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English Grammar-Tenses with their Active and Passive voices - Easy to learn.

Saiteja Pamu
12/01/2019 0 0

TENSES

 

PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

FUTURE TENSE

SIMPLE

Sub+v1+Obj

Ex: She writes a letter

Sub+v2+Obj

Ex: She wrote a letter

Sub+Shall/Will+v1+Obj

Ex: She will write a letter

CONTINUOUS

Sub+am/is/are+Conti+Obj

Ex: She is writing a letter

Sub+was/were+Conti+Obj

Ex: She was writing a letter

Sub+Shall/Will+be+Conti

+Obj

Ex: She will be writing a letter

PERFECT

Sub+has/have+v3+Obj

Ex: She has written a letter

Sub+had+v3+Obj

Ex: She had written a letter

Sub+shall/will+has/have+v3+Obj

Ex: She will have written a letter

PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Sub+has/have+been+

Conti+Obj

Ex: She has been writing a letter

Sub+had+been+Conti+Obj

Ex: She had been writing a letter

Sub+shall/will+has/have+been+Conti+Obj

Ex: She will have been writing a letter

Simple Present Tense :   Daily actions

Present Perfect Tense :  Just Completed Actions

    - For any past completed actions provided not mentioned time

    - just now, so far, not yet, etc., if these are present in the sentence

Present Perfect Tense :  Started in past and still continuing

Simple Past Tense :  Mentioning past actions by indicating exact time

    ago, yesterday, last year, last month, last week,

    any past year(1997, 1880,),...if these are mentioned

Past Perfect Tense :  If two past actions are discussed in one sentence, then the earlier action   should be in past perfect and the latter should be in simple past.

Future Perfect Tense :  By then, by this time, by that time, by so and so year, etc.,

 

 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

 

Active Voice (AV) :

       When the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action, then the sentence is in AV.

  Ex:     She writes a letter.

Passive Voice (PV) :

         When the subject of the sentence is the receiver of the action denoted by the verb, then the sentence is in PV.

  Ex:     A letter is written by her.

 

Changing AV to PV

  • Subject -->Object and Object --> Subject
  • Helping/ Auxiliary verb comes.
  • Add ‘by’ before the new object. (Not required in some cases)

                Ex: He was elected the leader of the house. (Not required 'by')

  • Change the verb to its ‘participle form’(V3)
  • The PV is preferred when the doer is unknown or unimportant.

                   Ex:   The bridge was built in the 17th Century.

  • When discussing history, the PV is often used.

                 Ex:    The war was fought with glory.

  • The AV is used when the subject is more important than the object.
  • Avoid using active and passive in the same sentence.

                 Ex:   The food was cooked and served.

                         Emma cooked and served the food.

  • Use a single verb instead of two whenever is possible.

                     Ex:    Strucker enjoys good food and music.

                    ( Strucker enjoys good food and music is also enjoyed by him.)-->Awkward

 

PRESENT TENSE

 

Simple Present

Present Continuous

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous

AV

Sub+V1+Obj

Ex:

She writes a letter

Sub+is/am/are+Conti+Obj

Ex:

She is writing a letter

Sub+has/have+v3+Obj

Ex: She has written a letter

Sub+has/have+been+

Conti+Obj

Ex: She has been writing a letter

PV

New Sub+is/are+V3+

by+New Obj

Ex:

A letter is written by her

New Sub+is/am/are+being+V3+by+ New Obj

Ex:

A letter is being written by her

New Sub+has/have+been+V3+by+ New Obj

Ex:

A letter has been written by her

 

   

   No Passive Form

 

PAST TENSE

 

Simple Past

Past Continuous

Past Perfect

Past Perfect Continuous

AV

Sub+v2+Obj

Ex: She wrote a letter

Sub+was/were+Conti+Obj

Ex: She was writing a letter

Sub+had+v3+Obj

Ex: She had written a letter

Sub+had+been+Conti+Obj

Ex: She had been writing a letter

PV

New Sub+was/were+V3+

by+New Obj

Ex:

A letter was written by her

New Sub+was/were+being+V3+by+ New Obj

Ex:

A letter was being written by her

New Sub+had+been+V3+by+ New Obj

Ex:

A letter had been written by her

 

   

   No Passive Form

 

  FUTURE TENSE

 

Simple Future

Future Continuous

Future Perfect

Future Perfect Continuous

AV

Sub+Shall/Will+v1+Obj

Ex: She will write a letter

Sub+Shall/Will+be+Conti

+Obj

Ex: She will be writing a letter

Sub+shall/will+has/have+v3+Obj

Ex: She will have written a letter

Sub+shall/will+has/have+been+Conti+Obj

Ex: She will have been writing a letter

PV

New Sub+will+be+V3+

by+New Obj

Ex:

A letter will be written by her

 

   

   No Passive Form

New Sub+shall/will+has/have+been+V3+by+ New Obj

Ex:

A letter will have been written by her

 

   

   No Passive Form

 

Note:

  Sentences with intransitive verbs cannot be changed to passive form because those verbs do not take objects after them.

  Ex:

    The sky is blue.

    He goes to school. (intransitive verb)

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