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Answered on 04/02/2021 Learn SAP HANA

I did certification on BW 4 Hana. But I only have theoretical knowledge on it. I want the hands-on experience... read more
I did certification on BW 4 Hana. But I only have theoretical knowledge on it. I want the hands-on experience for it. But the prerequisite is BW on Hana which I don't know. Please help on which part should I gain knowledge first. read less

Pooja Jain

SAP ONLINE TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION

Take server access and do the live practice.
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Answered on 23/10/2018 Learn SAP HANA +1 SAP

Pramod Mouli

HANA modeling has wide chances in the market for building your career..
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Answered on 19/05/2018 Learn SAP HANA

I am having 4.3 years experience in SAP BW/BI and now want change to SAP HANA, so please suggest good classroom trainer.

Subha Hana Consultant

SAP HANA Consultant with BODS and SAP ABAP having an 10+ years of total experience on IT field. First...

The Bible.
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Answered on 08/04/2018 Learn SAP HANA +2 ETL Big Data

TechGeest Solutions

Training Centre

Future is bigdata or nothing. All companies are moving thier workloads (data processing) from Traditional RDBMs to Bigdata tools. Majority of usecases can be handled by Hive, Spark SQL and Sqoop which provide complete ETL pipeline to process Structured data.
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Lesson Posted on 24/02/2018 Learn SAP HANA

Top 15 SAP HANA Interview Questions & Answers

Harsh Sharma

I am working from past 10 years in different Sap Domains and having vast experience in lot of SAP technologies...

1) Mention what is SAP HANA? Ans. SAP HANA stands for High Performance Analytical Appliance- in-memory computing engine. HANA is linked to ERP systems; Frontend modeling studio can be used for replication server management and load control. 2) Mention the two types of Relational Data stored in... read more

1) Mention what is SAP HANA?

Ans. SAP HANA stands for High Performance Analytical Appliance- in-memory computing engine. HANA is linked to ERP systems; Frontend modeling studio can be used for replication server management and load control.

2) Mention the two types of Relational Data stored in HANA?

Ans. The two types of relational data stored in HANA includes

  • Row Store
  • Column Store

3) Mention what is the role of the persistence layer in SAP HANA?

Ans. SAP HANA has an in-memory computing engine and access the data straightaway without any backup. To avoid the risk of losing data in case of hardware failure or power cutoff, persistence layer comes as a savior and stores all the data in the hard drive which is not volatile.

4) Mention what is modeling studio?

Ans. Modeling studio in HANA performs multiple task like

  • Declares which tables are stored in HANA, first part is to get the meta-data and then schedule data replication jobs
  • Manage Data Services to enter the data from SAP Business Warehouse and other systems
  • Manage ERP instances connection, the current release does not support connecting to several ERP instances
  • Use data services for the modeling
  • Do modeling in HANA itself
  • essential licenses for SAP BO data services

5) Mention what are the different compression techniques?

Ans. There are three different compression techniques

  • Run-length encoding
  • Cluster encoding
  • Dictionary encoding

6) Mention what is latency?

Ans. Latency is referred to the length of time to replicate data from the source system to the target system.

7) Explain what is transformation rules?

Ans. Transformation rule is the rule specified in the advanced replication setting transaction for the source table such that data is transformed during the replication process.

8) Mention what is the advantage of SLT replication?

Ans. The advantage of SLT replication are:

  • SAP SLT works on trigger based approach; such approach has no measurable performance impact in the source system.
  • It offers filtering capability and transformation.
  • It enables real-time data replication, replicating only related data into HANA from non-SAP and SAP source systems.
  • It is fully integrated with HANA studios.
  • Replication from several source systems to one HANA system is allowed, also from one source system to multiple HANA systems is allowed.

9) Explain how you can avoid un-necessary information from being stored?

Ans. To avoid un-necessary information from being stored, you have to pause the replication by stopping the schema-related jobs

10) Mention what is the role of master controller job in SAP HANA?

Ans. The job is arranged on demand and is responsible for

  • Creating database triggers and logging table into the source system
  • Creating Synonyms
  • Writing new entries in admin tables in SLT server when a table is replicated/loaded

11) Explain what happens if the replication is suspended for a longer period of time or system outage of SLT or HANA system?

Ans. If the replication is suspended for a longer period of time, the size of the logging tables increases.

 

12) Mention what is the role of the transaction manager and session?

Ans. The transaction manager co-ordinates database transactions and keeps a record of running and closed transactions. When transaction is rolled back or committed, the transaction manager notifies the involved storage engines about the event so they can run necessary actions.

13) Explain how you can avoid un-necessary logging information from being stored?

Ans. You can avoid un-necessary logging information from being stored by pausing the replication by stopping the schema-related jobs.

14) Explain how SQL statement is processed?

Ans. In the HANA database, each SQL statement is implemented in the reference of the transaction. New session is allotted to a new transaction.

15) Name various components of SAP HANA?

Ans. The various components of SAP HANA are:

  • SAP HANA DB
  • SAP HANA Studio
  • SAP HANA Appliance
  • SAP HANA Application Cloud.
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Lesson Posted on 24/02/2018 Learn SAP HANA

SAP HANA SQL Stored Procedure Tutorial

Harsh Sharma

I am working from past 10 years in different Sap Domains and having vast experience in lot of SAP technologies...

A procedure is a unit/module that perform a specific task. This procedure can be combined to form larger programs. This basically forms the 'Modular Design'. A procedure can be invoked by another procedure which is called the calling program. Procedures are re-useable processing block with a specific... read more

A procedure is a unit/module that perform a specific task. This procedure can be combined to form larger programs. This basically forms the 'Modular Design'. A procedure can be invoked by another procedure which is called the calling program.

Procedures are re-useable processing block with a specific sequence of data transformation. The procedure can have multi-input/output parameters. The procedure can be created as read-only or read-write.

An SQL Procedure can be created at:

  • At Schema Level(Catalog Node)
  • At Package Level(Content Node)

Stored Procedure syntax in SAP HANA is as shown below:

SYNTAX

CREATE PROCEDURE  [()] [LANGUAGE ]    
        [SQL SECURITY ] [DEFAULT SCHEMA ]
        [READS SQL DATA [WITH RESULT VIEW ]] AS
        {BEGIN [SEQUENTIAL EXECUTION]
							
        END        
        | HEADER ONLY }
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Lesson Posted on 24/02/2018 Learn SAP HANA

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

Harsh Sharma

I am working from past 10 years in different Sap Domains and having vast experience in lot of SAP technologies...

SAP HANA Database is Main-Memory centric data management platform. SAP HANA Database runs on SUSE Linux Enterprises Server and builds on C++ Language. SAP HANA Database can be distributed to multiple machines. SAP HANA Advantages are as mentioned below - SAP HANA is useful as it's very fast... read more

SAP HANA Database is Main-Memory centric data management platform. SAP HANA Database runs on SUSE Linux Enterprises Server and builds on C++ Language.

SAP HANA Database can be distributed to multiple machines.

SAP HANA Advantages are as mentioned below -

  • SAP HANA is useful as it's very fast due to all data loaded in-Memory and no need to load data from disk.
  • SAP HANA can be used for the purpose of OLAP (On-line analytic) and OLTP (On-Line Transaction) on a single database.

SAP HANA Database consists of a set of in-memory processing engines. Calculation engine is main in-memory Processing engines in SAP HANA. It works with other processing engine like Relational database Engine(Row and Column engine), OLAP Engine, etc.

Relational database table resides in column or row store.

There are two storage types for SAP HANA table.

  1. Row type storage (For Row Table).
  2. Column type storage (For Column Table).

Text data and Graph data resides in Text Engine and Graph Engine respectively. There are some more engines in SAP HANA Database. The data is allowed to store in these engines as long as enough space is available.

In this tutorial, you will learn:

  • SAP HANA Architecture

  • SAP HANA Landscape

  • SAP HANA Sizing

SAP HANA Architecture:

Data is compressed by different compression techniques (e.g. dictionary encoding, run length encoding, sparse encoding, cluster encoding, indirect encoding) in SAP HANA Column store.

When main memory limit is reached in SAP HANA, the whole database objects (table, view,etc.) that are not used will be unloaded from the main memory and saved into the disk.

These objects names are defined by application semantic and reloaded into main memory from the disk when required again. Under normal circumstances SAP HANA database manages unloading and loading of data automatically.

However, the user can load and unload data from individual table manually by selecting a table in SAP HANA studio in respective Schema- by right-clicking and selecting the option "Unload/Load".

SAP HANA Server consists of:

  1. Index Server
  2. Preprocessor Server
  3. Name Server
  4. Statistics Server
  5. XS Engine

    SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

  1. SAP HANA Index Server:

    SAP HANA Database Main server are index server. Detail of each server is as below:

  • It's the main SAP HANA database component
  • It contains actual data stores and the engine for processing the data.
  • Index Server processes incoming SQL or MDX statement.

Below is the architecture of Index Server.

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

 

SAP HANA Index Server overview:

  • Session and Transaction Manager: Session Component manage sessions and connections for SAP HANA database. Transaction Manager coordinates and control transactions.
  • SQL and MDX Processor: SQL Processor component queries data and send to them in query processing engine i.e. SQL/SQL Script / R / Calc Engine. MDX Processor queries and manipulates Multidimensional data (e,g. Analytic View in SAP HANA).
  • SQL / SQL Script / R / Calc Engine: This Component executes SQL / SQL script and calculation data convert in calculation model.
  • Repository: Repository maintain the versioning of SAP HANA metadata object e.g.(Attribute view, Analytic View, Stored procedure).
  • Persistence layer: This layer uses in-built feature "Disaster Recovery" of SAP HANA database. Backup is saved in it as save points in the data volume.
  1. Preprocessor Server:

This server is used in Text Analysis and extracts data from a text when the search function is used.

  1. Name Server:

This Server contains all information about the system landscape. In distributed server, the name server contains information about each running component and location of data on the server. This server contains information about the server on which data exists.

  1. Statistic Server:

Statistic server is responsible for collecting the data related to status, resource allocation / consumption and performance of SAP HANA system.

  1. XS Server:

XS Server contains XS Engine. It allows external application and developers to use SAP HANA database via the XS Engine client. The external client application can use HTTP to transmit data via XS engine for HTTP server.

SAP HANA Landscape:

"HANA" mean High Performance Analytic Appliance is a combination of hardware and software platform.

  • Due to change in computer architecture, the more powerful computer is available in terms of CPU, RAM, and Hard Disk.
  • SAP HANA is the solution for performance bottleneck, in which all data is stored in Main Memory and no need to frequently transfer data from disk I/O to main memory.

Below are SAP HANA Innovation in the field of Hardware/Software.

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

There are two types of Relational data stores in SAP HANA: Row Store and Column Store.

Row Store:

  • It is same as Traditional database e.g. (Oracle, SQL Server). The only difference is that all data is stored in row storage area in memory of SAP HANA, unlike a traditional database, where data is stored in Hard Drive.

Column Store:

  • Column store is the part of the SAP HANA database and manages data in columnar way in SAP HANA memory. Column tables are stored in Column store area. The Column store provides good performance for write operations and at the same time optimizes the read operation.

Read and write operation performance optimized with below two data structure.

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

Main Storage:

Main Storage contains the main part of data. In Main Storage, suitable data compression Method (Dictionary Encoding, Cluster Encoding, Sparse Encoding, Run Length encoding, etc.) is applied to compress data with the purpose to save memory and speed up searches.

  • In main storage write operations on compressed data will be costly, so write operation do not directly modify compressed data in main storage. Instead, all changes are written in a separate area in column storage known as "Delta Storage."
  • Delta storage is optimized for a write operation and uses normal compression. The write operations are not allowed on main storage but allowed on delta storage. Read operations are allowed on both storages.

We can manually load data in Main memory by option "Load into Memory" and Unload data from Main memory by "Unload from Memory" option as shown below.

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

Delta Storage:

Delta storage is used for a write operation and uses basic compression. All uncommitted modification in Column table data stored in delta storage.

When we want to move these changes into Main Storage, then use "delta merge operation" from SAP HANA studio as below:

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

  • The purpose of delta merge operation is to move changes, which is collected in delta storage to main storage.
  • After performing Delta Merge operation on sap column table, the content of main storage is saved to disk and compression recalculated.

Process of moving Data from Delta to Main Storage during delta merge:

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

There is a buffer store (L1-Delta) which is row storage. So in SAP HANA, column table acts like row store due to L1-delta:

  1. The user runs update / insert query on the table (Physical Operator is SQL statements.).
  2. Data first go to L1. When L1 moves data further (L1- Uncommitted data)
  3. Then data goes to L2-delta buffer, which is column oriented. (L2- Committed data)
  4. When L2-delta process is complete, data goes to Main storage.

So, Column storage is both Write-optimized and Read-optimized due to L1-Delta and main storage respectively. L1-Delta contains all uncommitted data. Committed data moves to Main Store through L2-Delta. From main store data goes to the persistence layer (The arrow indicating here is a physical operator that send SQL Statement in Column Store). After Processing SQL Statement in Column store, data goes to the persistence layer.

E.g. below is row-based table:

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

Table data is stored on disk in linear format, so below is format how data is stored on disk for row and column table -

In SAP HANA memory, this table is stored in Row Store on disk as format:

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial Memory address

And in Column, data is stored on disk as:

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial Memory address

Data is stored column-wise in the linear format on the disk. Data can be compressed by compress technique.

So, Column store has an advantage of memory saving.

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

SAP HANA Sizing:

Sizing is a term which is used to determine hardware requirement for SAP HANA system, such as RAM, Hard Disk and CPU, etc.

The main important sizing component is the Memory, and the second important sizing component is CPU. The third main component is a disk, but sizing is completely dependent on Memory and CPU.

In SAP HANA implementation, one of the critical tasks is to determine the right size of a server according to business requirement.

SAP HANA DB differ in sizing with normal DBMS in terms of:

  • Main Memory Requirement for SAP HANA (Memory sizing is determined by Metadata and Transaction data in SAP HANA).
  • CPU Requirement for SAP HANA (Forecast CPU is Estimated not accurate).
  • Disk Space Requirement for SAP HANA (Is calculated for data persistence and for logging data)

The Application server CPU and application server memory remain unchanged.

For sizing calculation SAP has provided various guidelines and method to calculate correct size.

We can use below method:

  1. Sizing using ABAP report.
  2. Sizing using DB Script.
  3. Sizing using Quicksizer Tool.

By using Quicksizer tool, Requirement will be displayed in below format-

SAP HANA Architecture, LandScape, Sizing: Complete Tutorial

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Answered on 07/03/2018 Learn SAP HANA +1 SAP BW

I am SAP BW consultant, with many new technologies and upgrades. What is future of SAP BW? Do I need... read more

I am SAP BW consultant, with many new technologies and upgrades. What is future of SAP BW? Do I need to move to SAP HANA o will there be scopes for SAP BW/4 HANA going forward?

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Pragim Technologies

You need to migrate to Hana.
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Answered on 06/10/2017 Learn SAP HANA +9 SAP MM SAP SD SAP ABAP SAP PP SAP Basis SAP Business Objects Data Services SAP FICO SAP Financial management products SAP FICO

Lalitha p.

Sap Fico Trainer

some of the companies like Infosys, Accenture , capgemini are conducting interviews for freshers .....but try to upload your resume directly in their own websites instead of naukri, indeed. you'll sure receive the call .... all the best maaa.
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