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Moid 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Match the inferences X, Y, and Z, about a system, to the corresponding properties of the elements of first column in Routh s Table of the system characteristic equation. X: The system is stable P: when all elements are positive Y: The system is unstable Q: when any one element is zero Z: The test breaks down R: when there is a change in...  more»
Match the inferences X, Y, and Z, about a system, to the corresponding properties of the elements of first column in Routh’s Table of the system characteristic equation.
X: The system is stable … P: … when all elements are positive
Y: The system is unstable … Q: … when any one element is zero
Z: The test breaks down … R: … when there is a change in sign of coefficients? «less

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Shantanu replied | 29/11/2016

X->P
Y->R
Z->Q

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Aditya 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Consider binary data transmission at a rate of 56 kbps using baseband binary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) that is designed to have a raised-cosine spectrum. The transmission bandwidth (in kHz) required for a roll-off factor of 0.25 is ________?

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Shantanu replied | 29/11/2016

35

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Shagufta 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

A digital communication system uses a repetition code for channel encoding/decoding. During transmission, each bit is repeated three times (0 is transmitted as 000, and 1 is transmitted as 111). It is assumed that the source puts out symbols independently and with equal probability. The decoder operates as follows: In a block of three received bits,...  more»
A digital communication system uses a repetition code for channel encoding/decoding. During transmission, each bit is repeated three times (0 is transmitted as 000, and 1 is transmitted as 111). It is assumed that the source puts out symbols independently and with equal probability. The decoder operates as follows: In a block of three received bits, if the number of zeros exceeds the number of ones, the decoder decides in favor of a 0, and if the number of ones exceeds the number of zeros, the decoder decides in favor of a 1. Assuming a binary symmetric channel with crossover probability p = 0.1, the average probability of error is ________? «less

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Shantanu replied | 29/11/2016

Cross over Probability P = 0.1
X = number of errors
P(error) = (0.5) P(x>=2 @000sent) + (1/2) P(x>=2 @111sent)
=2*(1/2)(((3/2)*(0.1)^2 * (0.9)^1))+((3/3)*(0.1)^3 * (0.9)^0)) = 0.028

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Deepak 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Two losses X-band horn antennas are separated by a distance of 200?. The amplitude reflection coefficients at the terminals of the transmitting and receiving antennas are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. The maximum directivities of the transmitting and receiving antennas (over the isotropic antenna) are 18 dB and 22 dB, respectively. Assuming that the...  more»
Two losses X-band horn antennas are separated by a distance of 200?. The amplitude reflection coefficients at the terminals of the transmitting and receiving antennas are 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. The maximum directivities of the transmitting and receiving antennas (over the isotropic antenna) are 18 dB and 22 dB, respectively. Assuming that the input power in the losses transmission line connected to the antenna is 2 W, and that the antennas are perfectly aligned and polarization matched, the power ( in mW) delivered to the load at the receiver is ________? «less

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Shantanu replied | 29/11/2016

3

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Rituparna 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Place an appropriate word: The principal presented the chief guest with a _______, as token of appreciation?

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Siva Naga Raju replied | 22/11/2016

Momento.

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Vikas replied | 23/11/2016

Bouquet.

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Geet 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

A cube of side 3 units is formed using a set of smaller cubes of side 1 unit. Find the proportion of the number of faces of the smaller cubes visible to those which are NOT visible?

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Vikas replied | 29/11/2016

Surface area for 3 Units cube = 6 sides area = 6 x 3^2 = 6 x9 = 54 Units^2.
Surface not visible is basically 4 planes in between the cubes say 2 parallel & 2 orthogonal.
So area of single plane i.e. invisible = 3x3 = 9 Unit^2.
So area of 4 planes invisible = 4 x 9 = 36 Unit^2.
So the Proportion of the Number of Faces visible to Number of faces NOT visible = 54/36...  more»
Surface area for 3 Units cube = 6 sides area = 6 x 3^2 = 6 x9 = 54 Units^2.
Surface not visible is basically 4 planes in between the cubes say 2 parallel & 2 orthogonal.
So area of single plane i.e. invisible = 3x3 = 9 Unit^2.
So area of 4 planes invisible = 4 x 9 = 36 Unit^2.
So the Proportion of the Number of Faces visible to Number of faces NOT visible = 54/36 = 6/4 = 1.5.
The answer is 1.5 or Proportion is 3:2. «less

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Awdhesh 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Define polar plot?

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Sanjeev replied | 30/11/2016

A plot of radial distance versus the angle it makes with the x-axis is called polar plot.

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Vikas replied | 01/12/2016

Polar Plot. A plot of a function expressed in polar coordinates, with radius as a function of angle.

As we have Cartesian Plot X,Y Graph, similarly R,Theta Coordinates i.e. Radius & Angle coordinates gives Polar Plot.

To convert from Polar Coordinates (r,theta) to Cartesian Coordinates (x,y) :
x = r × cos( theta )
y = r × sin(theta )

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Altaf 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Define complex variable?

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Sarath replied | 15/12/2016

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

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M Balal replied | 15/12/2016

A variable that can take on the value of a complex number.

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Tarwar 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the difference between the microprocessor and micro controller?

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Shantanu replied | 24/11/2016

To answer this in layman's terms:-
Microprocessor is a term used to describe a digital device that is exclusively used to perform computation involving multiple steps, typically, execute instructions that are stored in the memory and which can be programmed .

Micro controller on the other hand is a term that is used to describe a programmable device that is primarily...  more»
To answer this in layman's terms:-
Microprocessor is a term used to describe a digital device that is exclusively used to perform computation involving multiple steps, typically, execute instructions that are stored in the memory and which can be programmed .

Micro controller on the other hand is a term that is used to describe a programmable device that is primarily used to control a physical system.

A microprocessor is an Integrated Circuit (IC) which has only the Central Processing Unit (CPU) inside it. They lack Random Access Memory (RAM), Read Only Memory (ROM), and other peripherals on the chip. To deploy a microprocessor in a system, the above-mentioned peripherals are required to be connected. The Intel Pentium series, i3, i5, Cortex A8 are popular microprocessors which find their applications in desktop PC’s, Laptops, notepads etc.

Unlike microprocessors, micro controllers possess a CPU along with RAM, ROM, and other peripherals on the same chip. Therefore, it is also termed as a mini computer. Though the size of RAM and ROM and the processing power is far less as compared to an actual computer, it meets all the characteristics of a complete computer. Popular microcontrollers in the market are 8051, STM32, PIC32, Arduino, ATMEL etc. «less

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Sukhwinder replied | 27/11/2016

A microprocessor typically refers specifically to the device/component whose job it is to fetch commands, interpret the command opcodes, and execute the commands. In a modern microprocessor, this basically means the ALU, the register set, instruction pipeline, and the microprocessor control circuitry to perform the Von-neumann "fetch-decode-execute" cycle. One generalization is...  more»
A microprocessor typically refers specifically to the device/component whose job it is to fetch commands, interpret the command opcodes, and execute the commands. In a modern microprocessor, this basically means the ALU, the register set, instruction pipeline, and the microprocessor control circuitry to perform the Von-neumann "fetch-decode-execute" cycle. One generalization is that microprocessors require an external bus and discreet memory devices to interface with (separate from internal registers, and whatever built in caching memory the microprocessor contains).

Microcontrollers - on the other hand, are more generalized devices which contain a microprocessor, a main system bus, ram, ROM/flash, and typically a set of other devices such as a programmable interrupt controller, analog/digital converters, any number of general purpose IO devices, communications interfaces, etc...

So... microprocessors are the things that actually compute/calculate the work, and microcontrollers are devices which contain a microprocessor and a bunch of other integrated devices one might need when writing firmware.

Microcontrollers are not exclusively stand-alone devices as they need external circuitry to do things like bias their timing circuitry, provide power regulation, perform filtering and noise bypassing, etc... «less

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Subhasish 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Define negative feedback in a closed - loop control system?

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Sourav Kumar Singh replied | 05/12/2016

I will try to explain using examples. calculations attached respectively:-
A system has a gain of 80 dB without feedback. If the negative feedback fraction is 1/50th. Calculate the closed-loop gain of the system in dB with the addition of negative feedback.
Negative feedback example:-
Then we can see that the system has a loop gain of 10,000 and a closed-loop gain of...  more»
I will try to explain using examples. calculations attached respectively:-
A system has a gain of 80 dB without feedback. If the negative feedback fraction is 1/50th. Calculate the closed-loop gain of the system in dB with the addition of negative feedback.
Negative feedback example:-
Then we can see that the system has a loop gain of 10,000 and a closed-loop gain of 34 dB.

Negative Feedback Example No 2:-
If after 5 years the loop gain of the system without negative feedback has fallen to 60 dB and the feedback fraction has remained constant at 1/50th. Calculate the new closed-loop gain value of the system.
Negative feedback example 3:
Then we can see from the two examples that without feedback, after 5 years of use the systems gain has fallen from 80 dB down to 60 dB, (10,000 to 1,000) a drop in open loop gain of about 25%.
However with the addition of negative feedback the systems gain has only fallen from 34 dB to 33.5 dB, a reduction of less than 1.5%, which proves that negative feedback gives added stability to a systems gain.
Therefore we can see that by applying negative feedback to a system greatly reduces its overall gain compared to its gain without feedback.
The systems gain without feedback can be very large but not precise as it may change from one system device to the next, then it is possible to design a system with sufficient open-loop gain that, after the negative feedback has been added, the overall gain matches the desired value.
Also, if the feedback network is constructed from passive elements having stable characteristics, the overall gain becomes very steady and unaffected by variation in the systems inherent open-loop gain. «less

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Amit replied | 07/12/2016

Negative feedback is accomplished by adding part of the output signal out of phase with the input signal. You have seen that an emitter resistor in a common-emitter transistor amplifier will develop a negative feedback signal. Other methods of providing negative feedback are similar to those methods used to provide positive feedback. The phase relationship of the feedback signal...  more»
Negative feedback is accomplished by adding part of the output signal out of phase with the input signal. You have seen that an emitter resistor in a common-emitter transistor amplifier will develop a negative feedback signal. Other methods of providing negative feedback are similar to those methods used to provide positive feedback. The phase relationship of the feedback signal and the input signal is the only difference. «less

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Everest 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What are the properties of negative feedback in closed loop system?

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Sourav Kumar Singh replied | 05/12/2016

They are commonly used in process, micro-computer and amplifier systems.
In general feedback is the process by which a fraction of the output signal, either a voltage or a current, is used as an input. If this feed back fraction is opposite in value or phase to the input signal, then the feedback is said to be Negative Feedback, or sometimes degenerative feedback.
Negative...  more»
They are commonly used in process, micro-computer and amplifier systems.
In general feedback is the process by which a fraction of the output signal, either a voltage or a current, is used as an input. If this feed back fraction is opposite in value or phase to the input signal, then the feedback is said to be Negative Feedback, or sometimes degenerative feedback.
Negative feedback opposes or subtracts from the input signals giving it many advantages in the design and stabilisation of control systems. For example, if the systems output changes for any reason, then negative feedback affects the input in such a way as to counteract the change.
Feedback reduces the overall gain of a system with the degree of reduction being related to the systems open-loop gain. Negative feedback also has effects of reducing distortion, noise, sensitivity to external changes as well as improving system bandwidth and input and output impedances.
Feedback in an electronic system, whether negative feedback or positive feedback is unilateral in direction. Meaning that its signals flow one way only from the output to the input of the system. This then makes the loop gain, G of the system independent of the load and source impedances.
As feedback implies a closed-loop system it must therefore have a summing point. In a negative feedback system this summing point or junction at its input subtracts the feedback signal from the input signal to form an error signal, which drives the system. If the system has a positive gain, the feedback signal must be subtracted from the input signal in order for the feedback to be negative as shown. «less

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Kiran 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

A 16 Kb (=16,384 bit) memory array is designed as a square with an aspect ratio of one (number of rows is equal to the number of columns). The minimum number of address lines needed for the row decoder is ________ ?

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Shantanu replied | 23/11/2016

Answer: 7.
Explanation:-
Generally the structure of a memory chip = Number of Row × Number of column (M*N)
The number of address line required for row decoder is n where M= 2^n
or n= Log(base2) M.
As per information given in the question: M=N
So M*N= M*M= M^2=16k = 2^4 * 2^10
=> M^2 = 2^ 14
M=128
n= log(base2) 128
n=7.

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Alok Singh Thakur replied | 23/11/2016

Ans is 7;
as 16Kb=2^4*2^10=2^14
now memory = 2^(m*n);(m is no of column and n is no. of row)
here m=n
so 2^14=2^7*2^7
m=n=7

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Priya 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the value of x, in the open interval (-1, 1) for which the mean value theorem is satisfied of a function: f(x) = 1 - (square of x) + (cube of x) is defined in the closed interval [-1, 1]?

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Kishore replied | 15/12/2016

-1/3.

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Sahiba 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the maximum amplitude of the sinusoidal signal (in volts) to prevent slope overload of the sinusoidal signal of 2 kHz frequency is applied to a delta modulator. The sampling rate and step-size of the delta modulator are 20,000 samples per second and 0.1 V, respectively?

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Sathyaprakash replied | 01/12/2016

0.159 V.

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Yashraj 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

The transmitted signal in a GSM system is of 200 kHz bandwidth and 8 users share a common bandwidth using TDMA. If at a given time 12 users are talking in a cell, the total bandwidth of the signal received by the base station of the cell will be at least (in kHz) _________?

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Piyush Chauhan replied | 21/11/2016

400 kHz

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Shantanu replied | 22/11/2016

400 kHz
Explanation: Since GSM requires 200 KHz and only 8 users can use it using TDMA, 9th user needs
another 200 KHz.
9th, 10th, 11th, 12th user can use another 200 kHz bandwidth on time share basis.
Thus, for 12 user we need 400 kHz bandwidth.

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Dilip 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Define NMOSFET?

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Vikas replied | 01/12/2016

A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a voltage-controlled electronic component invented by a South Korean Engineer Dawon Kahng, and his colleague Martin M. Atalla in 1959 whilst working at Bell Labs. It was the first insulated gate FET, consisting of a metal gate (M), oxide insulation (O), and silicone semiconductor material (S). In this device, a voltage...  more»
A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a voltage-controlled electronic component invented by a South Korean Engineer Dawon Kahng, and his colleague Martin M. Atalla in 1959 whilst working at Bell Labs. It was the first insulated gate FET, consisting of a metal gate (M), oxide insulation (O), and silicone semiconductor material (S). In this device, a voltage at the gate junction produces an electric field, which controls the current flowing between the source and drain junctions. This MOS technology was later utilised to develop integrated circuits (IC) which Kahng foresaw.
The differences in the operation between a MOSFET and a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) are huge, but the main ones are that a BJT is a current controlled device because current at the base junction controls the flow of current between the collector and emitter junctions. However, a MOSFET is a voltage-controlled device, where a voltage at the gate junction creates an electric field, which controls the flow of current between the source and drain junctions. «less

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Jitendra 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Define hole current density?

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Siva Naga Raju replied | 22/11/2016

It is answered in 2 parts. Holes are one of the charge carriers present in extrinsic semiconductors. Current Density (J) is defined as the current flowing per unit area of the conductor. So, Hole current density is a component of total current density in a semiconductor that is exclusively due to the movement of holes.

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Vikas replied | 23/11/2016

In physics, a hole is an electric charge carrier with a positive charge, equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity to the charge on the electron. Holes and electrons are the two types of charge carriers responsible for current in semiconductor materials & the amount of electric current flowing per unit cross-sectional area of a material is known as current density.

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Asheesh 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

Define Modulation?

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Shantanu replied | 22/11/2016

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
It is a process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine...  more»
Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
It is a process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine waveform transforms a base band message signal into a pass band signal. «less

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Vikas replied | 23/11/2016

Modulation is the addition of information to an electronic or optical carrier signal. A carrier signal is one with a steady waveform -- constant height (amplitude) and frequency. Information can be added to the carrier by varying its amplitude, frequency, phase, polarization (for optical signals), and even quantum-level phenomena like spin.

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Muskaan 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the adverb of Misogynous?

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Vikas replied | 29/11/2016

Misyogynous means a system or a person who shows a strong dislike for women, or who acts in a way that negatively affects women in particular.
Adverb of it is Misogynously meaning act showing characters of that shows Misogynous behaviour.

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Aparna 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the maximum value of angle until which the approximation sin(x) holds to within 10% error?

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Pritam 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the output of the impulse rate of a system h(t) = t * u (t) having an input u(t - 1)?

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Fgrefg 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the bit rate of a digital communication system is R k bit/sec if the modulation used is 32- QAM and the minimum bandwidth required for ISI free transmission?

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Nilesh 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What do you mean by MOSFET?

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Ganesh 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the difference between FET and MOSFET?

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Jagadeesh 19/11/2016 in  GATE Coaching classes, Electronics & Communication(GATE Coaching classes)

What is the channel length modulation effect if the MOSFET operating in the saturation region?

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