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C

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sector 62, Noida

Course ID: 36242

sector 62, Noida

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About the Course

C is a computer programming language. That means that you can use C to create lists of instructions for a computer to follow.C is one of thousands of programming languages currently in use.


Contents

1. Getting Started 1
What is C 2
Getting Started with C 4
The C Character Set 5
Constants, Variables and Keywords 6
Types of C Constants 7
Rules for Constructing Integer Constants 8
Rules for Constructing Real Constants 9
Rules for Constructing Character Constants 10
Types of C Variables 11
Rules for Constructing Variable Names 11
C Keywords 12
The First C Program 13
Compilation and Execution 19
Receiving Input 21
C Instructions 23
Type Declaration Instruction 24
Arithmetic Instruction 25
Integer and Float Conversions 29
Type Conversion in Assignments 30
Hierarchy of Operations 32
Associativity of Operators 35
Control Instructions in C 37
Summary 38
Exercise 39
2. The Decision Control Structure 49
Decisions! Decisions! 50
The if Statement 51
The Real Thing 55
Multiple Statements within if 56
The if-else Statement 58
Nested if-elses 61
Forms of if 62
Use of Logical Operators 64
The else if Clause 67
The ! Operator 72
Hierarchy of Operators Revisited 73
A Word of Caution 74
The Conditional Operators 76
Summary 78
Exercise 79
3. The Loop Control Structure 97
Loops 98
The while Loop 99
Tips and Traps 101
More Operators 105
The for Loop 108
Nesting of Loops 114
Multiple Initialisations in the for Loop 115
The Odd Loop 116
The break Statement 118
The continue Statement 120
The do-while Loop 121
Summary 123
Exercise 124
4. The Case Control Structure 135
Decisions Using switch 136
The Tips and Traps 140
switch Versus if-else Ladder 144
The goto Keyword 145
Summary 149
Exercise 149
5. Functions & Pointers 155
What is a Function 156
Why Use Functions 164
Passing Values between Functions 165
Scope Rule of Functions 170
Calling Convention 170
One Dicey Issue 172
Advanced Features of Functions 173
Return Type of Function 174
Call by Value and Call by Reference 175
An Introduction to Pointers 175
Pointer Notation 176
Back to Function Calls 182
Conclusions 186
Recursion 186
Recursion and Stack 191
Adding Functions to the Library 194
Summary 198
Exercise 198
6. Data Types Revisited 211
Integers, long and short 212
Integers, signed and unsigned 214
Chars, signed and unsigned 215
Floats and Doubles 217
A Few More Issues¿ 219
Storage Classes in C 221
Automatic Storage Class 222
Register Storage Class 224
Static Storage Class 226
External Storage Class 229
A Few Subtle Issues 232
Which to Use When 234
Summary 235
Exercise 235
7. The C Preprocessor 243
Features of C Preprocessor 244
Macro Expansion 245
Macros with Arguments 249
Macros versus Functions 253
File Inclusion 254
Conditional Compilation 256
#if and #elif Directives 260
Miscellaneous Directives 261
#undef Directive 262
#pragma Directive 262
The Build Process 265
Preprocessing 267
Compilation 267
Assembling 267
Linking 269
Loading 270
Summary 271
Exercise 272
8. Arrays 277
What are Arrays 278
A Simple Program Using Array 280
More on Arrays 283
Array Initialization 283
Bounds Checking 284
Passing Array Elements to a Function 285
Pointers and Arrays 287
Passing an Entire Array to a Function 294
The Real Thing 295
Two Dimensional Arrays 297
Initializing a 2-Dimensional Array 298
Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array 299
Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays 300
Pointer to an Array 303
Passing 2-D array to a Function 305
Array of Pointers 308
Three Dimensional Array 310
Summary 312
Exercise 312
9. Puppetting On Strings 335
What are Strings 336
More about Strings 337
Pointers and Strings 342
Standard Library String Functions 344
strlen( ) 345
strcpy( ) 347
strcat( ) 351
strcmp( ) 351
Two-Dimensional Array of Characters 353
Array of Pointers to Strings 356
Limitation of Array of Pointers to Strings 359
Solution 360
Summary 362
Exercise 362
10. Structures 371
Why Use Structures 372
Declaring a Structure 375
Accessing Structure Elements 378
How Structure Elements are Stored 378
Array of Structures 379
Additional Features of Structures 382
Uses of Structures 391
Summary 392
Exercise 393
11. Console Input/Output 401
Types of I/O 402
Console I/O Functions 403
Formatted Console I/O Functions 404
sprintf( ) and sscanf( ) Functions 413
Unformatted Console I/O Functions 414
Summary 417
Exercise 418
12. File Input/Output 423
Data Organization 424
File Operations 425
Opening a File 426
Reading from a File 427
Trouble in Opening a File 428
Closing the File 430
Counting Characters, Tabs, Spaces, ¿ 430
A File-copy Program 432
Writing to a File 433
File Opening Modes 433
String (line) I/O in Files 435
The Awkward Newline 437
Record I/O in Files 438
Text Files and Binary Files 441
Record I/O Revisited 445

13. Miscellaneous Features		517

Enumerated Data Type 518
Uses of Enumerated Data Type 519
Are Enums Necessary 522
Renaming Data Types with typedef 522
Typecasting 525
Bit Fields 526
Pointers to Functions 529
Functions Returning Pointers 531
Functions with Variable Number of Arguments 533
Unions 537
Union of Structures 543
Utility of Unions 544
The volatile Qualifier 546
Summary 547
Exercise 547

 

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MTech (CSE)

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