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# Cinematography

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02/06/2020 0 0

Rule of Thirds
In this lesson, we will learn about the rule of thirds. Whether it's setting up a composition for a photograph or framing an actor on set, we always want to be sure that our final images are well-composed. One way we can achieve this is by using the rule of thirds. The rule of thirds is the process of looking at an image and imagining that that image is divided by two equally spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines. These lines are where we want to place elements of importance. The areas where these lines intersect are hot spots, meaning these are the areas where our eye wants to look first. Let's take a look at this example. We can see in this image everything is framed in the centre. This makes for a less than interesting composition. Now let's see what happens if we frame the subject using the rule of thirds. We can see the composition of the image becomes more appealing and interesting to look at. The rule of thirds is also used to help frame characters on screen. If we take a look at this image, we can see that something is not quite right. The shot seems off balance. Now, let's reposition this shot using the rule of thirds. By simply aligning the eyes on the top third and positioning one at the intersection, the framing of our character looks more appealing and feels more natural. If you want to improve your composition and create more appealing shots, try using the rule of thirds to frame your scenes.

F-stop
In this lesson, we'll learn about f-stops. This is also called the lens focal ratio or relative aperture. A camera lens's f-stop number refers to the amount the aperture or front opening of a lens can open or close. To take pictures faster we need our camera lens to allow in as much light as possible. You can see f-stops either shown as a lower case F, slash, and a number, like f/4, or as a ratio like 1:4. The f-stop is actually a ratio of the size of the front opening, or aperture, and the distance from the lens to your camera's sensor, or the focal length. So smaller f-stops mean the aperture is more open than a larger f-stop. Usually, a lens shows a single f-stop number like f/4. Now this means that the lens starts at f/4, and it's at its most open aperture. Higher quality lenses have lower f-stop numbers, meaning they can open much larger. Now, this does not mean the lens is stuck open at that f-stop. You can close your aperture, which will result in a higher f-stop number. The higher you set your f-stop, the less light that will enter the camera. Now, this results in longer shutter times to capture enough light for an image. This means a lens that can shoot at F over 1. 4 is much faster than a lens at f/4. Depth of field is another important consideration when choosing the f-stop to shoot at. A smaller f-stop, again meaning a larger opening, will create a shallow depth of field, where the object can be in focus, but the background is very blurry. If you want a longer depth of field so more objects are in focus, you can stop down your lens to a higher f-stop number. Photos shot at f/1. 4 and f/16 have a very different appearance. So setting the correct f-stop or aperture size is extremely important. You can tell the camera to set a specific aperture size or f-stop in either manual or aperture priority mode if your camera supports them. By understanding the f-stop system, we can take pictures faster and have a greater amount of control over the depth of field in our photographs.

ISO
In this lesson, we will discuss film speed and the important role this plays in both traditional and digital photography. Film speed is measured by using a numbering system called ISO, or the International Standards Organization. The ISO determines a film's sensitivity to light with lower ISO values signifying a lower sensitivity to light and higher ISO values being more sensitive to light. Because lower ISO film requires more light to capture an image, the camera shutter would normally need to stay open much longer to allow the necessary amount of light through. Now, this can result in blurred images if our camera is not perfectly stable while the shutter is open or if our subject is moving very quickly. Higher ISO film does allow for much faster shutter speeds and sharper images. But there's a significant drawback to using higher ISO values. The speed at which film emulsion reacts to light is related to the actual size of the light-sensitive grains in the actual film. Larger clumps react more quickly and have a larger grain size, so as you increase a film's sensitivity to light, you also increase the amount of random noise and graininess seen in the final image. ISO settings are present in digital cameras as well. But rather than controlling film sensitivity, we're actually adjusting the sensitivity of the camera's image sensor. In digital photography, we get almost exactly the same effect with higher ISO values than you would with the film. Increasing the sensitivity of the camera's image sensor produces a greater amount of sensor noise in the final image. As a general rule, it's recommended to shoot with the lowest possible ISO values that will yield an acceptable image of our subject. This will help to minimize the graininess and noise present in our final photographs.

Colour Temperature

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