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Solids- 2 PUC Chemistry

Sowmya B.
14/04/2017 0 0

Classification of Crystalline Solids

Based on the nature of intermolecular forces, crystalline solids are classified into four categories −

Molecular solids

  • Ionic solids
  • Metallic solids
  • Covalent solids
  • Molecular solids
  • Constituent particles are molecules

Ionic solids

  • Constituent particles are ions
  • Hard but brittle
  • Insulators of electricity in solid state, but conductors in molten state and in aqueous solution
  • High melting point
  • Attractive forces are Coulombic or electrostatic
  • Example − NaCl, MgO, ZnS
  • Metallic solids
    • In metallic solids, positive ions are surrounded and are held together in a sea of delocalised electrons.
    • Hard but malleable and ductile
    • Conductors of electricity in solid state as well as molten state
    • Fairly high melting point
    • Particles are held by metallic bonding
    • Example − Fe, Cu, Mg
  • Covalent or network solids
    • Constituent particles are atoms
    • Hard (except graphite, which is soft)
    • Insulators of electricity (except graphite, which is a conductor of electricity)
    • Very high melting point and can decompose before melting
    • Particles are held by covalent bonding
    • Example − SiO2 (quartz), SiC, diamond, graphite
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