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# C

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sector 62, Noida

Course ID: 36242

sector 62, Noida

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## About the Course

C is a computer programming language. That means that you can use C to create lists of instructions for a computer to follow.C is one of thousands of programming languages currently in use.

```Contents
1.	Getting Started 	1
What is C	2
Getting Started with C	4
The C Character Set	5
Constants, Variables and Keywords	6
Types of C Constants	7
Rules for Constructing Integer Constants	8
Rules for Constructing Real Constants	9
Rules for Constructing Character Constants	10
Types of C Variables	11
Rules for Constructing Variable Names	11
C Keywords	12
The First C Program	13
Compilation and Execution	19
Receiving Input	21
C Instructions	23
Type Declaration Instruction	24
Arithmetic Instruction	25
Integer and Float Conversions	29
Type Conversion in Assignments	30
Hierarchy of Operations	32
Associativity of Operators	35
Control Instructions in C	37
Summary 	38
Exercise						 	39
2.	The Decision Control Structure		49
Decisions! Decisions!	50
The if Statement 	51
The Real Thing	55
Multiple Statements within if	56
The if-else Statement	58
Nested if-elses	61
Forms of if	62
Use of Logical Operators	64
The else if Clause	67
The ! Operator		72
Hierarchy of Operators Revisited	73
A Word of Caution	74
The Conditional Operators	76
Summary 	78
Exercise			79
3.	The Loop Control Structure	97
Loops	98
The while Loop	99
Tips and Traps		101
More Operators	105
The for Loop	108
Nesting of Loops	114
Multiple Initialisations in the for Loop	115
The Odd Loop		116
The break Statement	118
The continue Statement	120
The do-while Loop	121
Summary 	123
Exercise		124
4.	The Case Control Structure 		135
Decisions Using switch	136
The Tips and Traps	140
switch Versus if-else Ladder 	144
The goto Keyword	145
Summary 	149
Exercise		149
5.	Functions & Pointers	155
What is a Function	156
Why Use Functions	164
Passing Values between Functions	165
Scope Rule of Functions	170
Calling Convention	170
One Dicey Issue			172
Advanced Features of Functions	173
Return Type of Function		174
Call by Value and Call by Reference	175
An Introduction to Pointers	175
Pointer Notation	176
Back to Function Calls	182
Conclusions	186
Recursion		186
Recursion and Stack 	191
Adding Functions to the Library	194
Summary 	198
Exercise	198
6.	Data Types Revisited	211
Integers, long and short	212
Integers, signed and unsigned		214
Chars, signed and unsigned	215
Floats and Doubles		217
A Few More Issues¿ 	219
Storage Classes in C	221
Automatic Storage Class	222
Register Storage Class	224
Static Storage Class	226
External Storage Class	229
A Few Subtle Issues		232
Which to Use When	234
Summary 	235
Exercise	235
7.	The C Preprocessor	243
Features of C Preprocessor	244
Macro Expansion	245
Macros with Arguments	249
Macros versus Functions	253
File Inclusion	254
Conditional Compilation	256
#if and #elif Directives	260
Miscellaneous Directives	261
#undef Directive	262
#pragma Directive	262
The Build Process	265
Preprocessing	267
Compilation	267
Assembling	267
Summary 	271
Exercise	272
8.	Arrays	277
What are Arrays	278
A Simple Program Using Array	280
More on Arrays		283
Array Initialization	283
Bounds Checking	284
Passing Array Elements to a Function	285
Pointers and Arrays	287
Passing an Entire Array to a Function	294
The Real Thing	295
Two Dimensional Arrays		297
Initializing a 2-Dimensional Array	298
Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array	299
Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays	300
Pointer to an Array	303
Passing 2-D array to a Function	305
Array of Pointers	308
Three Dimensional Array	310
Summary 	312
Exercise	312
9.	Puppetting On Strings		335
What are Strings	336
More about Strings	337
Pointers and Strings	342
Standard Library String Functions	344
strlen( )		345
strcpy( )		347
strcat( ) 	351
strcmp( )		351
Two-Dimensional Array of Characters	353
Array of Pointers to Strings	356
Limitation of Array of Pointers to Strings	359
Solution	360
Summary 	362
Exercise	362
10.	Structures		371
Why Use Structures	372
Declaring a Structure		375
Accessing Structure Elements		378
How Structure Elements are Stored	378
Array of Structures	379
Additional Features of Structures	382
Uses of Structures			391
Summary 	392
Exercise	393
11.	Console Input/Output	401
Types of I/O	402
Console I/O Functions	403
Formatted Console I/O Functions	404
sprintf( ) and sscanf( ) Functions	413
Unformatted Console I/O Functions	414
Summary 	417
Exercise	418
12.	File Input/Output	423
Data Organization 	424
File Operations 	425
Opening a File 	426
Reading from a File 	427
Trouble in Opening a File 	428
Closing the File 	430
Counting Characters, Tabs, Spaces, ¿	430
A File-copy Program		432
Writing to a File 	433
File Opening Modes		433
String (line) I/O in Files	435
The Awkward Newline	437
Record I/O in Files	438
Text Files and Binary Files	441
Record I/O Revisited	445```

```13. Miscellaneous Features		517
Enumerated Data Type			518
Uses of Enumerated Data Type	519
Are Enums Necessary		522
Renaming Data Types with typedef 			522
Typecasting 			 	525
Bit Fields 			 	526
Pointers to Functions		 	529
Functions Returning Pointers	 	531
Functions with Variable Number of Arguments 	533
Unions 	 	537
Union of Structures 	543
Utility of Unions 					544
The volatile Qualifier					546
Summary 	547
Exercise	547```

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## About the Trainer

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Sonam

MTech (CSE)

7 Years of Experience

Taught this subject to engineering students.

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