters:

        (i) Ciliates are protozoan protists which develop a number of cilia during a part or whole of the life cycle.Ciliated Protozoans

        (ii) Cilia are used for locomotion and driving food.

        (iii) There is a high degree of morphological and physiological specialization.

        (iv) Most ciliates are free living individuals in fresh and marine waters. A few are parasitic.

        (v) The body is covered by a pellicle.

        (vi) Nutrition is holozoic except in the parasitic forms.

        (vii) there are definite regions for ingestion and egestion. The region of ingestion consists of , cytostome (mouth) and gullet.

        Examples:

        Paramecium, vorticella, opalina, balantidium.

        • Paramecium- The slipper organism or slipper Animalcule. Paramecium is a free living ciliate which is found in fresh water. Most widely distributed species are paramecium caudatum and paramecium Aurelia. Nutrition is microphageal. Bacteria are its chief feed. Paramecium is a surface feeder. Pellicle maintains the shape. The cilia of the extreme posterior end longer and form a bunch called caudal tuft.

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Lesson Posted on 16 Jan Tuition/BTech Tuition Tuition/MBBS & Medical Tuition Tuition/Pharmacy Tuition +2 Tuition/MSc Tuition Tuition/BSc Tuition less

How To Write An Assignment?

Prof Zahoorullah S Md

I have 10 years of experience in Teaching as Associate Professor. I am a Consultant Scientist and Student...

Instructions for writing the Assignment: It should contain minimum of 7 pages to maximum of 10 pages. Write all the topics with clear headings, sub headings and points with serial numbers 1,2,3,4,5 and so on. Write starting paragraph and conclusion paragraphs. All pages should be drawn with margins... read more

Instructions for writing the Assignment:

  1. It should contain minimum of 7 pages to maximum of 10 pages.
  2. Write all the topics with clear headings, sub headings and points with serial numbers 1,2,3,4,5 and so on. Write starting paragraph and conclusion paragraphs.
  3. All pages should be drawn with margins using pencil and draw figures, tables, graphs neatly with pencil/sketch pen if the topic consists of these items.
  4. The first page should consist of Name of the Student, Roll No., class, branch, section, Subject Name, Assignment No (I,II) Instructor Name and Topic name.
  5. Use pencil or sketches for drawing figures.
  6. Underline important points and keep the formulas in brackets and complete the whole pages without leaving blank.
  7. Refer only text books for all the topics and write with your own handwriting.
  8. Internet information is not accepted. If the topic is not available, one can refer Google Books.
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