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The CA Syllabus is presented here module wise:


CA Common Proficiency Test (CPT) Syllabus



Section A: Fundamentals of Accounting ( 60 Marks )

1. Theoretical Framework

(i) Meaning and Scope of accounting

(ii) Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions

(iii) Accounting Standards – concepts, objectives, benefits

(iv) Accounting Policies

(v) Accounting as a measurement discipline – valuation principles, accounting estimates


2. Accounting Process

Books of Accounts leading to the preparation of Trial Balance, Capital and revenue expenditures, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities, Fundamental errors including rectifications thereof.

3. Bank Reconciliation Statement

4. Inventories

Basis of inventory valuation and record keeping.

5. Depreciation accounting

Methods, computation and accounting treatment of depreciation, Change in depreciation


6. Preparation of Final Accounts for Sole Proprietors

7. Accounting for Special Transactions

(a) Consignments

(b) Joint Ventures

(c) Bills of exchange and promissory notes

(d) Sale of goods on approval or return basis.

8. Partnership Accounts

Final accounts of partnership firms – Basic concepts of admission, retirement and death of a partner including treatment of goodwill.

9. Introduction to Company Accounts

Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares, redemption of preference shares.

CPT Mercantile Law Syllabus For Dec 2016

Section B: Mercantile Laws ( 40 Marks )

1. The Indian Contract Act , 1872: An overview of Sections 1 to 75 covering the general nature of contract , consideration , other essential elements of a valid contract , performance of contract and breach of contract.

2. The Sale of Goods Act, 1930: Formation of the contract of sale – Conditions and Warranties – Transfer of ownership and delivery of goods – Unpaid seller and his rights.

3. The India Partnership Act, 1932: General Nature of Partnership – Rights and duties of partners –Registration and dissolution of a firm.


CPT General Economics Syllabus For Dec 2016

Section C: General Economics ( 50 Marks )

(I) Micro Economics

1. Introduction to Micro Economics

(a) Definition, scope and nature of Economics

(b) Methods of economic study

(c) Central problems of an economy and Production possibilities curve.

2. Theory of Demand and Supply

(a) Meaning and determinants of demand, Law of demand and Elasticity of demand ? Price, income and cross elasticity

(b) Theory of consumer ’s behavior – Marshall Ian approach and Indifference curve approach

(c) Meaning and determinants of supply, Law of supply and Elasticity of supply.

3. Theory of Production and Cost

(a) Meaning and Factors of production

(b) Laws of Production – The Law of variable proportions and Laws of returns to scale

(c) Concepts of Costs ? Short-run and long-run costs, Average and marginal costs, Total, fixed and variable costs.

4. Price Determination in Different Markets

(a) Various forms of markets – Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly

(b) Price determination in these markets.

(II) Indian Economic Development

5. Indian Economy – A Profile

(a) Nature of the Indian Economy

(b) Role of different sectors – Agriculture, Industry and Services in the development of the Indian economy, their problems and growth

(c) National Income of India – Concepts of national income, Different methods of measuring national income, Growth of national income and per capita income in various plans.

(d) Basic understanding of tax system of India – Direct and Indirect Taxation

6. Select Aspects of Indian Economy

(a) Population – Its size, rate of growth and its implication for growth

(b) Poverty – Absolute and relative poverty and main programs for poverty alleviation

(c) Unemployment – Types, causes and incidence of unemployment

(d) Infrastructure ? Energy, Transportation, Communication, Health and Education

(e) Inflation

(f) Budget and Fiscal deficits

(g) Balance of payments

(h) External debts.

7. Economic Reforms in India

(a) Features of economic reforms since 1991

(b) Liberalisation, Privatisation and Disinvestment

(c) Globalisation.

8. Money and Banking

(a) Money – Meaning and functions

(b) Commercial Banks – Role and functions

(c) Reserve Bank of India – Role and functions, Monetary policy.

 CPT Quantitative Aptitude Syllabus

Section D: Quantitative Aptitude ( 50 Marks )


1. Ratio and proportion, Indices, Logarithms


2. Equations


Linear – simultaneous linear equations up to three variables, quadratic and cubic equations in one variable, equations of a straight line, intersection of straight lines, graphical solution to linear equations.


3. Inequalities


Graphs of inequalities in two variables ? common region.


4. Simple and Compound Interest including annuity ? Applications


5. Basic concepts of Permutations and Combinations


6. Sequence and Series – Arithmetic and geometric progressions


7. Sets, Functions and Relations


8. Limits and Continuity ? Intuitive Approach


9. Basic concepts of Differential and Integral Calculus (excluding trigonometric functions)


10. Statistical description of data

(a) Textual, Tabular & Diagrammatic representation of data.

(b) Frequency Distribution.

(c) Graphical representation of frequency distribution – Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Ogive


11. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion


Arithmetic Mean, Median – Partition Values, Mode, Geometric Mean and Harmonic, Mean, Standard deviation, Quartile deviation


12. Correlation and Regression


13. Probability and Expected Value by Mathematical Expectation


14. Theoretical Distributions (Binomial, Poisson and Normal)


15. Sampling Theory


Basic Principles of sampling theory , Comparison between sample survey and complete enumeration

Errors in sample survey , Some important terms associated with sampling , Types of sampling , Theory of estimation , Determination of sample size .


  1. Index Numbers



CA IPCC Syllabus


Group I

Paper 1 : Accounting


1. A General Knowledge of the framing of the accounting standards, national and international accounting authorities, adoption of international financial reporting standards

2. Accounting Standards

Working knowledge of:

AS 1: Disclosure of Accounting Policies

AS 2: Valuation of Inventories

AS 3: Cash Flow Statements

AS 6: Depreciation Accounting

AS 7: Construction Contracts (Revised 2002)

AS 9: Revenue Recognition

AS 10: Accounting for Fixed Assets

AS 13: Accounting for Investments

AS 14: Accounting for Amalgamations

3. Company Accounts

(a) Preparation of financial statements – Profit and Loss Account, Balance Sheet and Cash Flow Statement

(b) Profit (Loss) prior to incorporation

(c) Alteration of share capital, Conversion of fully paid shares into stock and stock into shares, Accounting for bonus issue

(d) Simple problems on Accounting for business acquisition. Amalgamation and reconstruction (excluding problems of amalgamation on inter-company holding)

4. Average Due Date, Account Current, Self-Balanceing Ledgers

5. Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organisations

6. Accounts from Incomplete Records

7. Accounting for Special Transactions

(a) Hire purchase and instalment sale transactions

(b) Investment accounts

(c) Insurance claims for loss of stock and loss of profit.

9. Issue in Partnership Accounts

Final accounts of partnership firms – Admission, retirement and death of a partner including treatment of goodwill;

10. Accounting in Computerised Environment

An overview of computerized accounting system–Salient features and significance, Concept of grouping of accounts, Codification of accounts, Maintaining the hierarchy of ledger, Accounting packages and consideration for their selection, Generating Accounting Reports.


If either old Accounting Standards (ASs), Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs are withdrawn or new ASs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs are issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in place of existing ASs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs, the syllabus will accordingly include/exclude such new developments in place of the existing ones with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

Recommended Books


Group I – Business Laws, Ethics and Communication

Part I: Business Laws (60 Marks)



Business Laws (30 Marks)


1. The Indian Contract Act, 1872

2. The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881

3. The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965

4. The Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952

5. The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972.

Company Law (30 Marks)


The Companies Act, 1956 – Sections 1 to 197

(a) Preliminary

(b) Board of Company Law Administration — National Company Law Tribunal; Appellate Tribunal

(c) Incorporation of Company and Matters Incidental thereto

(d) Prospectus and Allotment, and other matters relating to use of Shares or Debentures

(e) Share Capital and Debentures

(f) Registration of Charges

(g) Management and Administration – General Provisions – Registered office and name, Restrictions on commencement of business, Registers of members and debentures holders, Foreign registers of members or debenture holders, Annual returns, General provisions regarding registers and returns, Meetings and proceedings.

(h) Company Law in a computerized Environment – E-filing.

Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from a date notified by the Institute.


Part II: Business Ethics (20 Marks)



1. Introduction to Business Ethics

The nature, purpose of ethics and morals for organizational interests; Ethics and Conflicts of Interests; Ethical and Social Implications of business policies and decisions; Corporate Social Responsibility; Ethical issues in Corporate Governance.

2. Environment issues

Protecting the Natural Environment – Prevention of Pollution and Depletion of Natural Resources; Conservation of Natural Resources.

3. Ethics in Workplace

Individual in the organisation, discrimination, harassment, gender equality.

4. Ethics in Marketing and Consumer Protection

Healthy competition and protecting consumer’s interest.

5. Ethics in Accounting and Finance

Importance, issues and common problems.


Part III: Business Communications (20 Marks)


1. Elements of Communication

(a) Forms of Communication: Formal and Informal, Interdepartmental, Verbal and nonverbal; Active listening and critical thinking

(b) Presentation skills including conducting meeting, press conference

(c) Planning and Composing Business messages

(d) Communication channels

(e) Communicating Corporate culture, change, innovative spirits

(f) Communication breakdowns

(g) Communication ethics

(h) Groups dynamics; handling group conflicts, consensus building; influencing and persuasion skills; Negotiating and bargaining

(i) Emotional intelligence – Emotional Quotient

(j) Soft skills – personality traits; Interpersonal skills ; leadership.

2. Communication in Business Environment

(a) Business Meetings – Notice, Agenda, Minutes, Chairperson’s speech

(b) Press releases

(c) Corporate announcements by stock exchanges

(d) Reporting of proceedings of a meeting.

3. Basic understanding of legal deeds and documents

(a) Partnership deed

(b) Power of Attorney

(c) Lease deed

(d) Affidavit

(e) Indemnity bond

(f) Gift deed

(g) Memorandum and articles of association of a company

(h) Annual Report of a company.


Group I – Cost Accounting and Financial Management

Group I

Paper 3 : Cost Accounting and Financial Management


1. Introduction to Cost Accounting

(a) Objectives and scope of Cost Accounting

(b) Cost centres and Cost units

(c) Cost classification for stock valuation, Profit measurement, Decision making and control

(d) Coding systems

(e) Elements of Cost

(f) Cost behaviour pattern, Separating the components of semi-variable costs

(g) Installation of a Costing system

(h) Relationship of Cost Accounting, Financial Accounting, Management Accounting and Financial Management.

2. Cost Ascertainment

(a) Material Cost

(i) Procurement procedures— Store procedures and documentation in respect of receipts and issue of stock, Stock verification

(ii) Inventory control —Techniques of fixing of minimum, maximum and reorder levels, Economic Order Quantity, ABC classification; Stocktaking and perpetual inventory

(iii) Inventory accounting

(iv) Consumption — Identification with products of cost centres, Basis for consumption entries in financial accounts, Monitoring consumption.

(b) Employee Cost

(i) Attendance and payroll procedures, Overview of statutory requirements, Overtime, Idle time and Incentives

(ii) Labour turnover

(iii) Utilisation of labour, Direct and indirect labour, Charging of labour cost, Identifying labour hours with work orders or batches or capital jobs

(iv) Efficiency rating procedures

(v) Remuneration systems and incentive schemes.

(c) Direct Expenses

Sub-contracting — Control on material movements, Identification with the main product or service.

(d) Overheads

(i) Functional analysis — Factory, Administration, Selling, Distribution, Research and Development

Behavioural analysis — Fixed, Variable, Semi variable and Step cost

(ii) Factory Overheads — Primary distribution and secondary distribution, Criteria for choosing suitable basis for allotment, Capacity cost adjustments, Fixed absorption rates for absorbing overheads to products or services

(iii) Administration overheads — Method of allocation to cost centres or products

(iv) Selling and distribution overheads — Analysis and absorption of the expenses in products/customers, impact of marketing strategies, Cost effectiveness of various methods of sales promotion.

3. Cost Book-keeping

Cost Ledgers—Non-integrated accounts, Integrated accounts, Reconciliation of cost and financial accounts.

4. Costing Systems

(a) Job Costing

Job cost cards and databases, Collecting direct costs of each job, Attributing overhead costs to jobs, Applications of job costing.

(b) Batch Costing

(c) Contract Costing

Progress payments, Retention money, Escalation clause, Contract accounts, Accounting for material, Accounting for plant used in a contract, Contract profit and Balance sheet entries.

(d) Process Costing

Double entry book keeping, Process loss, Abnormal gains and losses, Equivalent units, Interprocess profit, Joint products and by products.

(e) Operating Costing System

5. Introduction to Marginal Costing

Marginal costing compared with absorption costing, Contribution, Breakeven analysis and profit volume graph.

6. Introduction to Standard Costing

Various types of standards, Setting of standards, Basic concepts of material and Labour standards and variance analysis.

7. Bugets and Budgetary Control

The Budget manual, preparation and monitoring procedures, budget variance, flexible budget, preparation of functional budget for operating and non-operating functions, cash budget, master budget, principal budget factors.


Part II: Financial Management (50 Marks)



1. Scope and Objectives of Financial Management

(a) Meaning, Importance and Objectives

(b) Conflicts in profit versus value maximisation principle

(c) Role of Chief Financial Officer.

2. Time Value of Money

Compounding and Discounting techniques— Concepts of Annuity and Perpetuity.

3. Financial Analysis and Planning

(a) Ratio Analysis for performance evaluation and financial health

(b) Application of Ratio Analysis in decision making

(c) Analysis of Cash Flow Statement.

4. Financing Decisions

(a) Cost of Capital — Weighted average cost of capital and Marginal cost of capital

(b) Capital Structure decisions — Capital structure patterns, Designing optimum capital structure, Constraints, Various capital structure theories

(c) Business Risk and Financial Risk — Operating and financial leverage, Trading on Equity.

5. Types of Financing

(a) Different sources of finance

(b) Project financing — Intermediate and long term financing

(c) Negotiating term loans with banks and financial institutions and appraisal thereof

(d) Introduction to lease financing

(e) Venture capital finance.

6. Investment Decisions

(a) Purpose, Objective, Process

(b) Understanding different types of projects

(c) Techniques of Decision making: Non-discounted and Discounted Cash flow Approaches — Payback Period method, Accounting Rate of Return, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Modified Internal Rate of Return, Discounted Payback Period and Profitability Index

(d) Ranking of competing projects, Ranking of projects with unequal lives.

7. Management of Working Capital

(a) Working capital policies

(b) Funds flow analysis

(c) Inventory management

(d) Receivables management

(e) Payables management

(f) Management of cash and marketable securities

(g) Financing of working capital.



Group I – Taxation


Part I: Income-Tax (50 Marks)


1. Important definitions in the Income-tax Act, 1961

2. Basis of charge; Rates of taxes applicable for different types of assessees

3. Concepts of previous year and assessment year

4. Residential status and scope of total income; Income deemed to be received / deemed to accrue or arise in India

5. Incomes which do not form part of total income

6. Heads of income and the provisions governing computation of income under different heads

7. Income of other persons included in assessee’s total income

8. Aggregation of income; Set-off or carry forward and set-off of losses

9. Deductions from gross total income

10. Computation of total income and tax payable; Rebates and reliefs

11. Provisions concerning advance tax and tax deducted at source

12. Provisions for filing of return of income.


Part II: Service tax (25 Marks) and VAT (25 marks)



1. Service tax – Concepts and general principles

2. Charge of service tax and taxable services

3. Valuation of taxable services

4. Payment of service tax and filing of returns

VAT (25 marks)


5. Concepts and general principles.

6. Calculation of VAT Liability including input Tax Credits

7. Small Dealers and Composition Scheme

8. VAT Procedures.

Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations the syllabus will accordingly include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations in the place of the existing legislations with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute. Students shall not be examined with reference to any particular State VAT Law.

Recommended Books


Group II – Advanced Accounting


1. Conceptual Framework for Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements

2. Accounting Standards

Working knowledge of:

AS 4: Contingencies and Events occurring after the Balance Sheet Date

AS 5: Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies

AS 11: The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates (Revised 2003)

AS 12: Accounting for Government Grants

AS 16: Borrowing Costs

AS 19: Leases

AS 20: Earnings Per Share

AS 26: Intangible Assets

AS 29: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.

3. Advanced Issues in Partnership Accounts

Dissolution of partnership firms including piecemeal distribution of assets; Amalgamation of partnership firms; Conversation into a company and Sale to a company.

4. Company Accounts

(a) Accounting for employee stock option plan, Buy back of securities, Equity shares with differential rights, Underwriting of shares and debentures, Redemption of debentures

(b) Advanced problems for business acquisition, Amalgamation and reconstruction (excluding problems of amalgamation of inter-company holding)

(c) Accounting involved in liquidation of companies, Statement of Affairs (including deficiency/surplus accounts) and liquidator’s statement of account of the winding up.

(d) Financial Statements of Banking, Insurance and Electricity Companies

5. Accounting for Special Transactions

Departmental and branch accounts including foreign branches


If either old Accounting Standards (ASs), Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs are withdrawn or new ASs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs are issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in place of existing ASs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs, the syllabus will accordingly include/exclude such new developments in place of the existing ones with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

Recommended Books


Group II – Auditing and Assurance

Paper 6 : Auding and Assurance


1. Auding Concepts – Nature and limitations of Auditing, Basic Principles governing an audit, Ethical principles and concept of Auditor’s Independence, Relationship of auditing with other disciplines.

2. Auditing and Assurance Standards – Overview, Standard-setting process, Role of International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board and Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in India.

3. Auditing engagement – Audit planning, Audit programme, Control of quality of audit work–Delegation and supervision of audit work.

4. Documentation – Audit working papers, Audit files: Permanent and current audit files, Ownership and custody of working papers.

5. Audit evidence – Audit procedures for obtaining evidence, Sources of evidence, Reliability of audit evidence, Methods of obtaining audit evidence, Physical verification, Documentation, Direct confirmation, Re-computation, Analytical review techniques, Representation by management.

6. Internal Control – Elements of internal control, Review and documentation, Evaluation of internal control system, Internal control questionnaire, Internal control check list, Tests of control, Application of concept of materiality and audit risk, Concept of internal audit.

7. Internal Control and Computerized Environment, Approaches to Auditing in Computerised Environment.

8. Audit Sampling – Types of sampling, Test checking, Techniques of test checks.

9. Analytical review procedures.

10. Audit of payments – General considerations, Wages, Capital expenditure, Other payments and expenses, Petty cash payments, Bank payments, Bank reconciliation.

11. Audit of receipts – General considerations, Cash sales, Receipts from debtors, Other Receipts.

12. Audit of Purchases – Vouching cash and credit purchases, Forward purchases, Purchase returns, Allowance received from suppliers.

13. Audit of Sales – Vouching of cash and credit sales, Goods on consignment, Sale on approval basis, Sale under hire-purchase agreement, Returnable containers, Various types of allowances given to customers, Sale returns.

14. Audit of suppliers’ ledger and the debtors’ ledger – Self-balancing and the sectional balancing system, Total or control accounts, Confirmatory statements from credit customers and suppliers, Provision for bad and doubtful debts, Writing off of bad debts.

15. Audit of impersonal ledger – Capital expenditure, deferred revenue expenditure and revenue expenditure, Outstanding expenses and income, Repairs and renewals, Distinction between reserves and provisions, Implications of change in the basis of accounting.

16. Audit of assets and liabilities.

17. Company Audit – Audit of Shares, Qualifications and Disqualifications of Auditors, Appointment of auditors, Removal of auditors, Powers and duties of auditors, Branch audit, Joint audit, Special audit, Reporting requirements under the Companies Act, 1956.

18. Audit Report – Qualifications, Disclaimers, Adverse opinion, Disclosures, Reports and certificates.

19. Special points in audit of different types of undertakings, i.e., Educational institutions, Hotels, Clubs, Hospitals, Hire-purchase and leasing companies (excluding banks, electricity companies, cooperative societies, and insurance companies).

20. Features and basic principles of government audit, Local bodies and not-for-profit organizations, Comptroller and Auditor General and its constitutional role.

Note: Candidates are expected to have working knowledge of relevant Auditing and Assurance Standards issued by the ICAI with reference to above-mentioned topics.

Recommended Books


Group II


Section A: Information Technology ( 50 Marks)


1. Introduction to Computers

(a) Computer hardware

Classification of computers – personal computer, workstation, servers and super computers

Computer components – CPU, input output devices, storage devices

(b) BUS, I/O CO processors, ports (serial, parallel, USB ports), expansion slots, add on cards, on board chips, LAN cards, multi media cards, cache memory, buffers, controllers and drivers

(c) Computer software

Systems software – operating system, translators (compilers, interpreters and assemblers), system utilities

General purpose software/ utilities – word processor, spread sheet, DBMS, scheduler / planner, internet browser and e-mail clients

Application software – financial accounting, payroll, inventory

Specialised systems – Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), artificial intelligence, expert systems, decision support systems – an overview

2. Data Storage, Retrievals and Data Base Management Systems

(a) Data and information concepts: bits, bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB

(b) Data organization and access

Storage concepts : records, fields, grouped fields, special fields like date, integers, real, floating, fixed, double precision, logical, characters, strings, variable character fields (Memo); key, primary key, foreign key, secondary key, referential integrity, index fields.

Storage techniques: sequential, block sequential, random, indexed, sequential access, direct access, random access including randomizing

Logical structure and physical structure of files

(c) DBMS models and classification:

Need for database, administration, models, DML and DDL (query and reporting); data dictionaries, distributed data bases, object oriented databases, client server databases, knowledge databases

(d) Backup and recovery – backup policy, backup schedules, offsite backups, recycling of backups, frequent checking of recovery of backup

(e) Usage of system software like program library management systems and tape and disk management systems – features, functionalities, advantages

(f) Data mining and data warehousing – an overview

3. Computer Networks & Network Security

(a) Networking concepts – need and scope, benefits

Classification: LAN, MAN, WAN, VPN; peer-to-peer, client server

Components – NIC, router, switch, hub, repeater, bridge, gateway, modem

Network topologies – bus, star, ring, mesh, hybrid, architecture : token ring, ethernet

transmission technologies and protocols – OSI, TCP/IP, ISDN etc.

Network operating system

(b) Local Area Networks – components of a LAN, advantages of LAN

(c) Client server technology

Limitation of single user systems and need for client server technology

Servers – database, application, print servers, transaction servers, internet servers, mail servers, chat servers, IDS

Introduction to 3-tier and “n” tier architecture (COM, COM+)

(d) Data centres: features and functions, primary delivery centre and disaster recovery site

(e) Network security need; threats and vulnerabilities; security levels; techniques

4. Internet and other technologies

(a) Internet and world-wide web, intranets, extranets, applications of internet, internet protocols

(b) E-commerce – nature, types (B2B, B2C, C2C), supply chain management, CRM, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Electronic Fund Transfers (EFT), payment portal, e-commerce security;

(c) Mobile commerce, bluetooth and Wi-Fi

5. Flowcharts, Decision Tables.


Section B: Strategic Management (50 marks)


1. Business Environment

General environment – demographic, socio-cultural, macro-economic, legal/political, technological, and global; competitive environment.

2. Business Policy and Strategic Management

Meaning and nature; strategic management imperative; vision, mission and objectives; strategic levels in organisations.

3. Strategic Analyses

Situational analysis – SWOT analysis, TOWS matrix, portfolio analysis – BCG matrix.

4. Strategic Planning

Meaning, stages, alternatives, strategy formulation.

5. Formulation of Functional Strategy

Marketing strategy, financial strategy, production strategy, logistics strategy, human resource strategy.

6. Strategy Implementation and Control

Organisational structures; establishing strategic business units; establishing profit centers by business, product or service, market segment or customer; leadership and behavioural challenges.

7. Reaching Strategic Edge

Business process re-engineering, benchmarking, total quality management, six sigma, contemporary strategic issues.



CA Final Syllabus




Paper 1: Advanced Accounting 

Accounting Standards and Guidance Notes on various accounting aspects issued by the ICAI and advanced problems based thereon

Corporate financial reporting – issues and problems with special reference to published financial statements

Consolidated accounts of holding and group companies

Accounting for amalgamation: Purchase and pooling of interests methods of accounting

Accounting aspects of corporate restructuring

Financial reporting in respect of various kinds of financial institutions like mutual funds, non-banking finance companies, merchant bankers, stock brokers

Fund-based accounting (for non-profit organisation)

Developments in accounting :

Interim reporting

Segment reporting.

Value-added statement

Economic value – added statement

Corporate social reporting.

Human resource accounting.

Accounting for Intangible Assets

Accounting for Financial Instruments.

Environmental accounting

Valuation of goodwill and shares

Comparative study of basic concepts of international accounting standards, US GAAP and standards in India.

Paper 2: Management Accounting and Financial Analysis

1. Project planning and capital budgeting: preparation of project report; financial projections; sensiti­vity analysis in capital budgeting; Impact of inflation on capital budgeting decisions, capital rationing, risk analysis in capital budgeting and evaluation of risky investments; social cost-benefit analysis; simulation and decision tree analysis.

2 (a) Types of financing: project financing; intermediate and long-term financing; negotiating term loans with banks and financial institutions; appraisal of term loans by financial institutions in India, lease financing.

(b) Special problems relating to Financing and Management of small and medium enterprises.

3. (a) Introduction to capital market in India includ­ing depositories.

(b) Introduction to capital market instruments including options (Option Pricing Theory), futures, and derivatives; risk-return relationship, capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

4. Financial services in India including merchant banking, portfolio management; credit rating agencies, consumer finance.

5. Mutual funds: operations and regulations.

6 (a) Business valuations

(b) Mergers, Acquisitions and corporate restructuring

7. Foreign collaborations and joint ventures.

8. Introduction to international financial manage­ment including raising of capital abroad (ADRs, GDRs, ECB.).

9. Foreign exchange exposure and risk management; foreign exchange markets and dealings therein.

10. Money markets and their operations.

11. Special Features of Financial Management in Public Sector Undertakings

12. Dividend decisions: dividend policy; its determinants.

Paper 3: Advanced Auditing

Contents :

1. Audit strategy, planning and programming

Planning the flow of audit work; drafting of reports; audit strategy, planning, programme, and impor­tance of supervision; review of audit notes and working papers; principal’s ultimate responsibility; extent of del­egation; control over the quality of audit work; reliance on the work of other auditor, internal auditor or an expert.

2. Internal control

Evaluation of internal control procedures; tech­niques including questionnaire, flowchart; internal audit and external audit, coordination between the two.

3. Special audit techniques

(a) Selective verification; statistical sampling.

(b) Special audit procedures; witnessing physical verification of assets, direct circularisation of debtors and creditors.

(c) Analytical review procedures.

(d) Improving the efficiency of auditing, systems auditing, risk-based auditing.

4. Statements/Standards and Guidance Notes

Generally accepted accounting practices and auditing procedures. Statements on Standard Auditing Practices and Guidance Notes.

5. Audit of limited companies: Statutory requirements under the Companies Act 1956; Audit of branches; joint audits. Concepts of true and fair and materiality and audit risk in the context of audit of companies.

6. Audit reports; qualifications, notes on accounts, distinction between notes and qualifications, detailed observations by the statutory auditor to the management vis-a-vis obligations of reporting to the members; Special reports on offer documents.

7. Dividends and divisible profits; financial, legal, and policy considerations with special reference to depreciation. 8. Special points in audit of public sector companies. Directions of Comptroller and Auditor General under Section 619; Concepts of propriety and efficiency audit.

9. Rights, duties, and liabilities of auditors; Third party liability – nature and extent.

10. Audit Committees and Corporate Governance.

11. Investigation including Due Diligence.

12. Cost audit, Environmental Audit, Energy Audit.

13. Audit of public expenditure.

14. Certificates under the Payment of Bonus Act, import/export control authorities, etc.; Distinction between certificates and reports; specific services to non-audit clients.

15. Audit under different statutes, viz; income tax, other direct tax laws and indirect taxes.

16. Special features of audit of banks, insurance companies, co-operative societies and non-banking financial companies.

17. Special audit assignments like audit of bank borrowers, audit of stock exchange brokers and depositories; Inspection of special entities like banks, financial institutions, mutual funds, stock brokers.

18. Professional Liability of Auditors: Code of Ethics with special reference to the relevant provisions of The Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 and the Regulations thereunder.

19. Internal audit, management and operational audit: nature and purpose, organisation, audit programme; behavioural problems; Specific areas of management and operational audit involving review of internal control, purchasing operations, manufacturing operations, selling and distri­bution, personnel policies, systems and procedures. Aspects relating to concurrent audit.

20. Audit under computerised environment: Computer auditing; specific problems of EDP audit, need for review of internal control especially pro­cedure controls and facility controls; techniques of audit of EDP output; use of computers for internal and man­agement audit purposes; test packs, computerised audit programmes; involvement of the auditor at the time of setting up the computer system.

Paper 4: Corporate Laws and Secretarial Practice

1. The Companies Act, 1956 (Section 209 onwards till end).

2. The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.

3. The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969

4. The Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985

5. The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956.

6. The Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, and Guidelines issued thereunder.

7. Application of Secretarial Procedures and Practices.

8. Rules of interpretation of Statutes, Deeds, and Documents.

Final New Scheme of Education and Training


Paper 5 : Cost Management

Cost concepts in decision-making; Relevant cost, Differential cost, Incremental cost and Opportunity cost.

Objectives of a Costing System; Inventory valuation; Creation of a Database for operational control; Provision of data for Decision-Making.

Marginal Costing; Distinction between Marginal Costing and Absorption Costing; Break-even Analysis, Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis. Various decision-making problems.

Standard Costing and Variance Analysis.

Pricing strategies: Pareto Analysis

Target costing, Life Cycle Costing

Costing of service sector.

Just-in-time approach, Material Requirement Planning, Enterprise Resource Planning, Total Quality Management and Theory of constraints.

Activity-Based Cost Management, Bench Marking; Balanced Score Card and Value-Chain Analysis.

Budgetary Control; Flexible Budgets; Performance budgets; Zero-based budgets.

Measurement of Divisional profitability pricing decisions including transfer pricing.

Quantitative techniques for cost management, Linear Programming, PERT/CPM, Transportation problems, Assignment problems, Simulation, Learning Curve Theory.

Paper 6: Management Information and Control Systems


Transaction processing Systems, Shared processing, Client server and server centric systems.


Management Information Systems (MIS), Executive Information Systems (EIS) and Decision support systems.


System development life cycle.


Systems analysis and design: Tools & Techniques, detailed design specifications and documentation; system testing; control over development processes.

Implementation of systems: systems installation, system training, system conversion; post-implementation review.


System Evaluation – Hardware and Software.


System Maintenance – Hardware and Software including viruses.


Computerised systems in Business Applications- financial accounting, management accounting and inventory control. Use of specialised softwares.


Tools: Use of Simple CASE Tools, Analysis of Financial Statements using Digital Technology.


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Packages.


Controls applicable to IT development, system maintenance and changeover.


Information security: Importance and principles of information security, best approaches to implementing information security.


Detection of computer frauds.


Case Studies.


Audit of Information systems


Cyber Laws.

Paper 7 : Direct Taxes

The Income Tax Act, 1961

The Wealth Tax Act, 1957

Paper 8 : Indirect Taxes

I. Central Excise Act, 1944 and the related Rules, Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985

Nature of excise duty, legislative history, coverage; levy and collection of excise duties under the Central Excise Act, 1944; legal effects of Notifications, Tariff Advises, Trade Notices

Provisions governing manufacture and removal of excisable goods

Valuation under the Central Excise Act, 1944, Central Excise Valuation (Determination of Price of Excisable Goods) Rules, 2000.

Classification of goods under Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985, with reference to Rules of Interpretation

Assessment including provisional assessment, self-removal procedure, payment of duty, and rate of duty. Record-based control and production-based control.

Demands and Refunds

Registration procedures.

Procedure relating to storage of excisable goods, time and manner of payment of duty and other matters relating to removal of goods.

Maintenance of records, registers, and filing of returns.

Remission of duty on goods used for special industrial purposes.

Procedure for exports, duty draw back.

Provisions relating to CENVAT.

Departmental organisational set-up; adjudication and appellate procedures-Customs, Excise and Gold (Control) Appellate Tribunal, Settlement Commission, Advance Rulings.

Offences and penalties.

Exemptions for small scale industries.

II. Customs Act, 1962, and Customs Tariff Act, 1975

Principles governing levy of customs duty, types of duty including protective duty, safeguard duty, countervailing duty and anti-dumping duty and exemption from customs duties.

Basic principles of classification of goods and valuation of goods.

Customs authorities, appointment of customs ports, warehousing stations.

Provisions governing conveyance, importation and exportation of goods, special provisions regarding baggage, goods imported or exported by post, and stores.

Detailed procedure in relation to transportation and warehousing.

Drawback of customs duties paid.

Prohibition, search and seizure, adjudication, Appellate remedies including Settlement Commission and Advance Rulings, prosecution in court of law and allied miscellaneous matters

III. Service Tax

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