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How can you distinguish between propanal and propanone?

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CBSE/Class 12/Science/Chemistry Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)

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(a) Tollen's test: Propanal is an aldehyde. Thus, it reduces Tollen's reagent. But, propanone being a ketone does not reduce Tollen's reagent. (b) Fehling's test: Aldehydes respond to Fehling's test, but ketones do not. Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Fehling's solution to a red-brown precipitate... read more
(a) Tollen's test: Propanal is an aldehyde. Thus, it reduces Tollen's reagent. But, propanone being a ketone does not reduce Tollen's reagent. (b) Fehling's test: Aldehydes respond to Fehling's test, but ketones do not. Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Fehling's solution to a red-brown precipitate of Cu2O, but propanone being a ketone does not. (c) Iodoform test: Aldehydes and ketones having at least one methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom respond to iodoform test. They are oxidized by sodium hypoiodite (NaOI) to give iodoforms. Propanone being a methyl ketone responds to this test, but propanal does not. read less
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Although its clear that one is propionaldehyde that is propanal and other is a ketonic group propanone and similarly their physical and chemical properties will also differ. One thing that must be noted is that propanal is structural isomer of propa none.
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(i) Propanal and propanone can be distinguished by the following tests. (a) Tollen's test: Propanal is an aldehyde. Thus, it reduces Tollen's reagent. But, propanone being a ketone does not reduce Tollen's reagent. (b) Fehling's test: Aldehydes respond to Fehling's test, but ketones do not. Propanal... read more
(i) Propanal and propanone can be distinguished by the following tests. (a) Tollen's test: Propanal is an aldehyde. Thus, it reduces Tollen's reagent. But, propanone being a ketone does not reduce Tollen's reagent. (b) Fehling's test: Aldehydes respond to Fehling's test, but ketones do not. Propanal being an aldehyde reduces Fehling's solution to a red-brown precipitate of Cu2O, but propanone being a ketone does not. (c) Iodoform test: Aldehydes and ketones having at least one methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom respond to iodoform test. They are oxidized by sodium hypoiodite (NaOI) to give iodoforms. Propanone being a methyl ketone responds to this test, but propanal does not. (ii) Acetophenone and Benzophenone can be distinguished using the iodoform test. Iodoform test: Methyl ketones are oxidized by sodium hypoiodite to give yellow ppt. of iodoform. Acetophenone being a methyl ketone responds to this test, but benzophenone does not. (iii) Phenol and benzoic acid can be distinguished by ferric chloride test. a. Ferric chloride test: Phenol reacts with neutral FeCl3 to form an iron-phenol complex giving violet colouration. But benzoic acid reacts with neutral FeCl3 to give a buff coloured ppt. of ferric benzoate. (iv) Benzoic acid and Ethyl benzoate can be distinguished by sodium bicarbonate test. Sodium bicarbonate test: Acids react with NaHCO3 to produce brisk effervescence due to the evolution of CO2 gas. Benzoic acid being an acid responds to this test, but ethylbenzoate does not. (v) Pentan-2-one and pentan-3-one can be distinguished by iodoform test. Iodoform test: Pentan-2-one is a methyl ketone. Thus, it responds to this test. But pentan-3-one not being a methyl ketone does not respond to this test. (vi) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone can be distinguished by the following tests. (a) Tollen's Test: Aldehydes respond to Tollen's test. Benzaldehyde being an aldehyde reduces Tollen's reagent to give a red-brown precipitate of Cu2O, but acetophenone being a ketone does not. (b) Iodoform test: Acetophenone being a methyl ketone undergoes oxidation by sodium hypoiodite (NaOI) to give a yellow ppt. of iodoform. But benzaldehyde does not respond to this test. (vii) Ethanal and propanal can be distinguished by iodoform test. Iodoform test: Aldehydes and ketones having at least one methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom responds to the iodoform test. Ethanal having one methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom responds to this test. But propanal does not have a methyl group linked to the carbonyl carbon atom and thus, it does not respond to this state. read less
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