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Lesson Posted on 16 Apr Learn Medicine

Transport across cell membrane

Dr Radhika Kothari

Physiology has always been my favourite subject since MBBS and that was probably the trigger that I took...

https://vz-3ad30922-ba4.b-cdn.net/9bda9820-2c04-4687-82eb-047a25539a76/play_480p.mp4
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Lesson Posted on 17/09/2021 Learn Physiology

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

Dr Bhargavi Dade

I am doctor by profession and a biology professor with experience in international teaching experience...

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Lesson Posted on 02/08/2021 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition

Gram Stain - A Simple Yet Useful Tool

Dr Susitha T

I have been teaching medical students since 2010.Iam very much interested in teaching than practicing...

Ten Important points on Gram stain: Differential stain, which categorizes bacteria broadly into Gram positives and Gram-negatives Gram reaction is due to the differences in the cell wall structure between Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Four steps in Gram staining are primary stain(methyl violet),... read more

Ten Important points on Gram stain:

  1. Differential stain, which categorizes bacteria broadly into Gram positives and Gram-negatives
  2. Gram reaction is due to the differences in the cell wall structure between Gram-positive and negative bacteria.
  3. Four steps in Gram staining are primary stain(methyl violet), mordent(Grams iodine), Decolourizer(acetone/alcohol) and counterstain (dilute carbol fuschin).
  4. Decolourization is the crucial step of Gram staining.
  5. Gram-positive bacteria have more acidic protoplasm and a thick peptidoglycan layer. It retains the primary stain, resists decolourization and appears violet.
  6. Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, and the cell wall outer layers are dissolved by lipid solvents. It undergoes decolourization and appears pink.
  7. Gram stain helps identify organisms directly from the specimen and aids the clinician in selecting treatment. It also helps in biochemical reactions and antibiotic sensitivity testing. 
  8. Gram-negatives can appear as Gram negatives when over decolourization is done, ancient cultures, repeated subcultures, autolytic enzymes, and antibiotic treatment.
  9. Gram-negatives can appear as Gram positives due to under decolourization.
  10. Certain bacteria cannot be viewed by Gram staining like mycoplasma (lack cell wall), mycobacteria (acid-fast), rickettsia and chlamydia (intracellular).
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Answered on 28/07/2021 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition

Megha Bhengra

MD Community Medicine with 3 years and 1 year of lectureship

World hepatitis day is celebrated every year on 28th July. This year (2021) theme is "Hepatitis can't wait".
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Answered on 29/07/2021 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition

Dr Rashmi Raheja

Medical Educator (MBBS, MD) with 6 yrs of teaching experience

It is just to avoid the refraction at the air-glass interface. Cedarwood oil has a similar refractive index, i.e. 1.5, as that of the glass coverslip, so there will be no refraction of rays when light passes from object to objective lens. (R.I. of glass coverslip is 1.5, R.I. of cedarwood oil is also... read more

It is just to avoid the refraction at the air-glass interface. Cedarwood oil has a similar refractive index, i.e. 1.5, as that of the glass coverslip, so there will be no refraction of rays when light passes from object to objective lens.
(R.I. of glass coverslip is 1.5,
R.I. of cedarwood oil is also 1.5
But R.l. of air is 1)

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Lesson Posted on 17/03/2021 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition +14 Class 11 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6 Class 7 Tuition Class 8 Class 9 Class 10 Class 12 IPS (Indian Police Service) ExamCoaching Physiotherapist

Quick Revision Strategy

Akshaya Jain

I am a BPT(Physiotherapy) final year student. I am willing to give online tution for all the subjects...

With exam season fast-approaching, it’s essential to start thinking about managing, planning, and effectively utilising your time. Revision plays a vital role in scoring good in your examination. Here are a few tips for revising effectively: Early step: You can’t rush effective revision.... read more

With exam season fast-approaching, it’s essential to start thinking about managing, planning, and effectively utilising your time. Revision plays a vital role in scoring good in your examination. Here are a few tips for revising effectively:

  1. Early step: You can’t rush effective revision. By starting early on and spreading out the workload for each exam, great revision strategies will help your brain to retain information and ensure that you feel less stressed along the way.
  2. Prioritise and Plan Your Revision: Spending time with friends and family is essential. So planning your free time, revision strategies and prioritising your tasks will help ensure that you maintain a productive work-life balance.
  3. Make A Revision Schedule: Once you know where your free time is, create a detailed (but realistic) revision schedule that includes a breakdown of what you need to do and when. More importantly, try to stick to it as much as possible.
  4. Make A To-Do List: The satisfaction of writing a list of tasks to complete in a day, then ticking them off one by one will help you to stay motivated and feel on top of your revision timetable.
  5. Sweating it out: Studies show that exercise can have a hugely positive impact on concentration and energy levels – so try to do some physical activity every day you set aside to revise.
  6. Maintain a proper sleep cycle: Maintain an appropriate schedule of when to sleep and get up. Irregular sleep patterns lead to less productivity and also hurt your health.
  7. Eating right: Try not to indulge yourself in junk food. Instead, try healthy options such as fruits and salads. It will keep your body and mind fit and healthy and boost up your performance.                                                                                                                                                     

I hope these above tips help you with your upcoming examinations. Do let me know if these were helpful to you or not. 

Thank You and Regards.

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Lesson Posted on 19/08/2020 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition

EPISTAXIS ENT

Harvinder Kumar

I am a young doctor , pursuing post graduation . Always read to help out my juniors and learn from my...

Epistaxis Epistaxis is split into anterior and posterior bleeds, whereby the former often have a visible source of bleeding and usually occurs due to an insult to the network of capillaries that form Kiesselbach’s Plexus. Posterior haemorrhages, on the other hand, tend to be more profuse and... read more

Epistaxis

Epistaxis is split into anterior and posterior bleeds, whereby the former often have a visible source of bleeding and usually occurs due to an insult to the network of capillaries that form Kiesselbach’s Plexus.

 Posterior haemorrhages, on the other hand, tend to be more profuse and originate from deeper structures. 

They occur more frequently in older patients and confer a higher risk of aspiration and airway compromise.

CAUSES

While most cases of epistaxis tend to be benign and self-limiting,

 they may be an indicator of serious pathology.

The most common cause is trauma to the nose- this can range from the insertion of foreign bodies, nose picking and nose blowing.

Bleeding can also indicate platelet function disorders such as thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, leukaemia, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinaemia and ITP. As these tend to be congenital, they often present earlier in life.

In adolescent males, juvenile angiofibroma is a beginning tumour that may bleed as it is highly vascularised. 

If the nasal septum looks abraded or atrophied, inquire about drug use. This is because inhaled cocaine is a potent vasoconstrictor, and repeated use may result in obliteration of the septum. 

In the elderly, 1. hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia may cause prolonged nasal bleeding. 

2.(Wegener’s) and pyogenic granuloma may also present with nosebleeds.

Management Positioning

1. If the patient is haemodynamically stable, bleeding can be controlled with first aid measures. This involves:

Asking the patient to sit with their torso forward and their mouth open- avoid lying down unless they feel faint. This decreases blood flow to the nasopharynx and allows the patient to spit out any blood in their mouth. It also reduces the risk of aspirating blood.

Pinch the cartilaginous (soft) area of the nose firmly and consistently for at least 20 minutes and ask the patient to breathe through their mouth.

 

If first aid measures are successful, 

2. Consider using a topical antiseptic such as Naseptin (chlorhexidine and neomycin) to reduce crusting and the risk of vestibulitis. Cautions to this include patients that have peanut, soy or neomycin allergies, and Mupirocin is a viable alternative.

Criteria for admission:

Admission and follow up care may be considered in patients under if a comorbidity (e.g. coronary artery disease, or severe hypertension) is present, an underlying cause is suspected or if they are aged under two years (as underlying causes such as haemophilia or leukaemia are more likely in this age group).

If bleeding does not stop after 10-15 minutes of continuous pressure on the nose, consider cautery or packing. 

REMEMBER !!!!!!

Cautery should be used if the source of the bleed is visible and cautery is tolerated- it is not so well-tolerated in younger children! Packing may be used if cautery is not viable or the bleeding point cannot be visualised. If the nose is packed in primary care, the patient should be admitted to the hospital for review.

Cautery:

Ask the patient to blow their nose to remove any clots. Be wary that bleeding may resume.

Use a topical local anaesthetic spray (e.g. Co-phenylalanine) and wait 3-4 minutes for it to take effect.

Identify the bleeding point and apply the silver nitrate stick for 3-10 seconds until it becomes grey-white. Avoid touching areas which do not require treatment, and only cauterise one side of the septum as there is a risk of perforation.

Dab the area clean with a cotton bud and apply Naseptin or Muciprocin.

 

Anterior nasal packing                           posterior nasal packing

Packing:

Anaesthetise with topical local anaesthetic spray (e.g. Co-phenylalanine) and wait for 3-4 minutes

Pack the patient’s nose while they are sitting with their head forward, following the manufacturer’s instructions

Pressure on the cartilage around the nostril can cause cosmetic changes, and this should be reviewed after inserting the pack.

Examine the patient’s mouth and throat for any continuing bleeding, and consider packing the other nostril as this increases pressure on the septum and offending vessel.

Patients should be admitted to hospital for observation and review, and ENT if available.

Patients that are haemodynamically unstable or compromised should be admitted to the emergency department- control bleeding with first aid measures in the interim. Patients with a bleed from an unknown or posterior source (i.e. the bleeding site cannot be located on speculum, bleeding from both nostrils or profuse) should be admitted to hospital.

Self-care advice involves reducing the risk of re-bleeding. Patients should be informed that blowing or picking the nose, heavy lifting, exercise, lying flat, drinking alcohol, or hot drinks should be avoided. The same applies to patients who have just been cauterised, as any strain on the nostril may induce a re-bleed.

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Answered on 02/06/2020 Learn Microbiology +1 Biology

Sahil Trikha

Neurobiologist with 5 years experience in college & high school

Cellulose is a polysaccharide (a Form of carbohydrate) made of many β linked D(dextrorotary)-glucose. Found primarily in plant cell walls and many algae cell walls. Non-cellulosic cell walls are not made of cellulose, e.g., Peptidoglycan cell walls in Bacteria which are made of proteins/amino acids... read more

Cellulose is a polysaccharide (a Form of carbohydrate) made of many β linked D(dextrorotary)-glucose. Found primarily in plant cell walls and many algae cell walls. Non-cellulosic cell walls are not made of cellulose, e.g., Peptidoglycan cell walls in Bacteria which are made of proteins/amino acids (pep-) & carbohydrates/sugars (-glycan). 

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Answered on 11/04/2020 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition

Dr Dhairyasheel Salunkhe

Unmatched performance , Invest and Win.

The benefit of an MBA as such is subjective. It's how much formal education you apply along with self-education of daily business issues. For international business operations, it's better to have a degree, its an add on plus. My friend secured an MBA degree in the UK, but it's of no use here and even... read more

The benefit of an MBA as such is subjective. It's how much formal education you apply along with self-education of daily business issues. For international business operations, it's better to have a degree, its an add on plus. My friend secured an MBA degree in the UK, but it's of no use here and even there, as he was rejected for his selling skills.
I hope it helps.

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Answered on 07/09/2018 Learn MBBS & Medical Tuition +3 Microbiology Medical Entrance Coaching Biochemistry

Madan Krishna

Tutor

It is a professional course, and you must get a very good knowledge of human body. To treat patients, If you start loving the course, that will help you to become a great doctor... All the best..
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