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# BITSAT Syllabus

The BITSAT exam is based on NCERT books for 11th and 12th Standard. Registered candidates can also take up the sample BITSAT test at the BITS website, as many times as possible.

Physics

Part I

Units & Measurement

• Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier calipers, Physical Balance, Screw Gauge and more
• Dimensional Analysis
• Precision and Significant Figures
• Units (Various Systems of Units, SI Units, Fundamental and Derived Units)

Gravitation

• Newton’s Law of Gravitation
• Gravitational Potential Energy, Escape Velocity
• Motion of Planets – Kepler’s Laws, Satellite Motion

Impulse & Momentum

• Center of Mass
• Conservation of Momentum
• Collisions
• Definition of impulse and momentum
• Momentum of a system of particles

Kinematics

• Motion with Constant Acceleration
• Properties of Vectors
• Position, Velocity and Acceleration Vectors
• Projectile Motion
• Uniform Circular Motion

Oscillations

• Kinematics of simple harmonic motion
• Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum
• Forced & damped oscillations, resonance

Newton’s Laws of Motion

• Circular motion – centripetal force
• Inertial and non-inertial frames
• Motion on an inclined plane
• Motion of blocks with pulley systems
• Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)
• Newton’s Laws of Motion

Work and Energy

• Conservative forces and potential energy
• Conservation of mechanical energy
• Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem
• Power
• Work done by a force

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids

• Bernoulli’s theorem
• Elasticity
• Pressure, density and Archimedes’ principle
• Viscosity and Surface Tension

Heat & Thermodynamics

• Kinetic theory of gases
• Thermal equilibrium and temperature
• Specific heat, Heat Transfer – Conduction, convection and radiation,  thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling
• Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics
• 2nd  law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance

Waves

• Doppler Effect
• Progressive sinusoidal waves
• Standing waves in strings and pipes
• Superposition of waves, beats

Rotational Motion

• Conservation of angular momentum
• Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)
• Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy
• Rolling motion
• Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration
• Torque and angular momentum

Electrostatics

• Coulomb’s law
• Electric field  (discrete and continuous charge distributions)
• Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy
• Gauss’ law and its applications
• Electric dipole
• Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel)

Current Electricity

• D.C Circuits – Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws,  potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge
• Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity)
• Ohm’s law, Joule heating

Modern Physics

• Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model
• Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength
• Hydrogen atom spectrum
• Radioactivity
• Nuclear reactions: Binding Energy, Fission & Fusion

Magnetic Effect of Current

• Ampere’s law and its applications
• Biot-Savart’s law and its applications
• Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field

Electromagnetic Induction

• AC circuits, LCR circuits
• Alternating current
• Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, eddy currents
• Self and mutual inductance
• Transformers and generators

Optics

• Diffraction Due to a Single Slit
• Electromagnetic Waves, Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Interference – Huygen’s Principle, Young’s double slit experiment
• Interference in Thin Films
• Laws of Reflection and Refraction
• Lenses and Mirrors
• Optical Instruments – Telescope & Microscope
• Polarization – States of Polarization, Brewster’s Law

Part II – Chemistry

States of Matter

• Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures
• Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points
• Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, ideal gas equation, empirical derivation of gas equation,
• Avogadro number, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
• Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
• Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, Imperfections – Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals
• Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semi-conductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semi-conductors.

Atomic Structure

• Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s picture of atom and its limitations; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model and its limitations.
• Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wave functions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
• Many electron atoms: Pauli Exclusion Principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
• Periodicity: Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic, and ionic radii, inter gas radii, electron affinity, electronegativity and valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
• ·

Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure

• Valence electrons, Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters
• Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
• Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory-Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species (qualitative idea only).
• Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.
• Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

Thermodynamics

• Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
• First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities and specific heats, Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain;
• Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law, Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, solution and dilution
• Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-spontaneity, non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium
• Third Law: Introduction

Physical and Chemical Equilibria

• Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
• Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of XV molecular mass; solid solutions, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor. Equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action
• Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
• Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Factors affecting equilibrium, Le-Chatelier’s principle.
• Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; degree of ionization, Ionization of Water; ionization of polybasic acids, pH; Buffer solutions; Henderson equation, Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
• Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ?G and ?G0 in Chemical Equilibria.

Electrochemistry

• Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; dry cells, Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
• Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; variations of conductivity with concentration , Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2 & F2.

Chemical Kinetics

• Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
• Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment); Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
• Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.
• Surface Chemistry
• Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multi molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis and coagulations

Hydrogen and s-block elements

• Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel
• s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii)
• Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
• Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with O2, H2O, H2 and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement

p- d- and f-block elements

• General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group
• Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
• Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses
• Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Properties and Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine
• Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Preparation/production properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids (structures only), hydrides and halides of sulphur
• Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of halogens (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Uses of Group 18 elements, Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids
• d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; ionization enthalpy; Ionic radii; Color; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver

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