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The BITSAT exam is based on **NCERT books** for **11 ^{th} **and

**Physics**

**Part I**

**Units & Measurement**

- Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier calipers, Physical Balance, Screw Gauge and more
- Dimensional Analysis
- Precision and Significant Figures
- Units (Various Systems of Units, SI Units, Fundamental and Derived Units)

**Gravitation**

- Newton’s Law of Gravitation
- Gravitational Potential Energy, Escape Velocity
- Motion of Planets – Kepler’s Laws, Satellite Motion

**Impulse & Momentum**

- Center of Mass
- Conservation of Momentum
- Collisions
- Definition of impulse and momentum
- Momentum of a system of particles

**Kinematics**

- Motion with Constant Acceleration
- Properties of Vectors
- Position, Velocity and Acceleration Vectors
- Projectile Motion
- Uniform Circular Motion

**Oscillations**

- Kinematics of simple harmonic motion
- Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum
- Forced & damped oscillations, resonance

**Newton’****s Laws of Motion**

- Circular motion – centripetal force
- Inertial and non-inertial frames
- Motion on an inclined plane
- Motion of blocks with pulley systems
- Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)
- Newton’s Laws of Motion

**Work and Energy**

- Conservative forces and potential energy
- Conservation of mechanical energy
- Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem
- Power
- Work done by a force

**Mechanics of Solids and Fluids**

- Bernoulli’s theorem
- Elasticity
- Pressure, density and Archimedes’ principle
- Viscosity and Surface Tension

**Heat & Thermodynamics**

- Kinetic theory of gases
- Thermal equilibrium and temperature
- Specific heat, Heat Transfer – Conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling
- Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics
- 2nd law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance

**Waves**

- Doppler Effect
- Progressive sinusoidal waves
- Standing waves in strings and pipes
- Superposition of waves, beats

**Rotational Motion**

- Conservation of angular momentum
- Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)
- Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy
- Rolling motion
- Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration
- Torque and angular momentum

**Electrostatics**

- Coulomb’s law
- Electric field (discrete and continuous charge distributions)
- Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy
- Gauss’ law and its applications
- Electric dipole
- Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel)

**Current Electricity**

- D.C Circuits – Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge
- Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity)
- Ohm’s law, Joule heating

**Modern Physics**

- Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model
- Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength
- Hydrogen atom spectrum
- Radioactivity
- Nuclear reactions: Binding Energy, Fission & Fusion

**Magnetic Effect of Current**

- Ampere’s law and its applications
- Biot-Savart’s law and its applications
- Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field

**Electromagnetic Induction**

- AC circuits, LCR circuits
- Alternating current
- Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, eddy currents
- Self and mutual inductance
- Transformers and generators

**Optics**

- Diffraction Due to a Single Slit
- Electromagnetic Waves, Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Interference – Huygen’s Principle, Young’s double slit experiment
- Interference in Thin Films
- Laws of Reflection and Refraction
- Lenses and Mirrors
- Optical Instruments – Telescope & Microscope
- Polarization – States of Polarization, Brewster’s Law

**Part II – Chemistry**

**States of Matter**

- Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures
- Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points
- Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, ideal gas equation, empirical derivation of gas equation,
- Avogadro number, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
- Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
- Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, Imperfections – Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals
- Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semi-conductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semi-conductors.

**Atomic Structure**

- Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s picture of atom and its limitations; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model and its limitations.
- Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wave functions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
- Many electron atoms: Pauli Exclusion Principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
- Periodicity: Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic, and ionic radii, inter gas radii, electron affinity, electronegativity and valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
- ·

**Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure**

- Valence electrons, Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters
- Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
- Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory-Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species (qualitative idea only).
- Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.
- Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

**Thermodynamics**

- Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities and specific heats, Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain;
- Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law, Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, solution and dilution
- Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-spontaneity, non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium
- Third Law: Introduction

**Physical and Chemical Equilibria**

- Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
- Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of XV molecular mass; solid solutions, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor. Equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action
- Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
- Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Factors affecting equilibrium, Le-Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; degree of ionization, Ionization of Water; ionization of polybasic acids, pH; Buffer solutions; Henderson equation, Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
- Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ?G and ?G0 in Chemical Equilibria.

**Electrochemistry**

- Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; dry cells, Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
- Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; variations of conductivity with concentration , Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2 & F2.

**Chemical Kinetics**

- Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
- Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment); Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
- Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.
- Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multi molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis and coagulations

**Hydrogen and s-block elements**

- Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel
- s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii)
- Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
- Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with O2, H2O, H2 and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement

**p- d- and f-block elements**

- General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group
- Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
- Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses
- Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Properties and Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine
- Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Preparation/production properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids (structures only), hydrides and halides of sulphur
- Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of halogens (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Uses of Group 18 elements, Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids
- d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; ionization enthalpy; Ionic radii; Color; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography
- f-Block elements: Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction and its consequences, Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
- Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds

**Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons**

- Classification: General Introduction, classification based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification: qualitative and quantitative,
- Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanions, nucleophiles and electrophiles; types of organic reactions, free radial halogenations.
- Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structural isomerism, general properties and chemical reactions, free redical helogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; properties; isomerism; resonance delocalization; aromaticity; polynuclear hydrocarbons; IUPAC nomenclature; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
- Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, nomenclature, optical rotation, chemical reactions and mechanism of substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.
- Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

**Stereochemistry**

- Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activity; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures
- Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
- Geometrical isomerism in alkenes
- Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen
- General: Nomenclature, electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical and chemical properties, uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides
- Specific: Reactivity of ?-hydrogen in carbonyl compounds, effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines, methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry

**Stereochemistry**

- Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activit y; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures.
- Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
- Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

**Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen**

- General: Nomenclature, electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical and chemical properties, uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides
- Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines, methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.

**Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry**

- Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3 and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3.
- Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate. Benzoic acid ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; Study of pH charges by common ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases; pH measurements of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6] 2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs.

hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.

- Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – Rf values
- Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation
- Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation
- Basic Laboratory Technique: Cutting glass tube and glass rod, bending a glass tube, drawing out a glass jet, boring of cork

**Part III: (a) English Proficiency and (b) Logical Reasoning**

**(a) English Proficiency **

This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’ knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.

*Grammar*

- Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns
- Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives
- Voice, Transformation
- Question tags, Phrasal verbs

*Vocabulary*

- Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling
- Contextual meaning
- Analogy

*Reading Comprehension*

- Content/ideas
- Vocabulary
- Referents
- Idioms/Phrases
- Reconstruction (rewording)

*Composition*

- Rearrangement
- Paragraph Unity
- Linkers/Connectives

(**b) Logical Reasoning**

The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and nonverbal areas. The candidates should be able to think logically so that they perceive the data accurately, understand the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and to apply rules to new and different contexts.

These indicators are measured through performance on such tasks as detecting missing links, following directions, classifying words, establishing sequences, and completing analogies.

**Verbal Reasoning**

*Analogy*

Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided.

*Classification*

Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out.

*Series Completion*

Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the series or find out the wrong part in the series.

*Logical Deduction – Reading Passage*

Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions.

**Chart Logic**

Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in accordance with the information given either in the chart/table or in the question.

*Nonverbal Reasoning*

**Pattern Perception**

Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is required to identify the correct quarter from the given four alternatives.

*Figure Formation and Analysis*

The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts.

*Paper Cutting*

It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut into a definite design.

*Figure Matrix*

In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing figure.

*Rule Detection*

Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures, a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series.

**Part IV: Mathematics**

*Algebra*

- Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, roots of complex numbers, geometric interpretations; Fundamental theorem of algebra.
- Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations.
- Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, arithmetico-geometric series, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers
- Logarithms and their properties
- Exponential series
- Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as selection, simple applications
- Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients, Pascal’s triangle
- Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices, Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables, elementary row and column operations of matrices,
- Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings, binary operation, inverse of function, functions of real variables like polynomial, modulus, signum and greatest integer.
- Mathematical Induction
- Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables.

*Trigonometry*

- Measurement of angles in radians and degrees, positive and negative angles, trigonometric ratios, functions and identities.
- Solution of trigonometric equations.
- Properties of triangles and solutions of triangles
- Inverse trigonometric functions
- Heights and distances

*Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry*

- Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.
- Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines.
- Circles and family of circles: Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent, normal & chords, parametric equations of a circle , intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal.
- Conic sections: parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci, parametric forms, equations of tangent & normal, conditions for y=mx+c to be a tangent and point of tangency

*Three dimensional Coordinate Geometry*

- Co-ordinate axes and co-ordinate planes, distance between two points, section formula, direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space and skew lines.
- Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, shortest distance between two lines.
- Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three lines, angles between two planes, angle between a line and a plane.

*Differential Calculus*

- Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, Differentiability.
- Derivative of different types of functions (polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, implicit functions), derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule.
- Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals.
- Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function.
- Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem.

*Integral calculus*

- Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions.
- Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, and integration by trigonometric identities.
- Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, applications in finding areas under simple curves.
- Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by simple curves.

*Ordinary Differential Equations*

- Order and degree of a differential equation, formulation of a differential equation whole general solution is given, variables separable method.
- Solution of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree
- Linear first order differential equations

*Probability*

- Various terminology in probability, axiomatic and other approaches of probability, addition and multiplication rules of probability.
- Conditional probability, total probability and Bay’s theorem
- Independent events
- Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance

*Vectors*

- Direction ratio/cosines of vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.
- Dot and cross products of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line.
- Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

*Statistics*

- Measures of dispersion
- Measures of skewness and Central Tendency, Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances
- Linear Programming
- Various terminology and formulation of linear Programming
- Solution of linear Programming using graphical method, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints)

**Part IV: Biology**

*Diversity in Living World*

- Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
- What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids; Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
- Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system);
- Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
- Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.

**Cell: The Unit of Life; Structure and Function**

- Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
- Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
- Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
- Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
- Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
- ·

*Structure and Function – Plants*

- Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants; Anatomy and function of root, stem (including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;
- Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
- Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
- Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors.
- Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.

**Structure and Function – Animals**

- Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases.
- Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
- Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
- Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
- Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action

*Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants*

- Asexual methods of reproduction;
- Sexual Reproduction – Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and elminth).
- Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement;
- Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism; Vernalisation;
- Various types of movements.

*Reproduction and Development in Humans*

- Male and female reproductive systems;
- Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation;
- Embryo development;
- Pregnancy and parturition;
- Birth control and contraception.

**Ecology and Environment**

- Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
- Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax. Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;
- Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
- Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
- Biodiversity and Environmental Issues – Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries), Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots)

**Biology and Human Welfare**

- Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and elminthes, and their control.
- Cancer; AIDS.
- Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
- Basic concepts of immunology.
- Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

*Biotechnology and its Applications*

- Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
- Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
- Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, NA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants
- Applications of R-DNA technology in human health – Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy.
- Applications in Industry and Agriculture – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses, GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including BT crops.The BITSAT exam is based on NCERT syllabus for 11
^{th}and 12^{th}Standard. Registered candidates can also take up the sample BITSAT test at the BITS website, as many times as possible.

Physics**Part I****Units & Measurement** - Dimensional Analysis
- Precision and Significant Figures
- Units (Various Systems of Units, SI Units, Fundamental and Derived Units)
**Gravitation**- Newton’s Law of Gravitation
- Gravitational Potential Energy, Escape Velocity
- Motion of Planets – Kepler’s Laws, Satellite Motion

**Impulse & Momentum**- Center of Mass
- Conservation of Momentum
- Collisions
- Definition of impulse and momentum
- Momentum of a system of particles

**Kinematics**- Motion with Constant Acceleration
- Properties of Vectors
- Position, Velocity and Acceleration Vectors
- Projectile Motion
- Uniform Circular Motion

**Oscillations**- Kinematics of simple harmonic motion
- Spring mass system, simple and compound pendulum
- Forced & damped oscillations, resonance

**Newton****’****s Laws of Motion**- Circular motion – centripetal force
- Inertial and non-inertial frames
- Motion on an inclined plane
- Motion of blocks with pulley systems
- Newton’s laws (free body diagram, resolution of forces)
- Newton’s Laws of Motion

**Work and Energy**- Conservative forces and potential energy
- Conservation of mechanical energy
- Kinetic energy and work-energy theorem
- Power
- Work done by a force

**Mechanics of Solids and Fluids**- Bernoulli’s theorem
- Elasticity
- Pressure, density and Archimedes’ principle
- Viscosity and Surface Tension

**Heat & Thermodynamics**- Kinetic theory of gases
- Thermal equilibrium and temperature
- Specific heat, Heat Transfer – Conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling
- Work, heat and first law of thermodynamics
- 2nd law of thermodynamics, Carnot engine – Efficiency and Coefficient of performance

**Waves**- Doppler Effect
- Progressive sinusoidal waves
- Standing waves in strings and pipes
- Superposition of waves, beats

**Rotational Motion**- Conservation of angular momentum
- Description of rotation (angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration)
- Moment of inertia, Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, rotational kinetic energy
- Rolling motion
- Rotational motion with constant angular acceleration
- Torque and angular momentum

**Electrostatics**- Coulomb’s law
- Electric field (discrete and continuous charge distributions)
- Electrostatic potential and Electrostatic potential energy
- Gauss’ law and its applications
- Electric dipole
- Capacitance and dielectrics (parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel)

**Current Electricity**- D.C Circuits – Resistors and cells in series and parallel, Kirchoff’s laws, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge
- Electrical Resistance (Resistivity, origin and temperature dependence of resistivity).
- Ohm’s law, Joule heating

**Modern Physics**- Atomic models – Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s atomic model
- Dual nature of light and matter – Photoelectric effect, De Broglie wavelength
- Hydrogen atom spectrum
- Radioactivity
- Nuclear reactions : Binding Energy, Fission & Fusion

**Magnetic Effect of Current**- Ampere’s law and its applications
- Biot-Savart’s law and its applications
- Lorentz force, force on current carrying conductors in a magnetic field

**Electromagnetic Induction**- AC circuits, LCR circuits
- Alternating current
- Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, eddy currents
- Self and mutual inductance
- Transformers and generators

**Optics**- Diffraction Due to a Single Slit
- Electromagnetic Waves, Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Interference – Huygen’s Principle, Young’s double slit experiment
- Interference in Thin Films
- Laws of Reflection and Refraction
- Lenses and Mirrors
- Optical Instruments – Telescope & Microscope
- Polarization – States of Polarization, Brewster’s Law

**Part II – Chemistry****States of Matter**- Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures
- Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points
- Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, ideal gas equation, empirical derivation of gas equation,
- Avogadro number, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
- Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
- Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals;
- Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids -qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors.

**Atomic Structure**- Introduction: Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s picture of atom and its limitations; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model and its limitations.
- Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wave functions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
- Many electron atoms: Pauli Exclusion Principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
- Periodicity: Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic, and ionic radii, inter gas radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

**Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure**- Valence electrons, Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters
- Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
- Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species (qualitative idea only).
- Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.
- Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

**Thermodynamics**- Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities and specific heats, measurements of ?U and ?H, Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain;
- Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law, Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, solution and dilution
- Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-spontaneity, non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium
- Third Law: Introduction

**Physical and Chemical Equilibria**- Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
- Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of XV molecular mass; solid solutions, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor. Equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action
- Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
- Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Factors affecting equilibrium, Le-Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; degree of ionization, Ionization of Water; ionization of polybasic acids, pH; Buffer solutions; Henderson equation, Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
- Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ?G and ?G0 in Chemical Equilibria.

**Electrochemistry**- Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; dry cells, Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
- Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; variations of conductivity with concentration , Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2 & F2.

**Chemical Kinetics**- Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
- Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment); Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
- Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.
- Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multi molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis and coagulations

**Hydrogen and s-block elements**- Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel
- s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii)
- Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
- Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with O2, H2O, H2 and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement

**p- d- and f-block elements**- General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group
- Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
- Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses
- Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Properties and Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine
- Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Preparation/production properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids (structures only), hydrides and halides of sulphur
- Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of halogens (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Uses of Group 18 elements, Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids
- d-Block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; ionization enthalpy; Ionic radii; Color; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography
- f-Block elements: Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction and its consequences, Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
- Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds

**Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons**- Classification: General Introduction, classification based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification: qualitative and quantitative,
- Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanions, nucleophiles and electrophiles; types of organic reactions, free radial halogenations.
- Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structural isomerism, general properties and chemical reactions, free redical helogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and (1,2 and 1,4) addition to dienes.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; properties; isomerism; resonance delocalization; aromaticity; polynuclear hydrocarbons; IUPAC nomenclature; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
- Haloalkanes and haloarenes: Physical properties, nomenclature, optical rotation, chemical reactions and mechanism of substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.
- Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.

**Stereochemistry**- Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activity; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures
- Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
- Geometrical isomerism in alkenes
- Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen
- General: Nomenclature, electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical and chemical properties, uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides
- Specific: Reactivity of ?-hydrogen in carbonyl compounds, effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines, methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry

**Stereochemistry**- Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activit y; polarimetry; R,S and D,L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates; diastereomerism and meso structures.
- Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
- Geometrical isomerism in alkenes

**Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen**- General: Nomenclature, electronic structure, important methods of preparation, identification, important reactions, physical and chemical properties, uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compounds, amines, diazonium salts, cyanides and isocyanides.
- Specific: Effect of substituents on alpha-carbon on acid strength, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives, mechanism of nucleophilic addition and dehydration, basic character of amines, methods of preparation, and their separation, importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry.

**Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry**- Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; Acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, Na2SO3, Na2S2O3 and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic, basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid, ferrous ammonium sulphate with KMnO4, K2 Cr2O7/Na2S2O3, Cu(II)/Na2S2O3.
- Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum, copper sulphate. Benzoic acid ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs. solubility; Study of pH charges by common ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases; pH measurements of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator; Lyophilic and lyophobic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification. Equilibrium studies involving ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) [Co(H2O)6] 2+ and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for strong acid vs. strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding interaction between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i) sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, (ii) potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii) iodide vs.

hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.

- Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation – Rf values
- Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens; Detection of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in foodstuff; Detection of alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic, amino groups and unsaturation
- Basic Laboratory Technique: Cutting glass tube and glass rod, bending a glass tube, drawing out a glass jet, boring of cork

**Part III: (a) English Proficiency and (b) Logical Reasoning****(a) English Proficiency**This test is designed to assess the test takers’ general proficiency in the use of English language as a means of self-expression in real life situations and specifically to test the test takers’ knowledge of basic grammar, their vocabulary, their ability to read fast and comprehend, and also their ability to apply the elements of effective writing.

*Grammar*- Agreement, Time and Tense, Parallel construction, Relative pronouns
- Determiners, Prepositions, Modals, Adjectives
- Voice, Transformation
- Question tags, Phrasal verbs

*Vocabulary*- Synonyms, Antonyms, Odd Word, One Word, Jumbled letters, Homophones, Spelling
- Contextual meaning.
- Analogy

*Reading Comprehension*- Content/ideas
- Vocabulary
- Referents
- Idioms/Phrases
- Reconstruction (rewording)

*Composition*- Rearrangement
- Paragraph Unity
- Linkers/Connectives
- ·

(

**b) Logical Reasoning**The test is given to the candidates to judge their power of reasoning spread in verbal and nonverbal areas. The candidates should be able to think logically so that they perceive the data accurately, understand the relationships correctly, figure out the missing numbers or words, and to apply rules to new and different contexts.

These indicators are measured through performance on such tasks as detecting missing links, following directions, classifying words, establishing sequences, and completing analogies.

**Verbal Reasoning***Analogy*Analogy means correspondence. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided.

*Classification*Classification means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality they possess and then spot the odd option out.

*Series Completion*Here series of numbers or letters are given and one is asked to either complete the series or find out the wrong part in the series.

*Logical Deduction – Reading Passage*Here a brief passage is given and based on the passage the candidate is required to identify the correct or incorrect logical conclusions.

**Chart Logic**Here a chart or a table is given that is partially filled in and asks to complete it in accordance with the information given either in the chart / table or in the question.

*Nonverbal Reasoning***Pattern Perception**Here a certain pattern is given and generally a quarter is left blank. The candidate is required to identify the correct quarter from the given four alternatives.

*Figure Formation and Analysis*The candidate is required to analyze and form a figure from various given parts.

*Paper Cutting*It involves the analysis of a pattern that is formed when a folded piece of paper is cut into a definite design.

*Figure Matrix*In this more than one set of figures is given in the form of a matrix, all of them following the same rule. The candidate is required to follow the rule and identify the missing figure.

*Rule Detection*Here a particular rule is given and it is required to select from the given sets of figures, a set of figures, which obeys the rule and forms the correct series.

**Part IV: Mathematics***Algebra*- Complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, roots of complex numbers, geometric interpretations; Fundamental theorem of algebra.
- Theory of Quadratic equations, quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions, relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations.
- Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, arithmetico-geometric series, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers
- Logarithms and their properties.
- Exponential series.
- Permutations and combinations, Permutations as an arrangement and combination as selection, simple applications.
- Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients, Pascal’s triangle
- Matrices and determinants of order two or three, properties and evaluation of determinants, addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrices, Solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables, elementary row and column operations of matrices,
- Sets, Relations and Functions, algebra of sets applications, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings, binary operation, inverse of function, functions of real variables like polynomial, modulus, signum and greatest integer.
- Mathematical Induction
- Linear Inequalities, solution of linear inequalities in one and two variables.
- ·

*Trigonometry*- Measurement of angles in radians and degrees, positive and negative angles, trigonometric ratios, functions and identities.
- Solution of trigonometric equations.
- Properties of triangles and solutions of triangles
- Inverse trigonometric functions
- Heights and distances

*Two-dimensional Coordinate Geometry*- Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin.
- Straight lines and pair of straight lines: Equation of straight lines in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line, lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrent lines.
- Circles and family of circles : Equation of circle in various form, equation of tangent, normal & chords, parametric equations of a circle , intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of circle through point of intersection of two circles, conditions for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal.
- Conic sections : parabola, ellipse and hyperbola their eccentricity, directrices & foci, parametric forms, equations of tangent & normal, conditions for y=mx+c to be a tangent and point of tangency

*Three dimensional Coordinate Geometry*- Co-ordinate axes and co-ordinate planes, distance between two points, section formula, direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space and skew lines.
- Angle between two lines whose direction ratios are given, shortest distance between two lines.
- Equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane, condition for coplanarity of three lines, angles between two planes, angle between a line and a plane.

*Differential calculus*- Domain and range of a real valued function, Limits and Continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, Differentiability.
- Derivative of different types of functions (polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, implicit functions), derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule.
- Geometric interpretation of derivative, Tangents and Normals.
- Increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of a function.
- Rolle’s Theorem, Mean Value Theorem and Intermediate Value Theorem.

*Integral calculus*- Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions.
- Methods of integration: Integration by substitution, Integration by parts, integration by partial fractions, and integration by trigonometric identities.
- Definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, applications in finding areas under simple curves.
- Application of definite integrals to the determination of areas of regions bounded by simple curves.

*Ordinary Differential Equations*- Order and degree of a differential equation, formulation of a differential equation whole general solution is given, variables separable method.
- Solution of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree
- Linear first order differential equations

*Probability*- Various terminology in probability, axiomatic and other approaches of probability, addition and multiplication rules of probability.
- Conditional probability, total probability and Baye’s theorem
- Independent events
- Discrete random variables and distributions with mean and variance.
- ·

*Vectors*- Direction ratio/cosines of vectors, addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.
- Dot and cross products of two vectors, projection of a vector on a line.
- Scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

*Statistics*- Measures of dispersion
- Measures of skewness and Central Tendency, Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances
- Linear Programming
- Various terminology and formulation of linear Programming
- Solution of linear Programming using graphical method, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints

**Part IV: Biology***Diversity in Living World*- Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
- What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids; Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
- Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system);
- Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
- Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.

**Cell: The Unit of Life; Structure and Function**- Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
- Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
- Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
- Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
- Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
- ·

*Structure and Function – Plants*- Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants; Anatomy and function of root, stem (including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;
- Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
- Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
- Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors.
- Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.

**Structure and Function – Animals**- Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases.
- Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
- Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
- Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
- Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action

*Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants*- Asexual methods of reproduction;
- Sexual Reproduction – Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and elminth).
- Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement;
- Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo-periodism; Vernalisation;
- Various types of movements.

*Reproduction and Development in Humans*- Male and female reproductive systems;
- Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation;
- Embryo development;
- Pregnancy and parturition;
- Birth control and contraception.

**Ecology and Environment**- Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
- Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax. Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;
- Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
- Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
- Biodiversity and Environmental Issues – Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries), Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots)

**Biology and Human Welfare**- Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and elminthes, and their control.
- Cancer; AIDS.
- Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
- Basic concepts of immunology.
- Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

*Biotechnology and its Applications*- Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
- Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
- Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, NA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants
- Applications of R-DNA technology in human health -Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy.
- Applications in Industry and Agriculture – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses, GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including BT crops.

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