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C Language

C Language

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D

D Goutham 28 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is an abstract base class?

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Amitava replied | 28 Apr

An abstract class is a class that is designed to be specifically used as a base class. An abstract class contains at least one pure virtual function. You declare a pure virtual function by using a pure specifier (= 0) in the declaration of a virtual member function in the class declaration.

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Avinash replied | 28 Apr

Abstract base class is a class which have at least one pure virtual function i.e. fiction having declaration as =0 . And we can't create objects of such a class. This class can only be used for inheritance purposes.

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Rahul 28 Apr in  C Language Classes

What are the characteristics of arrays in C?

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Jyoti replied | 14 Jun

1. Data in array is stored at contiguous memory locations (means one after the other in sequential manner).
2. All the values in one type of array are of same type.

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Ekta replied | 22 Jun

Arrays are used to store many values of same type instead of declaring so many variables. Array name stores the address of first memory location and nxt values can be accessed by simple arithmetic. E.g. to store marks of fifty students declare one variable with name marks in stead of declaring 50 different variables.

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Shiv 28 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is the difference between #define and constant in C?

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Ashutosh replied | 30 Apr

#define is a preprocessor directive and is resolved/replaced before the compilation step. So that means if you have like #define PI 3.42 --- during pre-processing (before compilation) imagine as if the compiler actually does a FIND and REPLACE inside your code and finds PI and replaces it with 3.42. So there is no way that you can change a value in the program. The constants on...  more»
#define is a preprocessor directive and is resolved/replaced before the compilation step. So that means if you have like #define PI 3.42 --- during pre-processing (before compilation) imagine as if the compiler actually does a FIND and REPLACE inside your code and finds PI and replaces it with 3.42. So there is no way that you can change a value in the program. The constants on the other hand also remain constant throughout the program but hold the memory as well as are resolved at the run time. Let me know if that resolves your query or I can make you understand it the memory way. «less

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Ayushi Garg replied | 28 Jun

#define A B tells the preproccessor (a part of the compiler) to substitute B wherever it sees A in the code, and it does it before compiling the code.
A const variable means that once the variable is set it can't be changed.

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A

Amit 28 Apr in  C Language Classes

How can we use data connectivity in 'c' language?

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Meganadha replied | 13 Jun

We can save in text files

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H.poornima replied | 13 Jun

Int a, b;

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Krishna 27 Apr in  C Language Classes

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Sg replied | 20 Jul

I do agree with all of them as statement terminator. To add on top, it is also a "sequence point" which means all side effects of previous evaluations will have been performed, and no side effects from subsequent evaluations have yet been performed.

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Ranganath replied | 27 Jul

It's similar to our full stop.

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R

Ranjit 27 Apr in  C Language Classes

How are portions of a program disabled in demo versions?

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Mandeep Kaur replied | 12 Jun

By Marking them as a comment

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Sg replied | 20 Jul

put the code which should not be part of demo in #if block example:

#ifndef _DEMO
....Code to be disabled in demo version...
#endif

and while building enable _DEMO (In linux gcc world pass -D_DEMO, example gcc -D_DEMO t.c

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V

Vibha 27 Apr in  C Language Classes

how to create relation calculator program using c language

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W

Wiztrail replied | 28 Apr

If you elaborate your question, one of us may be able to help

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Ranganath replied | 25 Jun

Vibha, are you planning doing this as part of your curriculum, or by curious?

Anyways, I can help you, if you are serious developing the calculator program. Contact me.

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D

Dhanya 27 Apr in  C Language Classes

What are the applications and advantages of C-language?

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Shabbeer replied | 17 Jun

Application of C Programming are :
C language is used for creating computer applications
Used in writing Embedded softwares
Firmware for various electronics, industrial and communications products which use micro-controllers.
It is also used in developing verification software, test code, simulators etc. for various applications and hardware products.
For...  more»
Application of C Programming are :
C language is used for creating computer applications
Used in writing Embedded softwares
Firmware for various electronics, industrial and communications products which use micro-controllers.
It is also used in developing verification software, test code, simulators etc. for various applications and hardware products.
For Creating Compiles of different Languages which can take input from other language and convert it into lower level machine dependent language.
C is used to implement different Operating System Operations.
UNIX kernel is completely developed in C Language.
Advantages of C-language:
1.C is compiler based language rather than interpreted based.
2. C is portable language
3. C is the Collection of lot of library files
4.C language is easy to learn for beginners.
5. C language support good graphics.
6.C language support system programming
7.C language support number of operators
8. C language support strong handling
9.C is one of a large number of high-level languages designed for general-purpose programming, «less

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Shakti replied | 17 Jun

C Language is the basic language and also wherever it is needed to use system's memory this language is preferably used.

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P

Prakash 27 Apr in  C Language Classes

What are the standard predefined macros?

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Satya replied | 28 Apr

The ANSI C standard defines six predefined macros for use in the C language:

Macro Name Purpose

_ _LINE_ _ Inserts the current source code line number in your code.

_ _FILE_ _ Inserts the current source code filename in your code.

_ _DATE_ _ Inserts the current date of compilation in your code.

_ _TIME_ _ Inserts the current...  more»
The ANSI C standard defines six predefined macros for use in the C language:

Macro Name Purpose

_ _LINE_ _ Inserts the current source code line number in your code.

_ _FILE_ _ Inserts the current source code filename in your code.

_ _DATE_ _ Inserts the current date of compilation in your code.

_ _TIME_ _ Inserts the current time of compilation in your code.

_ _STDC_ _ Is set to 1 if you are enforcing strict ANSI C conformity.

_ _cplusplus Is defined if you are compiling a C++ program. «less

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Rajesh replied | 28 Apr

The standard predefined macros are specified by the relevant language standards, so they are available with all compilers that implement those standards

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Prakash 26 Apr in  C Language Classes

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Saurabh replied | 17 Jul

Addess will always come with the & operator followed by the variable name

printf(Address is %d", & var) ;

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Sg replied | 20 Jul

Hmm, by using & operator and %p in formatting, example:

int main()
{
int x = 5;
printf("%p
", &x);
return 0;
}


will give you output like: 0x7fffb96b3dbc
Memory address in Hexadecimal format

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A

Abinaya 26 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is #line used for?

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Amitesh replied | 18 May

# is used for pre-processor directive i.e, to include header(precompiled), and define macro( to use the name as is). In both case, it not compiled while compiling the source but used at run time as it is.

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Smartnub replied | 18 Jul

# is used in starting, to include pre compiled files in program such as studio.h.

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V

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Ashutosh replied | 30 Apr

As rightly said by Avinash and Vinod the compile time error is the error at compile time. Syntactic error. Consider it as grammatical error (grammer of a compiler). Run time error is the memory related error or some undefined behavior. Consider you allocated a character array of 20 bytes to store your name. No issues with the statement so no compile time error. But now let us you...  more»
As rightly said by Avinash and Vinod the compile time error is the error at compile time. Syntactic error. Consider it as grammatical error (grammer of a compiler). Run time error is the memory related error or some undefined behavior. Consider you allocated a character array of 20 bytes to store your name. No issues with the statement so no compile time error. But now let us you try to store 25 bytes name on that, it may produce run time error. «less

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Geervani replied | 12 May

Simply we can that compile time error occurs during the compilation of a program where as run time error occurs during execution of a program

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S

Saravana 26 Apr in  C Language Classes

Can multiple catch blocks be executed?

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Vikas replied | 09 Jun

Yes, Of course that depends upon the type of exception you are catching. If you have defined catch block for specific type of exception class that particular catch block will be executed.

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Aryan replied | 11 Jun

Depending on the type of exception that is encountered in the try block, respective catch block is executed not all the catch blocks. I believe that you are asking on c++ because C programming does not have try/catch blocks.

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I

Ishfaque 26 Apr in  C Language Classes

How many levels deep can include files be nested?

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Ashutosh replied | 30 Apr

theoretically unlimited practically till the compiler doesnt go out of stack/frame.

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Murugesapandian replied | 01 Jun

there is no limit to the number of levels of nested, it depends on the compiler capacity, that is nothing but it depends on the configuration of the hardware used for the compiler. we need to take care of the duplication of the same files to be added in the list of files.

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S

Sreeja 25 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is :- Assembler , compiler , Preprocessor , laxical analysis , parsing ?

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Shabbeer replied | 17 Jun

Assembler:
An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and instructions that can be executed by a computer.
Compiler:
A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer...  more»
Assembler:
An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and instructions that can be executed by a computer.
Compiler:
A compiler is a computer program (or a set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language), with the latter often having a binary form known as object code
Preprocessor:
The C Preprocessor is not a part of the compiler, but is a separate step in the compilation process. In simple terms, a C Preprocessor is just a text substitution tool and it instructs the compiler to do required pre-processing before the actual compilation. We'll refer to the C Preprocessor as CPP.
Laxical Analysis:
Lexical analysis is the first phase of a compiler. It takes the modified source code from language preprocessors that are written in the form of sentences. The lexical analyzer breaks these syntaxes into a series of tokens, by removing any whitespace or comments in the source code.
Parsing:
Parsing or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language or in computer languages «less

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Bala Madhusudana Reddy replied | 09 Jul

Assembler is nothing but which converts ALP to Machine executable file.
Compiler means which converts C source file to object file.

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S

Sujeet 25 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is Preprocessor?

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Sundeep replied | 11 Jul

The C preprocessor is a macro processor that is used automatically by the C compiler to transform your program before actual compilation. It is called a macro processor because it allows you to define macros, which are brief abbreviations for longer constructs.

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Joleen Michelle replied | 17 Jul

preprocessor from the word itself mean prior or before processing takes place it is not a part of compiling but off course a step to processing it started with a predirector with # symbol which point out the beggining of the program.

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R

Rishu 25 Apr in  C Language Classes

Is there anything you can do in C++ that you cannot do in C?

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Sankhadeep replied | 25 Apr

C++ is object oriented. Go through the basics of CPP. You will understand.

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Shikha replied | 26 Apr

There are several things . Most important is the implementation of object oriented concept , which is in C++ but not in c.

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R

Rajan 25 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is a macro, and how do you use it?

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Chetan replied | 25 Apr

Macro refers to a #define definition that is used to define words to enhance readability and understandability of the program.It defines an identifier and string or constant that is substituted for the identifier each time it is encountered in the program.This identifier is called a macro and the replacement procedure is termed macros substitution.

example :- #define...  more»
Macro refers to a #define definition that is used to define words to enhance readability and understandability of the program.It defines an identifier and string or constant that is substituted for the identifier each time it is encountered in the program.This identifier is called a macro and the replacement procedure is termed macros substitution.

example :- #define m 10
void main(){
int b,c;
b=m+1;
c=b*m;
printf("%d %d",b,c);
}
In the above program, we consider two statement

1. b=m+1
in this the value of m is substituted to 2 and then add 1 so result is 3 which is assigned to b,

2. c=b*m
we have obtained the value of b is 3 and the value of variable m is substitute to 2, hence result is 6, assigned to c. «less

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Ruchi replied | 26 Apr

A macro is a name given to a "block of the code" which can be substituted where the code snippet is to be used for more than once. Different ways of using macros are as follows:
1) Defining Macros without values eg- #define MACRO1. In this case we use them as testing conditions along with ifdef statements.
2) Macros with values,eg - #define MACRO1 25. In the preprocessing...  more»
A macro is a name given to a "block of the code" which can be substituted where the code snippet is to be used for more than once. Different ways of using macros are as follows:
1) Defining Macros without values eg- #define MACRO1. In this case we use them as testing conditions along with ifdef statements.
2) Macros with values,eg - #define MACRO1 25. In the preprocessing stage of the compilation process, the name of this macro is replaced with macros value all over the code.
3) Macros with piece of code as their values, eg - #define MACRO(i) (i*78) * (45+x) «less

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N

Nadeem Ahmad 25 Apr in  C Language Classes

How can you check to see whether a symbol is defined?

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Vinod replied | 25 Apr

There are various ways to do that. 1. By checking for the definition using an IDE such as Source Insight. 2. If you are working on linux, then you can create tags file by executing ctags -R * followed vim -t SymbolName 3. By using tool such as cscope 4. By using tool such as readelf

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Sankhadeep replied | 25 Apr

You can use the #ifdef and #ifndef preprocessor directives to check whether a symbol has been defined (#ifdef) or whether it has not been defined (#ifndef).

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N

Neel 24 Apr in  C Language Classes

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Vinod replied | 25 Apr

It takes source file as input, works on all the prerpocessor directives in that file and produces an intermediate file.

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Shikha replied | 26 Apr

Pre-processor is the predefined definitions of specific functions. So , programmer don't need to define while calling similar functions

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K

Kavitha 24 Apr in  C Language Classes

What is object file? How can you access object file?

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Vinod replied | 25 Apr

Object file is a file that you get after compilation and after linking. Library file is also an object file (or it could be collection of object files). To access of them, you can use utilities such as readelf and objdump.

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Shikha replied | 26 Apr

Objects can be described as the instance of the class which caries all properties of that particular class in which it is defined. Object files can be called with the help of member functions defined in the class

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Praveen 24 Apr in  C Language Classes

Difference between: - 1) C and C++ 2) main () in c and main() in c++ ?

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Shikha replied | 17 May

c is a procedural language i.e., it focuses on logic. It contains a systematic order of statements, functions and commands to complete a computational task or program mainly where as C++ is an object oriented language and emphasizes on classes and objects. C++ is extended from C and thus is super-set of C . inheritance concept is used in C++ to introduce program's re-usability....  more»
c is a procedural language i.e., it focuses on logic. It contains a systematic order of statements, functions and commands to complete a computational task or program mainly where as C++ is an object oriented language and emphasizes on classes and objects. C++ is extended from C and thus is super-set of C . inheritance concept is used in C++ to introduce program's re-usability. polymorphism is introduced so that different types of objects can be accessed through a same base class.
c follows a top to bottom approach and main() is given on top whereas in C++ ,as it follows a bottom up approach the function definitions are given prior to main().
by default in C main() returns nothing as it is void main(void) but in C++ by default it is int main(void) and it returns an integer. «less

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Mohit replied | 26 May

The major difference between C and C++ is that C is a procedural programming language and does not support classes and objects, while C++ is a combination of both procedural and object oriented programming language; therefore C++ can be called a hybrid language.

C - Modular programming & procedure oriened programming
C++ - Object oriented programming.

In...  more»
The major difference between C and C++ is that C is a procedural programming language and does not support classes and objects, while C++ is a combination of both procedural and object oriented programming language; therefore C++ can be called a hybrid language.

C - Modular programming & procedure oriened programming
C++ - Object oriented programming.

In Ansi C main() returns void'
In C++ the default return type of main is integer. «less

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H

Hema 24 Apr in  C Language Classes

How to print value without using any output statements?

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Anshul replied | 24 Apr

just by using the method get()

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S

Shashiraja replied | 13 Jun

For printing character by character you can use putchar() or if you want to put string together then you can use puts().

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Y

Yamini 24 Apr in  C Language Classes

how to create love flames program using c language

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Anshul replied | 24 Apr

void main()
{
int i,j,n,c,s=0,p,t,y;
char a[25],b[25],m,q[25],w[25];
clrscr();
printf("Enter Ur Name
");
scanf("%s",a);

printf("Enter Ur Partner's Name
");
scanf("%s",b);
strcpy(q,a);
strcpy(w,b);
n=strlen(a);
c=strlen(b);
for(i=0;i{
m=a[i];
for(j=0;j{
if(m==b[j])
{
a[i]=-1;
b[j]=-1;
s=s+2;
break;
}
}
}
p=n+c;
puts(a);
puts(b);
t=p-s;
printf("The...  more»
void main()
{
int i,j,n,c,s=0,p,t,y;
char a[25],b[25],m,q[25],w[25];
clrscr();
printf("Enter Ur Name
");
scanf("%s",a);

printf("Enter Ur Partner's Name
");
scanf("%s",b);
strcpy(q,a);
strcpy(w,b);
n=strlen(a);
c=strlen(b);
for(i=0;i{
m=a[i];
for(j=0;j{
if(m==b[j])
{
a[i]=-1;
b[j]=-1;
s=s+2;
break;
}
}
}
p=n+c;
puts(a);
puts(b);
t=p-s;
printf("The count value is %d",t);

if(t==2 || t==4 || t==7 ||t==9 )
printf("
%s is ENEMY to %s ?,q,w);
else if (t==3 || t==5 || t==14)
printf("
%s is FRIEND to %s ",q,w);
else if(t==6 || t==11 || t==15 )
printf("
%s is going to MARRY %s ?+?",q,w);
else if(t==10)
printf("
%s is in LOVE with %s ",q,w);
else if(t==8)
printf("
%s has more AFFECTION on %s ",q,w);
else
printf("
%s and %s are SISTERS/BROTHERS ",q,w);
getch();
} «less

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B

Bharti Jandwani replied | 08 Jul

void main()
{
int i,j,n,c,s=0,p,t,y;
char a[25],b[25],m,q[25],w[25];
clrscr();
printf("Enter Ur Name
");
scanf("%s",a);

printf("Enter Ur Partner's Name
");
scanf("%s",b);
strcpy(q,a);
strcpy(w,b);
n=strlen(a);
c=strlen(b);
for(i=0;i{
m=a[i];
for(j=0;j{
if(m==b[j])
{...  more»
void main()
{
int i,j,n,c,s=0,p,t,y;
char a[25],b[25],m,q[25],w[25];
clrscr();
printf("Enter Ur Name
");
scanf("%s",a);

printf("Enter Ur Partner's Name
");
scanf("%s",b);
strcpy(q,a);
strcpy(w,b);
n=strlen(a);
c=strlen(b);
for(i=0;i{
m=a[i];
for(j=0;j{
if(m==b[j])
{
a[i]=-1;
b[j]=-1;
s=s+2;
break;
}
}
}
p=n+c;
puts(a);
puts(b);
t=p-s;
printf("The count value is %d",t);

if(t==2 || t==4 || t==7 ||t==9 )
printf("
%s is ENEMY to %s ?,q,w);
else if (t==3 || t==5 || t==14)
printf("
%s is FRIEND to %s ",q,w);
else if(t==6 || t==11 || t==15 )
printf("
%s is going to MARRY %s ?+?",q,w);
else if(t==10)
printf("
%s is in LOVE with %s ",q,w);
else if(t==8)
printf("
%s has more AFFECTION on %s ",q,w);
else
printf("
%s and %s are SISTERS/BROTHERS ",q,w);
getch();
}


0 | 4 «less

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Shaik 25 Apr in  C Language Classes

How to learn c language

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Ashutosh replied | 30 Apr

depends what is the aim. If you want to learn just for basics, you can follow google and learn on any platform. Some more deeper understanding of concepts -- go for Let us C or C by K&R books. If you want to learn about practical examples probably you should go for a person who is from such background. Alternatively there are advanced level C books too and you can follow those....  more»
depends what is the aim. If you want to learn just for basics, you can follow google and learn on any platform. Some more deeper understanding of concepts -- go for Let us C or C by K&R books. If you want to learn about practical examples probably you should go for a person who is from such background. Alternatively there are advanced level C books too and you can follow those. But all of this is waste if you do not have C compiler at home/office as you need to practice and practice a lot. «less

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Sarfraaz replied | 08 Sep

The best way to learn C, or for that matter, any programming language is to write code. All the reading and listening will only give you information. All of this becomes concrete and useful, only when you use that information to write code to solve problems.

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