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Lesson Posted on 11/10/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Biology For 12th Class

Pravin Pandey

Having teaching experience of 5 years. I am doing msc now.

List of Clotting Factors: Factor I: Name: Fibrinogen. Source: Liver. Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic. Activator: Thrombin. Actions: When fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by thrombin, it forms long strands that compose the mesh network for clot formation. Factor II: Name: Prothrombin. Source:... read more

List of Clotting Factors:

Factor I:

  • Name: Fibrinogen.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Thrombin.
  • Actions: When fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by thrombin, it forms long strands that compose the mesh network for clot formation.

Factor II:

  • Name: Prothrombin.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Prothrombin activator.
  • Actions: Prothrombin is converted into thrombin which then activated fibrinogen into fibrin.

Factor III:

  • Name: Thromboplastin / Tissue factor.
  • Source: Platelets (intrinsic) and damaged endothelium (cells) lining the blood vessel (extrinsic).
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Injury to blood vessel.
  • Action: Activates factor VII (VIIa).

Factor IV:

  • Name: Calcium.
  • Source: Bone and absorption from food in gastrointestinal tract.
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Action: Works with many clotting factors for activation of the other clotting factors. These are called calcium-dependent steps.

Factor V:

  • Name: Proaccerin / Labile factor / Ac-globulin (Ac-G)
  • Source: Liver and platelets
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic
  • Activator: Thrombin
  • Action: Works with Factor X to activate prothrombin (prothrombin activator).

Factor VI:

  • Name: Proconvertin / Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA) / stable factor.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Extrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor III (tissue factor).
  • Actions: Activates Factor X which works with other factors to convert prothrombin into thrombin.

Factor VII:

  • Name: Anti-hemoplytic factor / Antihemophilic factor (AHF) or globulin (AHG) / antihemophilic factor A.
  • Source: Endothelium lining blood vessel and platelets (plug).
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Thrombin.
  • Actions: Works with Factor IX and calcium to activate Factor X.
  • Deficiency: Hemophilia A.

Factor VIII:

  • Name: Christmas factor / Plasma thromboplastin component (PTC) / Antihemophilic factor B.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor XI and calcium.
  • Actions: Works with Factor VIII and calcium to activate Factor X.
  • Deficiency: Hemophilia B.

Factor IX:

  • Name: Stuart Prower factor / Stuart factor.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor VII (extrinsic) / Factor IX + Factor VIII + calcium (intrinsic).
  • Actions: Works with platelet phospholipids to convert prothrombin into thrombin. This reaction is made faster by activated Factor V.

Factor X:

  • Name: Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA) / antihemophilic factor C.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor XII + prekallikrein and kininogen.
  • Actions: Works with calcium to activate Factor IX.
  • Deficiency: Hemophilia C.

Factor XI:

  • Name: Hageman factor.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Contact with collagen in the torn wall of blood vessels.
  • Actions: Works with prekallikrein and kininogen to activate Factor XI. Also activates plasmin which degrades clots.

Factor XII:

  • Name: Fibrin stabilizing factor
  • Source: Liver
  • Activator: Thrombin and calcium
  • Actions: Stabilizes the fibrin mesh network of a blood clot by helping fibrin strands to link to each other. Therefore it also helps to prevent fibrin breakdown (fibrinolysis).

Prekallikrein:

  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Actions: Works with kininogen and Factor XII to activate Factor XI.

Kininogen:

  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Actions: Works with prekallikrein and Factor XII to activate Factor XI.
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Asked on 27/09/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

What is the net energy obtained from glycolysis alone?

Answer

Answered on 09 Feb Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

What is mutation?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Mutation is a sudden change that occurs in the genetic composition of an organism. It either occurs in the germ cells of the parent organisms, in the embryo or during duplication of DNA. The causes may be environmental, such as radioactivity, or the mutation may be spontaneous.
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Lesson Posted on 18/06/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

How to prepare for Cet

Krantisurya Mane

The first and foremost thing is that the marks you achieve in 10th std are of no use except to get an admission in a renowned college So dont get boasted up by those 90+ percentage The real game is in 11th and 12th 11th makes out the basis for you in 12th Learn imp topics of 11th like electrostatics,ray... read more
  • The first and foremost thing is that the marks you achieve in 10th std are of no use except to get an admission in a renowned college
  • So dont get boasted up by those 90+ percentage
  • The real game is in 11th and 12th
  • 11th makes out the basis for you in 12th
  • Learn imp topics of 11th like electrostatics,ray optics,etc
  • Also look forward for arganic chemistry which could become one the handy subjects
  • 11th and 12th is not just about knowledge its rather "application" of that knowledge.
  • Biology can become the easiest subject in 12th if you concentrate on the basics
  • The basics means basics which takes you back to to your 8th and 9th std
  • I highly recommend you to read the biology part once or twice from the 8th or 9th books
  • For further guidance post me a queryInspire
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Asked on 29/05/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

This is the second time I appeared for NEET and not sure, if I can clear it this time. With time I'm...

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Answered on 01/03/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

What is the actual tuition fee for class xii biology for CBSE?

Prashanth K

Best Faculty For All Engineering Subjects

Rs. 30,000/-
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Lesson Posted on 24/01/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Class Xii Biology - Topic - Respiration

Shailie Maheshwari

I have done Msc in Microbiology with 76%marks (gold medalist)and also done BEd with 72%. I have total...

Glycolysis Cycle : (Glycon = glucose; lysis = spliiting or breakdone) Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm hence also called as cytoplasmic respiration.It is common pathway for aerobic as well as anaerobic respiration.Various steps involved in glycolysis are controlled by specific enzymes. Glycolysis... read more

Glycolysis Cycle :

(Glycon = glucose; lysis = spliiting or breakdone)

Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm hence also called as cytoplasmic respiration.It is common pathway for aerobic as well as anaerobic respiration.Various steps involved in glycolysis are  controlled by specific enzymes.

Glycolysis is defined as the stepwise ,enzymatic breakdown of the hexose sugar (glucose )into two molecules of pyruvate in cytoplasm .

Various reactions involved in glycolysis are as follows ;

1.Phosphorylation I

2.Isomerisation

3.Phosphorylation II

4.Cleavage

5.Isomerisation

6.Oxidation and phosphorylation

7.ATP generation I

8.Isomerisation

9.Dehydation and 10 .ATP Generation -II AS CAN BE SEEN IN FOLLOWING FLOWCHART

GLYCOLYSIS ends with formation of pyruvate and after acetylation enters as acetyl Co- A In the Krebs cycle. Therefore, formation of acetyl Co-A or acetylation of pyruvate is called connecting link between glycolysis and Kreb's cycle or Link reaction.

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Lesson Posted on 19/01/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

TOPIC ...(Genetics ) Class X -BIOLOGY

Shailie Maheshwari

I have done Msc in Microbiology with 76%marks (gold medalist)and also done BEd with 72%. I have total...

DNA as genetic material-DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid )and RNA (Ribonucleic acid )are two major types of nucleic acid found in cells .Chemical composition of nucleic acids ....Sugar ;phosphate group;and Nitrogen bases . Pentose sugar + Nitogen Base = Nucleoside Pentose sugar + Nitrogen Base + Phosphate... read more

DNA as genetic material-DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid )and RNA (Ribonucleic acid )are two major types of nucleic acid found in cells .Chemical composition of nucleic acids ....Sugar ;phosphate group;and Nitrogen bases .

Pentose sugar + Nitogen Base =  Nucleoside

Pentose sugar + Nitrogen Base + Phosphate = Nucleotide

STUCTURE OF DNA -----

According to Watson and Crick 

 

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Lesson Posted on 13/01/2017 Exam Coaching/Foreign Education Exam Coaching/Advanced Placement Tests Coaching Exam Coaching/Foreign Education Exam Coaching/Advanced Placement Tests Coaching/Biology Tuition/B Ed Tuition +6 Tuition/B Ed Tuition/Pedagogy Biological Science Tuition/MSc Tuition Tuition/BSc Tuition Tuition/MSc Tuition/Biology Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology less

A BASIC OUTLINE ON ECOLOGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Balaji Kasirajan

I have 5 years of research experience and 2 years of teaching experience in Botany.

Ecology on the whole is all about relationship and function of biological things and environment. Primarily ecology has different level of hierarchy for better understanding of its own, which are as follows: Global ecology: Deals with Biosphere, ecosystem and ecology of the planet Landscape ecology:... read more

Ecology on the whole is all about relationship and function of biological things and environment. Primarily ecology has different level of hierarchy for better understanding of its own, which are as follows:

  1. Global ecology: Deals with Biosphere, ecosystem and ecology of the planet
  2. Landscape ecology:  Deals with ecology at terrestrial level and its related ecosystem
  3. Ecosystem ecology: Deals with the ecology of community ecosystem with emphasis to environment.
  4. Community ecology: Deals with ecology of group of population of different species within an area.
  5. Population ecology: Branching out from Community ecology this deals with a group of population of same species within an area.
  6. Organismal ecology: Deals with physiological, evolutionary, and behavioural ecology, and the challenges posed by its environment.

Though environment is a part of any ecological study, it plays a vital role in its nature and function, with relation to origin, development and destruction of any biological activity. On the environment aspect, climate is prominent which is supported by earth’s set up and the natural phenomenon. The impact of sunlight is considered to be very important, as the intensity is very high at tropics towards equator than the rest. This initiates the air circulation and precipitation process in which warm and wet air, rise and flow towards the poles. During this process the abundant precipitation left over the tropics resulting in high moisture and humid condition and chill air descending to poles resulting in rainless and cold climate. Such conditions roots the existence of climate for a particular area.

 Any weather condition prevailing in a given area is known as climate, which is of two types viz., Macroclimate and Microclimate. Temperature, Precipitation, Sunlight and Wind are the four important physical components of Climate.

The macroclimate deals climatic pattern at global, regional and community (local) level. Global climate patterns are determined largely by the input of solar energy and Earth’s movement in space. The sun warms the atmosphere, land, and water. This warming establishes the temperature variations, cycles of air and water movement, and evaporation of water that causes dramatic latitudinal variations in climate. At Regional and local level, climatic patterns are modified by variation in season, water bodies and mountains, which are in a way interconnected. The occurrence in variation of season is largely effected by the tilted axis of rotation by earth and the amount of sunlight it receives consequently upon day length, solar radiation and temperature. So as for the water bodies also, the angle of inclination of earth, influence and drag the ocean currents setting up the temperature and environment at coastal region of the continents. Due the high specific heat of water, oceans and large lakes tend to moderate the climate of nearby land. During a hot day, when land is warmer than the water, air over the land heats up and rises, drawing a cool breeze from the water across the land. In contrast, because temperatures drop more quickly over land than over water at night, air over the now warmer water rises, drawing cooler air from the land back out over the water and replacing it with warmer air from offshore. This local moderation of climate can be limited to the coast itself, however. Likewise, mountains too influence air flow over land. When warm, moist air approaches a mountain, the air rises and cools, releasing moisture on the windward side of the peak. On the leeward side, cooler, dry air descends, absorbing moisture and producing a “rain shadow.” This leeward rain shadow determines where many deserts are found, including the Great Basin and the Mojave Desert of western North America and the Gobi Desert of Asia. Additionally Mountains also affect the amount of sunlight reaching an area and thus the local temperature and rainfall. Southfacing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere receive more sunlight than north-facing slopes and are therefore warmer and drier. These physical differences influence species distributions locally. In addition, every 1,000-m increase in elevation produces an average temperature drop of 6°C, equivalent to that produced by an 880-km increase in latitude. This is one reason that high-elevation communities at one latitude can be similar to those at lower elevations much farther from the equator.

 In microclimate, the features like casting shade, altering evaporation from soil, or changing wind patterns were influential. Forest trees often moderate the microclimate below them. Cleared areas therefore typically experience greater temperature extremes than the forest interior because of greater solar radiation and wind currents that arise from the rapid heating and cooling of open land. Within a forest, low-lying ground is usually wetter than higher ground and tends to be occupied by different tree species. A log or large stone can shelter organisms such as salamanders, worms, and insects, buffering them from the extremes of temperature and moisture. And this is where abiotic factors like temperature, light, water and nutrients along with biotic factors tend to blend in for a microcosm.

 On the global climate change scenario, climatic variables affect the geographic ranges of most plants and animals, any large-scale change in Earth’s climate profoundly affects the biosphere. The burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are increasing the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As a result, Earth is warming and is projected to warm upto eight times by the year 2100 than it was in 1900. As the climate warmed and the glaciers retreated, tree distributions expanded northward. A detailed record of these changes is captured in fossil pollen deposited in lakes and ponds, shows that species with winged seeds that disperse relatively far from a parent tree, such as the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), expanded rapidly northward after the last ice age ended. In contrast, the northward range expansion of the American beech (Fagus grandifolia), whose seeds lack wings, was delayed for thousands of years compared with the shift in suitable habitat. Changes in the distributions of species are already evident in many well-studied groups of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater organisms, consistent with the signature of a warmer world.

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Answered on 09 Feb Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Can anyone explain strategies for enhancement in food production?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

By the help of food technology the food can be enhanced by the following ways. By fortification, Enrichment, Supplimentation, Fermentation. By these methods the foods can be preserved from spoilage and the nutrients can be enhanced. Eg's: fortifying the salt with iodine or supplimentation of vital nutrients... read more
By the help of food technology the food can be enhanced by the following ways. By fortification, Enrichment, Supplimentation, Fermentation. By these methods the foods can be preserved from spoilage and the nutrients can be enhanced. Eg's: fortifying the salt with iodine or supplimentation of vital nutrients and minerals in different foods and food products.
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