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# Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the working of a p-n junction diode as a half-wave rectifier.

A p-n junction diode can be used as a half-wave rectifier to convert an alternating current (AC) signal into a pulsating direct current (DC) signal. In a half-wave rectifier circuit, the diode conducts current only when it is forward-biased (i.e., when the p-type material is connected to the positive...

A p-n junction diode can be used as a half-wave rectifier to convert an alternating current (AC) signal into a pulsating direct current (DC) signal. In a half-wave rectifier circuit, the diode conducts current only when it is forward-biased (i.e., when the p-type material is connected to the positive terminal of the AC source and the n-type material is connected to the negative terminal of the AC source).

Here's how the circuit works:

1. AC Input Source: The AC input source provides the alternating current signal that needs to be rectified.

2. P-N Junction Diode (D): The p-n junction diode is connected in series with the load resistor (RL). The diode conducts current only when it is forward-biased.

3. Load Resistor (RL): The load resistor is connected in series with the diode to provide a path for the current to flow through when the diode is forward-biased.

Here's the circuit diagram:

yaml
AC Input Load Source Resistor | | | | | | V V ___ | ___ | | | | | |______| --| |---|---| |------|>-- |___| | |___| D | ___ ___ | | | | | | --| |------| |-------|-- |___| |___| | GND

Explanation:

During the positive half-cycle of the AC input signal, the p-terminal of the diode becomes positive and the n-terminal becomes negative. This forward-biases the diode, allowing current to flow through it and the load resistor, completing the circuit. As a result, current flows through the load resistor and we get an output voltage across the load resistor.

During the negative half-cycle of the AC input signal, the p-terminal of the diode becomes negative and the n-terminal becomes positive. This reverse-biases the diode, blocking current flow through it, and thus no current flows through the load resistor. As a result, there is no output voltage across the load resistor during the negative half-cycle.

So, at the output, we get a pulsating DC signal which is the positive half-cycles of the AC input signal. This is why it's called a half-wave rectifier, as it rectifies only one half of the input AC waveform.

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