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Answered on 09 Feb Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Plasmolysis is the process of water leaving plant cells, allowing the cytoplasm and plasma membrane to shrink away from the cell wall. This causes plants to wilt. Indeplasmolysis, water from the outside environment rushes into the cell through a process called osmosis, which creates turgor pressure. read more

Plasmolysis is the process of water leaving plant cells, allowing the cytoplasm and plasma membrane to shrink away from the cell wall. This causes plants to wilt. Indeplasmolysis, water from the outside environment rushes into the cell through a process called osmosis, which creates turgor pressure.

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Lesson Posted on 11/10/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Biology For 12th Class

Pravin Pandey

Having teaching experience of 5 years. I am doing msc now.

List of Clotting Factors: Factor I: Name: Fibrinogen. Source: Liver. Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic. Activator: Thrombin. Actions: When fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by thrombin, it forms long strands that compose the mesh network for clot formation. Factor II: Name: Prothrombin. Source:... read more

List of Clotting Factors:

Factor I:

  • Name: Fibrinogen.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Thrombin.
  • Actions: When fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by thrombin, it forms long strands that compose the mesh network for clot formation.

Factor II:

  • Name: Prothrombin.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Prothrombin activator.
  • Actions: Prothrombin is converted into thrombin which then activated fibrinogen into fibrin.

Factor III:

  • Name: Thromboplastin / Tissue factor.
  • Source: Platelets (intrinsic) and damaged endothelium (cells) lining the blood vessel (extrinsic).
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Injury to blood vessel.
  • Action: Activates factor VII (VIIa).

Factor IV:

  • Name: Calcium.
  • Source: Bone and absorption from food in gastrointestinal tract.
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Action: Works with many clotting factors for activation of the other clotting factors. These are called calcium-dependent steps.

Factor V:

  • Name: Proaccerin / Labile factor / Ac-globulin (Ac-G)
  • Source: Liver and platelets
  • Pathway: Both extrinsic and intrinsic
  • Activator: Thrombin
  • Action: Works with Factor X to activate prothrombin (prothrombin activator).

Factor VI:

  • Name: Proconvertin / Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA) / stable factor.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Extrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor III (tissue factor).
  • Actions: Activates Factor X which works with other factors to convert prothrombin into thrombin.

Factor VII:

  • Name: Anti-hemoplytic factor / Antihemophilic factor (AHF) or globulin (AHG) / antihemophilic factor A.
  • Source: Endothelium lining blood vessel and platelets (plug).
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Thrombin.
  • Actions: Works with Factor IX and calcium to activate Factor X.
  • Deficiency: Hemophilia A.

Factor VIII:

  • Name: Christmas factor / Plasma thromboplastin component (PTC) / Antihemophilic factor B.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor XI and calcium.
  • Actions: Works with Factor VIII and calcium to activate Factor X.
  • Deficiency: Hemophilia B.

Factor IX:

  • Name: Stuart Prower factor / Stuart factor.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Extrinsic and intrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor VII (extrinsic) / Factor IX + Factor VIII + calcium (intrinsic).
  • Actions: Works with platelet phospholipids to convert prothrombin into thrombin. This reaction is made faster by activated Factor V.

Factor X:

  • Name: Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA) / antihemophilic factor C.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Factor XII + prekallikrein and kininogen.
  • Actions: Works with calcium to activate Factor IX.
  • Deficiency: Hemophilia C.

Factor XI:

  • Name: Hageman factor.
  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Activator: Contact with collagen in the torn wall of blood vessels.
  • Actions: Works with prekallikrein and kininogen to activate Factor XI. Also activates plasmin which degrades clots.

Factor XII:

  • Name: Fibrin stabilizing factor
  • Source: Liver
  • Activator: Thrombin and calcium
  • Actions: Stabilizes the fibrin mesh network of a blood clot by helping fibrin strands to link to each other. Therefore it also helps to prevent fibrin breakdown (fibrinolysis).

Prekallikrein:

  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Actions: Works with kininogen and Factor XII to activate Factor XI.

Kininogen:

  • Source: Liver.
  • Pathway: Intrinsic.
  • Actions: Works with prekallikrein and Factor XII to activate Factor XI.
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Answered on 11 Mar Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

What is the net energy obtained from glycolysis alone?

D. Mukherjee

Tutor

In glycolysis, net 2 ATP is generated. Combustion of 1 ATP releases approx. 57 kJ or 13.6 K Cal {As 4.184 KJ= 1 K Cal So 57 KJ=approx 13.6 k Cal} Therefore net energy obtained in glycolysis is = 2 ATP X 57 KJ = 114 KJ or 2 ATP X 13.6 K Ca l=27.2 K Cal read more

In glycolysis, net 2 ATP is generated.

Combustion of 1 ATP releases approx. 57 kJ or 13.6 K Cal

{As 4.184 KJ= 1 K Cal

So 57 KJ=approx 13.6 k Cal}

Therefore net energy obtained in glycolysis is

= 2 ATP X 57 KJ

= 114 KJ or 2 ATP X 13.6 K Ca

l=27.2 K Cal

 

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Answered on 09 Feb Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Sujoy D.

Tutor

Mutation is a sudden change that occurs in the genetic composition of an organism. It either occurs in the germ cells of the parent organisms, in the embryo or during duplication of DNA. The causes may be environmental, such as radioactivity, or the mutation may be spontaneous.
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Lesson Posted on 18/06/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

How to prepare for Cet

Krantisurya Mane

The first and foremost thing is that the marks you achieve in 10th std are of no use except to get an admission in a renowned college So dont get boasted up by those 90+ percentage The real game is in 11th and 12th 11th makes out the basis for you in 12th Learn imp topics of 11th like electrostatics,ray... read more
  • The first and foremost thing is that the marks you achieve in 10th std are of no use except to get an admission in a renowned college
  • So dont get boasted up by those 90+ percentage
  • The real game is in 11th and 12th
  • 11th makes out the basis for you in 12th
  • Learn imp topics of 11th like electrostatics,ray optics,etc
  • Also look forward for arganic chemistry which could become one the handy subjects
  • 11th and 12th is not just about knowledge its rather "application" of that knowledge.
  • Biology can become the easiest subject in 12th if you concentrate on the basics
  • The basics means basics which takes you back to to your 8th and 9th std
  • I highly recommend you to read the biology part once or twice from the 8th or 9th books
  • For further guidance post me a queryInspire
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Asked on 29/05/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

This is the second time I appeared for NEET and not sure, if I can clear it this time. With time I'm... read more
This is the second time I appeared for NEET and not sure, if I can clear it this time. With time I'm losing my interest and concentration as well. I know most of the concepts and don't wanna go all over them again. I want to join college. What other options do I have. read less

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Answered on 01/03/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Prashanth K

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Rs. 30,000/-
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Lesson Posted on 24/01/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Class Xii Biology - Topic - Respiration

Shailie Maheshwari

I have done Msc in Microbiology with 76%marks (gold medalist)and also done BEd with 72%. I have total...

Glycolysis Cycle : (Glycon = glucose; lysis = spliiting or breakdone) Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm hence also called as cytoplasmic respiration.It is common pathway for aerobic as well as anaerobic respiration.Various steps involved in glycolysis are controlled by specific enzymes. Glycolysis... read more

Glycolysis Cycle :

(Glycon = glucose; lysis = spliiting or breakdone)

Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm hence also called as cytoplasmic respiration.It is common pathway for aerobic as well as anaerobic respiration.Various steps involved in glycolysis are  controlled by specific enzymes.

Glycolysis is defined as the stepwise ,enzymatic breakdown of the hexose sugar (glucose )into two molecules of pyruvate in cytoplasm .

Various reactions involved in glycolysis are as follows ;

1.Phosphorylation I

2.Isomerisation

3.Phosphorylation II

4.Cleavage

5.Isomerisation

6.Oxidation and phosphorylation

7.ATP generation I

8.Isomerisation

9.Dehydation and 10 .ATP Generation -II AS CAN BE SEEN IN FOLLOWING FLOWCHART

GLYCOLYSIS ends with formation of pyruvate and after acetylation enters as acetyl Co- A In the Krebs cycle. Therefore, formation of acetyl Co-A or acetylation of pyruvate is called connecting link between glycolysis and Kreb's cycle or Link reaction.

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Lesson Posted on 19/01/2017 Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

TOPIC ...(Genetics ) Class X -BIOLOGY

Shailie Maheshwari

I have done Msc in Microbiology with 76%marks (gold medalist)and also done BEd with 72%. I have total...

DNA as genetic material-DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid )and RNA (Ribonucleic acid )are two major types of nucleic acid found in cells .Chemical composition of nucleic acids ....Sugar ;phosphate group;and Nitrogen bases . Pentose sugar + Nitogen Base = Nucleoside Pentose sugar + Nitrogen Base + Phosphate... read more

DNA as genetic material-DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid )and RNA (Ribonucleic acid )are two major types of nucleic acid found in cells .Chemical composition of nucleic acids ....Sugar ;phosphate group;and Nitrogen bases .

Pentose sugar + Nitogen Base =  Nucleoside

Pentose sugar + Nitrogen Base + Phosphate = Nucleotide

STUCTURE OF DNA -----

According to Watson and Crick 

 

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Answered on 09 Feb Tuition Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC) Tuition/Class XI-XII Tuition (PUC)/Biology

Can anyone explain strategies for enhancement in food production?

Sujoy D.

Tutor

By the help of food technology the food can be enhanced by the following ways. By fortification, Enrichment, Supplimentation, Fermentation. By these methods the foods can be preserved from spoilage and the nutrients can be enhanced. Eg's: fortifying the salt with iodine or supplimentation of vital nutrients... read more
By the help of food technology the food can be enhanced by the following ways. By fortification, Enrichment, Supplimentation, Fermentation. By these methods the foods can be preserved from spoilage and the nutrients can be enhanced. Eg's: fortifying the salt with iodine or supplimentation of vital nutrients and minerals in different foods and food products.
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